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THE  LIBRARY 

OF 

THE  UNIVERSITY 
OF  CALIFORNIA 

LOS  ANGELES 


THE 

PARLIAMENTARY 

O    R 
CONSTITUTIONAL 

Hiftory  of  England, 

From  the  earlieft  TIMES, 

T  O    T  H  E 

Reftoration  of  King  CHARLES  II. 

COLLECTED 

From  the  RECORDS,  the  ROLLS  of  Parliament,  the  JOURNALS 
of  both  Houfes,  the  Public  LIBRARIES,  Original  MANU- 
SCRIPTS, fcarce  SPEECHES,  and  TRACTS  ;  all  compared 
with  the  feveral  Contemporary  Writers,  and  conne&ed, 
throughout,  with  the  Hiftory  of  the  Times. 

By    SEVERAL    HANDS. 

THE   SECOND   EDITION. 
IN    TWENTY- FOUR    VOLUMES. 
VOL.     XIX. 

From  the  Commencement  of  the  Commonwealth  in  February,  1648, 
to  the  Marching  of  the  Scots  Army  into  England,  under  the  Com- 
mand of  King  Charles  the  Second,  in  Auguft,  165  i. 

LONDON, 

printed  for  J.  and  R,  TONS  ON,  and  A.  MILLAR,  in  the 
Strand ;  and  W.  S  A  N  D  B  Y,  in  Fleet-Jlrtet. 
M  DCC  LXIII. 


3P 
lot 

H/7 


ADVERTISEMENT. 

TH  E  great  Number  of  fcarce  Tradts  and  Ma- 
nufcripts,  which  have  been  communicated  to 
the  Authors,    relating  to  the  Proceedings   of  the 
Commonwealth  and  the  Protectorate,  as  they  have 
greatly  increafed  our  Labour  in  digefting  them,  fo 
have  they  no  lefs  contributed  to  enrich  the  Work. 
Upon  this  Occafion  give  us  Leave,  more  particu- 
larly,   to  return   our  grateful  Acknowledgments 
to  the  Rt.  Hon.   the   Lord  Vifcount  Royjlon,  for 
the  Ufe  of"  a  complete  Set  of  a  curious  and  valua- 
ble Journal,  publifhed  by  Authority  of  the  Coun- 
cil  of  State,   in  French,   for  the  Information  of 
Foreigners,    intituled,    Notruelles    Ordinaries    dc 
Londres,  which  contains  a  very  accurate  Account 
of  all  Tranfadtions  in  Parliament,  and  other  Mat- 
ters, from  July  1650,  to  January  1660-1  ;  as  alfo  to 
the  Univerlity   of  Cambridge,  who  were  pleafed 
to  pafs  a  Grace,  in  Senate,  for  the  Loan  of  feve- 
ral  valuable  Volumes  out  of  their  Public  Library. 
The  Rev.  Dr.  Birch,    Secretary  to  the  Royal  So- 
ciety ;   the  Rev.  Dr.  Zachary  Grey  -,  and  the  late 
Robert  Hoblyn,  Efq;    Member  of  Parliament  for 
Briftol,  have  been  greatly  aiTillant  in  furnifhing  Ma- 
terials for  this  Part  of  the  Work  ;   which  has  been 
alfo  much  improved  from  the  Collections  of  th« 
late  William  Petyt,  Efq;  (formerly  Keeper  of  the 
Records  in  the  'Tower]  confifting  of  above  Eighty 
'    VOL.  XIX.  a  2  Volumes 


Volumes  of  Parliamentary  Tracts,  relating  to  the 
Period  above-mentioned. 

When  the  Propofals  for  this  Work  were  firft 
Offered  to  the  Public,  the  Intention  was  to  have 
concluded  with  the  Reiteration  ;  but  the  Authors 
having  fince  been  favoured,  by  the  Reverend 
the  Dean  of  Exeter,  with  the  Minute  Book  be- 
longing to  a  Member  of  that  Convention 
which  reftored  the  King,  found  in  the  Lytelton 
Family,  containing  an  exact  Diary  of  the  De- 
bates of  that  AlTembly,  from  April  1660,  to  their 
Diflblution  in  December  following,  they  have 
been  advifed  to  continue  the  Work  to  this  latter 
Period >  a  Crifis  the  more  interefting,  becairfe, 
in  this  Interval,  the  Reader  will  find  the  principal 
Actors  in  the  Civil  Wars  called  to  Account;  and 
the  Tables  turned  upon  thofe  who  had  fo  long 
lorded  it,  with  fuch  defpotic  Sway,  over  the 
Lives  and  Fortunes  of  their  Fellow- Subjects. 


THE 


Parliamentary  Hiftory 


b  F 


ENGLAND. 


]     '" 


Republican  Party  m  the  Houfe  of 
Commons  having,  by  the  Afliftance  of 
the  Army,  excluded  all  thofe  Members  jby, 
wno  refufed  to  concur  in  the  late  Pro- 
ceedings againft  the  King;  having  alfo 
abolifhed  both  Monarchy  and  the  Peerage,  and 
refolved  to  erect  a  Council  of  State,  for  the  Go- 
vernment of  England  and  Ireland,  who  were  to 
act  under  the  fole  Authority  of  that  Houfe  ;  the  firft 
Thing  they  did  this  Day,  February  8,  was  to  pafs 
the  following  Refolutions  touching  the  Difpofal  gf 
the  late  King's  Body,  viz. 

Refolded,  *  That  the  Houfe  doth   approve   ofReJr0]ut;OJ13  0^ 
Windfor  for  the  Place  of  the  late  King's  Burial,  the  commons 
and  that  he  be  carried  there  To-morrow  for  thatconcernins  the 
Purpofej    alfo  that  the  Duke  of  Richmond,  ACiJSu     "* 
Marquis  of  Hertford,  the  Earl  of  Lindfey,  the  Earl 
of  Southampton,  and  Dr.  Juxon,  with  three  Ser- 
vants each,  may  attend  the  Funeral  :  That  it  be  left 
VOL.  XIX,  A  to 


2       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

to  the  Duke  of  Richmond  to  take  Order  for  the 
Place  of  the  late  Kind's  Burial  at  Windfor^  either 
in  Henry  the  Eighth's  Chapel,  or  the  Choir  there, 
February.  ^s  ^jj  bg  tnought  fit ;  the  Circumftances  and 
Manner  of  the  Interment  to  be  wholly  left  to  the 
faici  Duke  of  Richmond  ;•  and  a  Sum  not  exceed- 
ing 500  /.  to  be  allowed  for  the  Expences  of  the 
Funeral.' 

The  feveral  Perfons  in  whofe  Cuftody  the  Seals 
of  the  Exchequer,  King's  Bench,  Common  Pleas, 
and  Duchy,  the  Seals  for  Statutes,  &c.  having,  ac- 
cording to  an  Order  of  the  Houfe,  delivered  them 
up  to  a  Committee  appointed  to  confider  of  the 
Alteration  of  Seals,  in  different  Offices ;  the  Com- 
They  order  the  mons  next  proceeded  to  nominate  a  large  Corn- 
Great  Seal  to  faemitr.ee,  who  were  ordered  to  infpecl:  all  the  Corn- 
broken,  and  millions  of  the  Peace  in  England  and  Wales^ 
eand.give  in  the  Names  of  fit  Perfons  to  be  trufted 
with  new  Commiflions,  under  their  own  Great 
Seal.  This  Mark  of  Sovereign  Authority,  lately 
ordered  to  be  made,  was  brought  into  the  Houfe, 
this  Day,  by  Sir  Thomas  Widdrington  and  Mr.  IFhit- 
lockey  two  of  the  Commifiioners  for  the  late  Great 
Seal%  which  was  broken  and  defaced  whilft  the 
Houfe  was  fitting,  and  the  Pieces  thereof  given  to 
the  faid  two  Commiffioners.  Then  an  Act  was 
pafled  for  authorizing  and  eftablifhing  the  new 
Great  Seal ;  as  alfo  another  for  making  it  High 
Treafon  to  counterfeit  it ;  and  it  was  committed  to 
the  Cuftody  of  Mr.  Wbitlocke^  Mr.  Ltflft  and  Mr. 
Serjeant  Keeble,  who  were  to  continife  Lords  Com- 
miffioners of  the  Great  Seal  quamd'iu  bene  fe  gef- 
ferint b. 

Sir 

a  The  two  other  CcmmiflToners  were  the  Earl  of  Kent,  and  Lord 
Grey  of  fVarke. 

b  Mr.  Wbitlockt  remarks,  That  it  was  debated  whether  they 
fhould  be  /imply  ftyled  Commijfior.ers,  or  Lcrdt  CommiJJior.t t -s ;  the 
Word  Lordi  being  lefs  acceptable  at  this  Time  than  formerly :  Yet, 
that  the  Houfe  might  not  feem  to  lefien  their  own  Authority,  nor 
the  Honour  of  the  Offices  by  them  constituted,  they  voted  the 
Title  to  be  Lordi  Commijjknen,  and  the  Aft  was  pafled  accordingly. 

Memorials,  p.  374. 
A  Salary  of  jooo  /.  fer  Anr.n<n  was  alfo  voted  to  each  of  them. 


Of   ENGLAND,        3 

Sir  Thomas  Widdrington  had  been  nominated  as 
a  Commifiloner,  but  urging  his  ill  State  of  Health, 
and  fome  Scruples  in  point  of  Confcience,  he  ob- 
tain'd  his  Excufe  :  However,  the  Commons  or- 
dered,  as  a  Mark  of  Honour,  and  an  Acknow- 
ledgment of  his  former  faithful  Difcharge  of  that 
Truft,  notwithstanding  his  Objections  to  their 
Authority,  that  he  mould  be  allowed  to  practice 
in  all  the  Courts  of  JVeJlminfter  within  the  Bar  J 
and  have  Precedency  in  Place  next  to  the  Com- 
miffioners  of  the  Great  Seal. 

Mr.  Whitlocke  has  left  us  a  Copy  of  the  Speech" 
made  by  himfelf,  in  the  Houfe,  dn  this  Occafiori: 

Mr.  Speaker,  ...   , 

*  T  AM  now  to  declare  myfelf  whether  I  will  Mr.  Wh!tl6cfe=*3 

I    accept  or  refufe  the  higheft  Place  of  ordinary  ^^iS 
Judicature  in  the  Kingdom,  to  which  your  r  a- one  of  the  Com- 
vour  and  good  Opinion  hath  been  pleafed  to  name  miffionete  there- 
me.  ,     °  * 

*  I  fliall  plainly  lay  before  you  the  Motives  that 
occur  to  me,  both  for  the  Acceptance  and  Refufal 
of  it,  and  my  humble  Suit  upon  them ;  and  I  (hall 
fubmif  all  to  yourPleafure  and  Judgment. 

'  The  Motives  I  fliall  confine  myfelf  unto  are 
Jfour  of  either  Sort. 

i.  *  Fof  my  Acceptance  of  it :  May  be  the  Ho- 
nour of  the  Service,  the  Greatnefs  of  the  Place, 
which  may  fwav  much  with  forrre  others,  but  not 
with  me,  whofe  Ambition  is  of  a  lower  Stature. 

*  I  never  affe&ed  great  Place?;  it  is  fufficient 
Honour  to  me  to  be  a  Member  of  this  Honourable 
Houfe,  I  defire  no  further  Honour ;  and  if  Ho- 
nour be  in  honorante,  good  Actions  will  render  a 
Man  more  honourable  than  the  Ceremonies  and 
Pageantry  of  high  Places,  which  may  take  with 
fome  of  gayer  Spirits  more  than  it  doth  with  me. 

2. «  The  fecond  Motive  for  Acceptance  is  the  Pro- 
fit of  the  Place ;  and  that  is  very  confiderable  with 
moft  Men  :  I  blefs  God,  he  hath  given  me  Means' 
convenient  for  me,  and  I  hope  he  will  blefs  that 
A  a  to 


4      Thf  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

ntcr-rfpmim.  to  me,  and  keep  me  from  wafting  that  which  rriuft 
•164*.        oe  a  Provifion  for  many  Children. 

1 *.'—~J         *  And  to  me,  Mr.  Speaker,  this  is  not  fo  great 

)1>udr>''  a  Motive  as  it  may  be  to  others,  becaufe  thole  that 
know  my  Courfe  can  teftify,  that  the  Benefit  of 
my  Practice  was  more  than  the  Salary  of  this  Of- 
fice, though  I  acknowledge  your  Bounty  to  your 
Servants. 

3.  *  The  third  Motive  is  the  Command  which 
this  great  Officer  hath  over  the  Perfons  and  For- 
tunes of  Men  ;  which  is   a  pleafing  Thing,  and 
much  fought  after  by  Men  in  this  World,  the  Spi- 
rit of  Domination  being  natural  to  us. 

*  But,  Sir,  in  this  I  am  of  my  Lord  of  St.  Albaris 
Judgment,  , who  holds  that  Men.  in  great  Places 
are  fo  f.;r  from  having  Command,  that  they  are 
very  Slaves  themfelves  ;  Slaves  to  great  Men,  and 
Slaves  to  Bufinefs,  and  cannot  command  fo  much 
as  their  own  Time. 

4.  4  The  fourth  Motive  is  the  End  of  the  Ser- 
vice; which  is  to  do  Right  and  Juftice  to  Men,  to 
relieve  the  Opprefled,  to  ferve  God,  and  ferve  you 
and  my  Country,  which  will  be  done  by  a  due 
Performance  of  the  Duty  of  this  Place. 

4  And  this  to  me,  efpecially  at  this  Time,  is 
the  greateft  and  ftrongeft  Motive  of  all  other*. 

4  Yet  give  me  Leave,  Sir,  on  the  other  Side,  to 
lay  before  you  the  Motives  for  my  Refufal  of  this 
Employment,  which,  in  my  humble  Opinion,  do 
far  overbalance  the  other. 

I .  *  The  firfl  of  thefe  Motives  is  the  Trouble 
of  the  Place,  which  hath  the  greateft  and  mbft 
conftant  Labour  in  it  of  any  other  Place  in  Eng- 
land \  thrs  Shop  of  Juftice •  muft  be  always  open, 
Nullus  recedat  a  Cancellaria  fine  Remedio. 

4  The  Bufinefs  of  the  Chancery  is  certainly 
more  than  of  any  other  Court ;  the  Trouble  muit 
needs  be  the  greater,  and  the  Burden  the  keavier, 
too  heavy  for  me  to  bear. 

4  It  is  Trouble  enough,  and  no  eafy  Duty  for  one 
Man  to  attend  the  Service  of  this  Houic ;  it  is 

more 


Of    ENGLAND.        5 

more  than  doubled  by  being;  a  Commiffioner  of  the  Inter-reg 

Great  Seal,  whereof  I  have  fonie  Experience  ;  and 

it  hath  brought  me  to  be  of  the  Poet's  Opinion,      Y^^t 

Beat  us  Hie  qul  procul  Negotiis ;   a  Condition  longed 

for  by  me. 

2.  '  The  fecond  Motive  for  my.Refufal,  is  the 
Danger  of  this  Employment,  through  the.  Envy  of 
Men,  more  in  thefe  Times  than  others,  and  thro' 
the  Importance  of  the  Bufmefs,  in  the  which,  as 
in  War,  Non  licet  bis  peccare. 

4  There  will  be  Watchmen  enough  for  one  Fail- 
ing ;  and  one  Party,  almoft  in  every  Caufe  deter- 
mined by  him,  will  be  ready  to  accufe  and  con- 
demn him  ;  no  Man  can  fit  in  this  Place,  but  he 
muft  expofe  his  Per  ion  and  Fortune  to  no  little 
Danger. 

3.  «  The  third  Motive  is  the  Difficulty  of  this 
Employment;  fome  will  labour  to  conceal  or  ob- 
fcure  the  Truth  as  much  as  Eloquence,  Learning, 
and  Subtilty  can  invent ;  and  it  is  hard  to  difcern 
the  clear  Truth  through  thefe  Shadows. 

*  The  Judges  of  the  Common  Law  have  certain 
Rules  to  guide  them  ;  a  Keeper  of  the  Seals  hath 
nothing  but  his  own  Confcience  to  direiSt  him,  and 
that  is  oftentimes  deceitful. 

'  The  Proceedings  in  Chancery  are  fecundum 
Arbltrlum  boni  Viri^  and  this  Arbitrium  diftereth  as 
much  in  feveral  Men  as  their  Countenances  differ. 

*  That  which  is  Right  in  one  Man's  Eyes  is 
Wrong   in  another's  ;  nothing  is  more  difficult 
than  to  fatisfy  in  Judgment :  And  this  leads  me  to 
the  laft  and  ftrongeft  Motive  for  my  Refufal  of 
this  Employment ;  which  is, 

4.  '  My  Unfitnefs  and  Want  of  Ability  to  un- 
dergo it ;  I  mention  not  my  Want  of  Ability  of 
Body,  though  this  Place  requires  much  Pains,  La- 
bour, and  continual  Attendance  ;  and  my  Health 
is  not  a  little  impaired,  and  my  bodily  Infirmities 
increafed  by  my  late  Services,  but  I  hold  myfelf 
obliged  to  lay  down  my  Life  to  ferve  you. 

'  I  may  more  infift  upon  my  Want  of  Abilities 
of  Mind  to  perform  this  great  Charge,  and  this  i$ 
A  3 .  beft 


6       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.  bed  known  to  myfelf ;  though  I  confefs  it  hath 
been  too  much  likewife  difcovered  to  you,  both 
upon  former  Occafions,  and  at  this  prefent ;  and 
it  were  not  fit  to  honour  me  by  this  Place,  and 
to  dimonour  yourfelves  by  my  weakExecution  of  it. 
'  Perhaps  it  may  be  objected,  That  thefe  are  but 
Pretences,  whereof  you  are  the  moft  proper  Judges. 
I  do  acknowlege,  $hat  it  will  not  become  me  to 
oppofe'  my  Judgment  to  yours  ;  but  I  am  moft 
confcious  to  myfelf  of  my  own  Difabilities,  a^id  beg 
your  Confideration  of  them. 

*  A  greater  Objection  is,  That  if  I  decline  this 
Service  at  this  Time,  it  will  be  a  kind  of  Difown- 
ing  your  Authority,  as  unwarrantable  and  illegal ; 
and  a  giving  of  my  Judgment  againft  your  Pro- 
ceedings, upon  the  prefent  Alterations  made  by 
you. 

'  This,  Sir,  is  far  from  me ;  and  I  fuppofe  I 
have  given  my  Teftimony  otherwife,  in  the  Par- 
ticulars mentioned  by  my  worthy  Colleague  that 
fpake  laft,  in  which  I  have  owned  your  Authority c. 

4  And  for  a  ftrict  formal  Purfuance  of  the  or- 
dinary Rules  of  Law,  it  hath  been  hardly  to  be 
difcerned  in  any  of  the  late  Proceedings  on  either 
Side,  in  all  our  great  and  weighty  Tranfactions. 

*  Unavoidable  Neceflity  hath  put  us  upon  thofe 
Courfes,  which  otherwife,  perhaps,  we  {hould  not 
have  taken. 

'  I  am  fure  my  fitting  and  acting  here  is  accord- 
ing to  the  known  Laws  of  England,  and  that  my 
Protection  at  this  Time  is  only  from  you  ;  there- 
fore my  Obedience  is  only  due  to  you,  and  there 
is  no  other  vifible  Authority  in  Being  but  your- 
felves. 

4  Thefe  are  fufficient  Reafons  to  juftify  an  O- 
bedience  to  your  Authority ;  which  truly,  Sir,  I 
do  own;  and  not  fcruple  at  all,  as  Things  now 
are,  to  act  by  that  Authority. 

«  I 

e  In  figning  a  Warrant  for  a  Writ  to  adjourn  Hilary  Term, 
and  bringing  irt  the  new  Great  Seal,  without  the  Concurrence  of  the 
pther  two  Comroifiioneri,  who  had  been  appointed  by  the  Houfe  of 
torts,  H'titlocke,  p.  372, 


Of    ENGLAND.        7 

'  I  only   fcruple  my  Undertaking  this    great  Inter-regnum, 
Charge,  knowing  my  own  Want  to  perform  it  as        164.8. 
I  ought  to  do  ;  this  Place  requires  quick  Appre- 
henfion,  general  Learning,  and  deep  Judgment, 
all  which  are  wanting  in  me ;  but  I  fee  many 
worthy  Gentlemen  within  thefe  Walls,  of  much 
greater  Abilities,  and  more  compleatly  furnifhed 
for  the  Execution  of  this  Charge,  than  I  am. 

4  My  humble  Motion  therefore  to  you  is,  That 
you  will  be  pleafed  to  think  of  fome  Perfon  more 
fit  and  worthy  of  this  great  Truft  than  I  am ;  and 
to  excufe  me  from  being  one  of  your  Commiflioners 
for  the  Great  Seal  of  England,  which  is  a  Place 
too  high  for  me.' 

But  all  this  was  a  nolo  epifcopari  with  Mr.  PFhit- 
locke. 

The  Speaker  had  been  ordered  to  found  all  the 
Judges,  whether  they  would  accept  of  new  Com- 
miflions  under  the  prefent  Powers ;  and  this  Day  he 
reported  their  Anfwers,  That  Baron  Trevor^  Ju- 
ftice Bacon,  Juftice  Crejkeld,  Baron  Jit  kins,  Juftice 
Brown,  and  Juftice  Bedingfield,  defired  to  be  ex- of  new  Com- 
cufed  from  accepting  of  new  Commiffions  to  bemiflions» 
Judges ;  and  that  the  two  Lord  Chief  Juftices, 
[Rolle  and  St.  John]  the  Lord  Chief  Baron,  \lVylde\ 
Juftice  Jermyn,  Juftice  Pbejant,  and  Baron  Gates, 
were  willing  to  accept  of  them ;  but  defired  the 
Houfe  to  declare,  That  the  Judges  ftiould  proceed 
according  to  the  Laws  and  Statutes  of  this  King- 
dom.    Hereupon  a  Declaration  was  agreed  to  in 
beec  Verba,  *  That  the  Parliament  of  England  do 
declare,  That  being  fully  refolved  to  maintain  the 
Fundamental  Laws  of  this  Nation,  for  the  Good 
of  the  People  ;  and  having  appointed  Judges  for 
the  Adminiftrztion  of  Juftice,  in  Execution  there- 
of; they  do  expecl  that  they  mould  proceed  ac- 
cordingly.' 

This  Declaration  was  ordered  to  be  forthwith 
printed  and  pubHfhed  ;  and  the  Name  of  the  King's  Alteration 
Bench  was  directed  to  be  changed  into  that  of  t 
Upper  Bench:  The  Commons  alfo  ordered  that&c? 

their 


8         Tlx  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

luu-.-regnum.  their  Clerk  be  required,  from  henceforth,  to  fub- 
1648.         fcribe  all  A6h,  Orders,  and  Proceedings  of  that 
*"7T~*  Houfe,  by  the  Name  of  Clericus  Parliaments 

February,  ' 

Feb.-  9.  This  Day  the  Commons  pafs'd  an  Act 
for  reftraining  and  prohibiting  the  printing  and 
publiming  of  the  Paliages  and  Proceedings  of  the 
High  Court  of  Juftice ;  another  for  repealing  the  fc- 
yeral  Cjaufes  and  Branches,  in  the  A6ts  of  the  firft 
Year  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  the  third  of  King 
"James,  touching  the  Oaths  of  Allegiance,  Obedi- 
ence, and  Supremacy.  They  alfo  agreed  to  the 
following  Oath  to  be  taken  by  all  the 'judges  mu- 
tatis mutandis: 

/V£  Jhall  fwear  that  well  and  truly  ye  /hall  ferve 
te  taken  by  the  the  Parliament  and  People ,  in  the  Office  of  Chief 
Judges.  'Juftice  of  the  Upper  Bench  formerly  call'd  the  King's 

Bench  :  You  Jhall  not  give  any  Counfel  or  AJfent  to 
any  Thing,  which  may  turn  to  the  Damage  of  the 
Parliament  and  People  by  any  Way  or  Colour :  Ye 
/hall  do  equal  Law  and  Execution  of  Right  to.  all 
the  People,  rich  and  poor :  Ye  Jhall  not  take  by  you, 
Or  by  any  other  Perfon,  privately  nor  openly,  any  Gift 
or  Reward,  of  Gold  or  of  Silver,  or  any  other  Thing 
which  might  turn  you  to  Profit,  of  any  Man  that 
JJxill  have  any  Plea  or  Procefs  hanging  before  you,  as 
long  as  before  yourfelf  the  Pleas  and  Procejfes  Jhall 
i>e  hanging;  nor  after,  for  that  Caufe  :  Ye  Jhall 
take  no  Fees  nor  Livery  of  any  Perfon  as  long  as 
ye  /hall  be  Juftice,  but  of  the  Parliament,  and  by 
their  Allowance  :  And  in  cafe  any  Perfon  or  Perfons 
come  before  you  in  your  SeJJions  or  Ajfizes,  with  Force 
and  Arms,  or  otherwife  againft  the  Peace,  to  difturb 
the  Execution  of  Juftice ;  or  do  menace  the  People, 
that  they  may  twt  profecute  the  Law,  ye  Jhall  caufe 
them  to  be  arrejhd,  and  put  them  in  Prifon  :  And 
in  cafe  they  be  fuch  as  ye  may  not  arrejt,  ye  Jhall 
then  certify  the.  Parliament,  or  the  Council  of  Stale 
l>y  their  Authority  appointed,  of  their  Names  anj 
f  their  MiJ doings  :  Ye  Jhall  not  maintain  by  your - 
elf,  nor  by  none  other 3  privily  nor  openly,  any  Plea  cr 

~ 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.          9 

Quarrel^  banging  in  the  Courts  at  Weftminfter,  or 
el]  e  where  In  the  Country  :  Ye  Jhall  not  delay  any  Per- 
fon  common  Right  for  any  Letters  or  other  Caufi  ; 
but  jhall  proceed  to  do  the  Law^  the  fame  notwitb- 
Jlanding:  Ye  fiull  procure  the  Profit  of  the  Com- 
momvedlih  in  all  Things  ye  tnay  reasonably  do  :  A$ 
God  ye  help. 

Feb.  10.  Several  more  Erafements  appear  again 
on  the  "Journals,  in  this  and  the  fucceeding  Days, 
all  vacated  by  Order  of  February  22,  1659,  upon 
the  Reflitution  of  the  Secluded  Members. 

Feb.  12.  Letters  came  this  Day  from  ftdmburgh,  The  Scots  pro- 
ad  vifmg  that  Prince  Charles  was  proclaimed  Kingclaim   Pri"nce 
of  Scotland  by  the  whole  Parliament  there,  wit 
great  Solemnity;  who  had  alfo  refolyed  to  fend  a  burgh. 
Committee  of  four,  confiding  of  one  Earl,  one 
Baron,  one  Buigefs,  and  one  Divine,  to  invite  him 
thither  ;  upon  Condition  that,  before  he  be  admit- 
ted to  the  Exercife  of  his  Royal  Power,  he  fhould 
give  Satisfaction  to  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  in 
thofe  Things  that  concern'd  the  Security  of  Religi- 
on, the  Union  of  the  two  Kingdoms,  and  the  Good 
and  Peace  of  that  Kingdom,  according  to  the  Na- 
tional Covenant,  and  the  Solemn  League  and  Co- 
venant ;  for  which  End  they  were  refolved,  witb. 
all  poffible  Expedition,  to  make  their  humble  antf 
earneft  Addrefles  unto  his  Majefty. 

Feb.  13.  The  Commons  ordered  that  no  pri- 
vate Bufmefs  Ihould  be  admitted  to  be  debated 
there  till  the  26th  of  this  Month.  Then 

Mr.  Sco.t  reported,  from  the  Committee  appoint- 
ed to  nominate  a  Council  of  State,  the  following 
Inftru&ions  for  their  Direction  ;  which  were  a- 
greed  to  by  the.Houfe,  and  are  as  follow  : 


I.  '  'VTOU,  or  any  of  you,  are  hereby  autho-^^uaionn  for 

*     j[      rized  and  required  to  oppofe  and  fupprefs  s^teC°uni:il 
6  whomfoever  (hall  endeavour  to  go  about  to  fet 
*  up  or  maintain  the  pretended  Title  of  Charts 

Stewart^ 


febiuary. 


10      T6e  Parliamentary  His  TOR  v 

4  Steiuart,  eldeft  Son  to  the  late  King,  or  any 
,'  other  of  the  faid  late  King's  IflTue,  or  claiming 
'  tinder  him  or  them  ;  or  the  pretended  Title  or 

*  Claim  of  any  other  fingle  Perfon  whomfoever, 
'  to  the  Crown  or"  England  or  Ireland,  Dominion 
'  of  Wales,  or  to  any  of  the  Dominions  or  Terri- 

*  tories  to  them,  or  either  of  them,  belonging. 

II.  *  You,  or  any  *  of  you  d,  are  hereby  autho- 
'  rized  and  impowered  to  order  and  direct  all  the 
6  Militias  and  Forces,  both  by  Sea  and  Land,  of 
t  -England  and  Ireland,  and  the  Dominions  to  them, 

*  or  either  of  them,  belonging,  for  preferving  the 

*  Peace  and  Safety  thereof ;  and  for  preventing,  re- 
'  lifting,  and  fupprefling  all  Tumults  and  Infurrec- 

*  tions  that  (hall  happen  to  rife  in  them,  or  either 
'  of  them,  or  any  Invafions  of  them  from  abroad  : 
t  An<j  alfo,  upon  any  Emergencies,  to  raife  and 
'  arm  fuch  Forces  as  you  (hall  judge  neceflary  for 

*  the  Ends  above  exprefs'd  ;  and  to  give  Commif- 

*  fions,  under  the  Seal  of  the  Council,  to  fuch  Of- 

*  fleers  as  you  fhall  judge  neceflary  for  the  leading, 
'  conducing,  and  commanding  of  the  faid  Forces  ; 
f  and  for  the  Profecution  and  Purfuance  of  thefe 
'  Inftru&ions,   or  of  any  other  Inftru6tions  you 
'  fhall  receive  from  the  Parliament. 

III.  *  You  are  hereby  authorized  and  required 
'  to  life  all  good  Ways  and  Means  for  the  redu- 
'  cing  of  Ireland,  the  Ifles  of  'Jerfey,   Guern/ey, 
«  Scilley,  and  the  Ifle  of  Man  ;  and  all  other  Parts 

*  and  Places  belonging  to  the  Commonwealth  ot 
'  England,  not  yet  reduced. 

IV.  «  You,  or  any  *  of  you,  fhall  take  Care  that 
'  the 'Stores  and  Magazines  of  all  Military  Provi- 

*  fions,  both  for  the  Land  Service  and  for  the  Sea, 

*  be,  from  Time  to  Time,  vHl  and  fufficiently 
c  furniflied  ;  and  that  the  fame  1--  iffued,  as  you, 

*  or  any  *  of  you,  (hall,  by  Warrant,  Direct :  And 
*•  you,  or  any  *  of  yau,  are  alfo,    irom  Time 

*  to 

<J  Thefe  Inflru6\ion5  are  thus  enter'd  in  the  Journah :  But,  on 
{he  jyth  of  this  MonUi,  it  was  refolved,  Thut  every  Inftruftion 
ihpuld  go  on  in  the  general,  Tau  are  hereby  eittkorixed,  without 
Mention  of 


Of    ENGLAND.       IT 

*•  to  Time,  to  take  Care  of  the  Repair  of  the  Ship-  Inter-regnum. 
4  ping  belonging  to  the  Commonwealth  j  and  to 

*  build  fuch  others  as  you  fhall  judge  neceflary 
4  for  the  Defence  and  Safety  thereof. 

V.  *  You,  or  any  *  of  you,  are  to  ufe  all  good 
«  Ways  and  Means  for  the  Securing,  Advancement, 

*  and  Encouragement  of  the  Trade  of  England 
4  and  Ireland,  and  the  Dominions  to  them  belong- 
4  ing ;  and  tp  promote  the  Good  of  all  foreign 

*  Plantations  and  Factories  belonging  to  this  Com- 
4  monwealth,  or  any  of  the  Natives  thereof. 

VI.  4  You,  or  any  *  of  you,  fhall  advife,  order, 
4  and  direct  concerning  the  entertaining,  keeping, 
'  renewing,  or  fettling  of  Amity  and  a  good  Cor- 

*  refpondency  with  foreign  Kingdoms  and  States  ; 

*  and  for  preferving  the  Rights  of  the  People  of 
4  this  Nation  in  foreign  Parts,  and  compofmg  of 
4  their  Differences  there  ;  and  you  are  hereby  au- 
4  thorized  to  fend  Ambafladors,  Agents,  or  Mef- 

*  fengers  to  any  foreign  Kingdom  or  State ;  and 

*  to  receive  Ambafladors,  Agents,  or  Meflengers 

*  from  them  for  the  Ends  aforefaid 

VII.  4  You  are  to  advife  and  confult  of  anjf 
4  Thing  concerning  the  Good  of  this  Common- 

*  wealth,  and  report  your  Opinions  concerning  the 
4  fame,  as  you  find  Occafion,  to  the  Parliament. 

VIII.  *  You,  or  any  *  of  you,  are  hereby  au- 
'  thorized  to  fend  for  any  Perfon  or  Perfons  what- 

*  foever,   to  advife  with   them,  in   purfuance  of 
4  thefe  or  any  other  Instructions  that  fhall  be  given 
4  unto  you. 

IX.  4  You,  or  any  *  of  you,  have  hereby  Power 
4  and  are  authorized  to  fend  for  any  Records,  Wri- 
4  tings,  Accounts,  Books,  or  Papers  that  you  fhall 
4  think  fit  for  your  Information,  in  any  Caufe,  Mat- 
4  ter,  or  Thing  in  Agitation  before  you,  in  pur- 
4  fuance  of  thefe  or  any  other  Instructions  that 

*  fhall  be  given  you  by  the  Parliament. 

X.  4  You,  or  any  *  of  you,  have  Power,  and 
4  are  authorized,  in  cafe  of  Danger  to  the  Com- 
4  monwealth,  to  adrr.inifter  an  Oath  to  any  Per- 

*  fon  or  Perfons  for  the  Difcovery  of  the  Truth. 

XL 


12       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

XI.  £  You,  or  any  *  of  you,  are  hereby  autho- 
1648.         <  rized  and  impowered  to  fend  for  and  imprifon, 

*-^v — -'     *  or  otherwife  to  fecure,  by  taking  bound  in  Recog- 
February.      <  nj7,:1nce,  any  fuch  Perfon  or  Perfons  as  {hall  be 

*  Offenders  againft  thefe  or  any  other  Inftrtictions 
4  which  you  {hall  receive  from  the  Parliament; 

*  and  all  fuch  as  {hall  contemn,  or  be  refractory 
4  to  any  your  Commands,  Directions,  or  Orders 
4  in  purfuance  of  the  faid  Inftructions. 

XII.  4  You,   or   any   *  of  you,  have  hereby 
4  Power,  and  are  authorized  to  charge  the  Public 
4  Revenue,  by  Warrant  under  the  Seal  of  the  Coun- 
4  cil,  with  fuch  Sum  and  Sums  of  Money,  from 
4  Time  to  Time,  as  you  {hall  find  neceflary  for 
4  defraying  all  Charges  of  foreign  Negotiations, 
4  Intelligence,  and  other  Incidencies  ;  and  for  the 
4  Salary  of  fuch  fubordinate  Officers  and  Attend- 
c  ants  as  you  {hall  judge  fit  to  employ ;  and  for  the 
4  effectual  carrying  on  of  the  Service  by  thefe  In- 
4  ftructions  committed  to  you,  or  by  any  other  In- 
4  ftructions  hereafter  to  be  given  you  from  the  Par- 
4  liament. 

XIII.  '  You  are  alfo,  or  any  *  of  you,  to  ob- 
4  ferve  and  put  in  Execution  fuch  further  Orders 

*  as  you  {hall  receive  from  Time  to  Time  from 
4  the  Parliament. 

XIV.  '  The  Power  hereby  committed  to  this 

*  Council  of  State  {hall  continue  for  the  Space  of 
4  one  Year  from  the  Day  of  palling  hereof,  unlels 
4  it  be  otherwife  ordered  by  the  Parliament.' 

Feb.  14.  The  Houfe,  according  to  a  former  Or- 
der, went  upon  the  Nomination  of  Perfons  tocon- 
ftitute  their  new  Council  of  State;  when  the  fol- 
lowing Lords  and  Gentlemen  were  named  : 
Tbe  Names  of  Safl*  Earl  of  Denbkh->      Henry  Rolle,  Lord  Chief 
tMV  that  con-  Edmund,  Earl  of  Mid-        Juftice  of  the  Upper 
flitutedit.  grave,  Bench, 

Philip,Kw\  of  Pembroke,  Oliver  St.  Join,  Lord 
William,  E.  of  Salifbury,  Chief  Juftice  of  the 
William,  Lord  Grey  of  Common  Bench. 


Of    E  N  G 

John  Wylde,  Lord  Chief 
Baron  of  the  Court  of 
Exchequer, 

John  Bradjhaw,  Serjeant 
at  Law, 

'Thomas,  Lord  Fairfax, 

Thomas,  Lord  Grey  of 
Groby, 

Oliver  Cromwell,  Efq; 

Philip  Skippon,  Efq; 

Henry  Martin,  Efq; 

JJaac  Pennington,  Alder- 
man of  London, 

Su  Gilbert  Pickering,  Bt. 

Rowland  Wilfon,  Alder- 
man of  London, 

Anthony  Stapeley,  Efq; 

Sir  William  Mafiam,  Bt. 

Will, 


LAND.        13 

Buljlrode  Whitlocke,  Efq>  Inter-regnum, 

Sir  Arthur  Heflerig, Bart-        r64-8- 

Sir James  Harrin? ton,  Kt-    *— --v— — ' 

Robert  Wallop,^;  Februar>'' 

"John  Hutchinfon,  Efq; 

Sir  Henry  Vane,  }un.  Kt. 

J)ennis  Bond,  Efq; 

P<W//>,  Lord  Life, 

Alexander  Popham,  Efq; 

Sir  y<?^«  D'Anvers,  Kt. 

Sir  William  Armyn,  Bart. 

Valentine  Wauton,  Efq; 

Sir  //?«r}>  Mildmay,  Kt. 

Col.  P*r/*y, 

Sir  William  Con/table,  Bt. 

'Jones,  Efq; 

£//7er,  Efq; 
Col.  Edmund  Ludlow, 
Thomas  Scot,  Efq; 


The  Houfe  divided,  50  againft  25,  for  the  Earl 
of  Pembroke,  and  23  only  againft  20,  for  the  Ear! 
of  Salijlury.  AH  the  reft  were  agreed  to  without 
Divifion  ;  but  a  Motion  for  Commiffary-General 
Ireton  and  Col.  Harrijcn  to  be  of  this  Council  of 
State,  pafs'd  in  the  Negative  :  However,  the  next 
Day,  the  Houfe  having  refolved,  That  the  Num- 
ber of  Perfons  to  be  of  the  Council  of  State  fhould 
confift  of  forty-one,  and  no  more,  Cornelius  Hol- 
land and  Luke  Robinfon,  Efqrs.  were  added  to  the 
foregoing.  It  was  likewife  ordered,  That  nine  of 
the  Perfons  above-named,  and  not  under,  fhould 
conftitute  the  faid  Council  of  State,  to  acl:  accord- 
ing to  Inftruclions.  But  a  Queftion  being  propo- 
fed,  That  there  {hould  be  a  Loixi  Prefident  of  this 
Council,  it  paffed  in  the  Negative,  by  22  againft 
1 6  :  So  jealous  was  the  Houfe,  at  this  Time,  of 

the  Rule  of  a  fingle  Perfon  in  any  Shape  whatfo-^. 

'  r  TheAmbaffrfors 

Cvcr-  from  the  States 

General  admitted 

Feb.  15.  The  Commons  being  informed  that  the^0  an  Audience, 
Lord  Paw  and  the  Lord.  Joachimi,  Ambaffadors "1 

Or- 


14       Tbe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Ordinary  and  Extraordinary  from  the  States  Ge- 
neraJ  of  the  United  Provinces,  were  ready  to  re- 
ceive  an  Anfwer  from  the  Houfe  to  their  Papers, 
formerly  prefented  to  them,  the  Serjeant,  by  Com- 
mand, went  with  his  Mace  to  attend  them  from 
the  Court  of  Wards  :  And  when  they  were  enter- 
ed withiri  the  Houfe,  they  uncovered  their  Heads  j 
Mr.  Speaker  and  the  Members  of  the  Houfe,  be- 
ing likewife  uncovered,  flood  up;  and,  from  the 
Bar,  the  Matter  of  the  Ceremonies  and  the  Serjeant 
attended  them,  the  one  on  the  Right  Hand,  the  o- 
theron  the  Left,  to  two  Chairs  placed  on  the  North 
Side  of  the  Houfe,  with  two  Cufhions  and  Foot- 
ftools  ;  where  being  fet,  Mr.  Speaker  read  the  An- 
fwer of  the  Houfe  to  them  in  thefe  Words  : 

IIT*^  tne  Commons  of  England,  afiembled 
to  a  Letter,  for- '  Y  y  in  Parliament,  upon  due  and  ferious 
inerly  prefented  t  Confederation  of  your  Lordfhips  Addrefs  made  to 

by  thofe  Ambaf- ,     \-     TI       r      \  i_       r  <v  in.  J 

fadors,  interced-    tms  Houfe  the  2gth  of  January  lair,  and  your 

Ing  for  the  late c  Papers  prefented  the  3oth  of  the  fame  Month , 

King's  Life*      <  JO)  ;n  t^e  firfl.  Place,  return  our  many  and  hearty 

«  Thanks  unto  the  High  and  Mighty  Lords  the 

'  States-General  of  the  United  Provinces,  for  their 

*  fundry  goodDefircs,  friendly  Acknowledgements, 

*  Well-wiflies,  and  fair  Refpects  to  the  Parliament 

*  and  People  of  England,  in  thofe  Papers  contain- 

*  ed  ;  earneftly  defiring,  on  our  Parts,  a  firm  and 
'  durable  Continuation  of  the  antient  Amity  and 

*  Alliance,  formerly  made  and  often  renewed,  be- 

*  twixt  both  thefe  Nations  :  W hereunto  we  hold 

*  ourfelves  obliged,  as  having  well  weighed  and 

*  obferved  that  no  Leagues  or  Confederacies  have 

*  at  any  Time  been  made  upon  Foundations  of 
c  more  joint  and  common  Intereft,  in  every  Re- 
4  fpe£t,  than  thofe  of  the  People  of  England  with 
'  the  Netherlands :  And  therefore  it  is  our  moft 

*  earneft  Defire,  that  a  firm  Pe,ace,  and  right  Un- 
4  derflanding,  and  good  Correfpondency  may  be  in- 
'  violably  maintained  betwixt  both  Nations  for  the 

*  prefent,  and  moft  exa<Slly  obferved  for  the  future. 

«  Acd 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        15 

«  And  whereas  your  Lordftiips,  in  the  Name  of  inter-rcgnura, 

*  the  States-General,  do  gravely  advife  us  concern-        l64&- 

*  ing  the  Perfon  of  the  King  (who  was  then  in    ^-~v— •"* 
'  Part,  and  hath  fmce  been  more  fully,  proceeded       c  luary* 

*  againft  according  to  Juftice,  in  a  Court  eftablifh- 

*  ed  by  the  Supreme  Authority  of  this  Nation,  for 
4  his  tranfcendent  Offences,  and  thofe  not  commit- 
'  ted  in  a  Corner) ;  we  are  confident  that  both  the 
'  High  and  Mighty  Lords  the  States-General  of  the 
'  United  Provinces^  and  all  other  States  and  Princes 

*  who  have  taken  Notice  of  our  late  Affairs,  will 
'  find  Caufe  to  believe  that  nothing  hath  been  done 
'  therein  but  what  is  agreeable  to  public  Juftice 
'  and  the  Fundamentals  of  this  Nation  ;  which 

*  certainly  muft  needs  be  better  known  to  us  than 
1  to  any  other  People  or  Nation  in  the  World.    And 
c  we  (hall  defire  your  Lordfhips  would  from  us  af- 
'  fure  the  High  and  Mighty  Lords  the  States-Gene- 
c  rat,  that  we  (hall  be  ever  ready  not  only  to  hear, 
'  but  to  contribute  with  them  all  good  Means  and 

*  Offices,  to  fulfil  fuch  Works  as  mall  be  necef- 

*  fary  for  the  general  Good  of  Chriftendom,  as 

*  well  as  for  our  own.' 

After  reading  this  Anfwer  the  Ambafladors  rofe 
up,  uncovered  their  Heads,  and  making  a  low 
Obeifance,  declared  their  good  Refentment  of  the 
.Parliament's  Anfwer  and  Refpefts  to  them,  and 
were  conducted  back  with  the  fame  Ceremonies. 

The  fame  Day  the  Houfe  ordered  that  the  Arms 
of  the  late  King,  over  the  Speaker's  Chair,  be  forth- 
with taken  down ;  and  that  an  Adi:  be  brought 
in  for  taking  away  the  fame  out  of  the  feveral 
Courts  of  Wejlminjler,  and  all  other  public  Places; 
and  that  the  Arms  of  England  be  fet  up  in  their 
Stead. 

Feb.  17.  Commiflary-General  Ireton  reported 
the  following  Declaration,  in  Anfwer  to  the  Scots 
Commiflioners  Letters  of  the  6th  and  22d  of  laft 
Month,  which  was  agreed  to  by  the  Houfe,  or- 
dered 


16      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

dered  to  be  font  to  thofe  Commiffioncrs,  and  alfo 
to  be  forthwith  printed  and  publilhed  e. 

February.      t  yjOW   defirous  this  Houfe  and  the  Well- 
A  Declaration    '  J     |_  affedted  of  this  Nation  have  been,  during 
of  the  Houfe,  t  ajj  tne  jate  Troubles,  to  preferve  a  good  Under- 
go LeuerTfrorn*  ftanding  with  our  Brethren  of  Scotland,  wiil  be 
the  Scots  Com-  *  eafily  difcerned  by  the  Tranfaclions  between  us 
mifiioners  upon  *  anj  them  ;  wherein,  how  often  and   how  wil- 
the  fame  Sub-  t  ijngiy>  we  havc  dcp-,, te,|  from  our  owft  Intereft 
«  to  fatisfy  theirs,  is  fufficiently  known  :  And  al- 
c  though  it  is  notorioully  evident  to  all  Men,  how 
'  all  Treaties  and  Leagues  that  were  between  us 
'  have  been  broken  and  violated  by  the  public  Act 

*  of  the  late  Parliament  of  Scotland,  in  invading 

*  this  Nation  with  a  great  Army  ;  and  that  there- 
'  fore  Obligations  from  us  to  them,  that  had  grown 
4  from  thofe  Treaties   and  Leagues,  are,  by  that 
£  Default  of   theirs,  in  Juilice,    made   void,    as 

*  wemuft,  and  hereby  do,  declare  them  to  be;  yet 

*  we  are  ftill  willing  to  entertain  a  Correfponden- 
'  cy  and  good  Underftanding,  upon  the  Terms  of 
'  common  and  mutual  Fricndfhip,  with  the  Well- 

*  affected  of  that  Nation  ;  and  therefore  we  enter- 

*  tained,  with  all  fitting  Refpeds,  their  Commif- 
«  ftoners  lately  lent  hither,  upon  the  Sight  of  their 

*  Letters  of  Credence  ;  but  having  fince  received 

*  from  thofe  their  Commiflioncrs  certain  Letters^ 
'  dated  the  fixth  and  twenty- fecond  of  January 
'  laft,  which  contain  divers  Things  in  relation  to 
c  our  Affairs,  hot  proper  for  any  of  another  Nation 
'  to  take  Notice  of,  at  leaft  not  in  fuch  a  Manner 
<  and  furh  Terms  as  they  do  :  Although  it,  there- 

*  fore,  feems  not  neceflary  for  us  to  give  them 

*  any  Anfwer  thereunto  ;  yet  they,  or  ibme  other 
'  for  them,  having  taken   a  Courfe  to  print  and 
«  publifli  the  fame,  as  far  as  in  them  lies,  to  the 

*  Prejudice  and  Scandal  of  our  juit  and  neceflary 

*  Proceedings,  we  find  ourfelves  concerned  to  pub- 

*  li(h  a  juit  Anfwer  thereunto,  for  Satisfaction  to 

'  the 

e  From  the  Original  Edition,  printed  for  Edward  Hiflandi!  f't- 
bruary  22,   1648. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       17 

c  the  World,  to  the  View  whereof  they  have  ex-  Interregnum. 
'  pofed  the  fame  ;  and  therefore  finding  their  Let- 

*  ter  of  the  Twenty-fecond  to  be  little  more  than    ^^^"^ 

*  the  fuller  exprefling,  and  further  urging,  the  lat- 
'  ter  Part  of  that  of  the  fixth  of  January ^  we  mall 
'  follow  the  Order  of  their  firft  Letter,  and  at  the 
c  lull  Paragraph  anfwer  both  that  and  their  other 
c  together. 

'"And  although,  by  this  Method,  we  {hall  be 
'  forced  often  to  fall  into  fome  Repetitions,  their 

*  Letter  having  the   fame  Things  almoft  in  every 

*  Paragraph  ;  yet  that  nothing  may  be  omitted,  we 
'  fh all  take  that  Courfe. 

'  But,  before  we  come  to  thofe  Particulars,  we 

*  muft  needs  take  Notice  of  one  Miftake,  generally 

*  implied  in  their  Letters,  and  more  than  once 
c  plainly  held  forth,  As  if  the  King's  P erf  on  might 
'  not  be  difpofed  of  in  England,  without  the  Advice 
'  and  Confent  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  j  which 
'  AfTertion,   in  thefe  Letters  implied,  and  in  fe- 
4  veral  Papers  of  their  former  Commiffioners  ex- 
'  prefly  mentioned,  hath  received  fo  full  and  clear 
1  an  Anfwer,  by  the  Declaration  of  this  Houfe, 
e  pafled  and  publifhed  the  28th  of  November,  1646^ 
'  as  that  nothing  need  be  further  faid  in  that  Point; 

*  that  Declaration  having  been  fent  to  the  Parlia- 

*  ment  of  Scotland,  and  delivered  by  our  lail  Com- 
'  miflioners  there,  and  we  having  not  yet  feen  any 
c  Thing  publifhed  in  Anfwer  to  it :  When  we  fhall 
'  find  any  Thing  anfwered,  as  to  that  Point,  that 

*  fhall  feem  to  need  a  Reply,  we  fhall  be  ready  to 

*  fatisfy  any  juft  Objection ;  but,    in  the  mean 
'  Time,  think  it  neceflary  either  to  repeat  or  epito- 
'  mize  what  is  there  fully  declared. 

Next  follows  a  Copy  of  the  Scots  Commiffioners 
Letters  of  the  6th  and  -iid  of  January  loft, 
already  given  in  our  Eighteenth  Volume,  and 
then  the  Parliament's  Anfwer  digefted  by  way 
of  Paragraph,  thus, 

«  As  to  the  firft  Paragraph,  this  being  but  an 

'  Enumeration  of  fuch  Things,  about  which  they 

VOL.  XIX  B  'were 


February. 


18      ^Tbc  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  were  to  prefent  Proportions  to  the  King,  and  to 
c  deal  with  him  and  the  Houfes,  viz.  Concerning 
'  Forms  in  Religion  in  this  Nation  ;  and  for  that 
'  we  meet  with  the  fame  Particulars  in  moft  Parts 
'  of  their  Letter  upon  feveral  Occafions,  we  mall 
'  fay  no  more  here  ;  but  that  it  is  well  known  to 
'  the  Commiflioners,  what  Pains  hath  been  taken 

*  already  in  that  Affair,  and  how  much  Time  fpent 
'  about  it ;  and  we  doubt  not  but  God  will  be  fo 

*  with  us,  as  we  (hall  do  that,  for  promoting  and 
'  eftabliming  of  Religion  in  this  Nation,  which 

*  God,  by  his  Word,  fhall  difcover  to  us  to  be 
'  his  Will  and  our  Duty  in  it.     But  whatever  the 
'  Propofitions  were,  which,  they  fay,  they  had  to 
'  prefent  to  the  King,  concerning  any  Thing  to  be 
'  eftablifhed,  prevented,  or  perfected  in  this  Na- 
'  tion,  we  hope  they  were  not  meant  to  have  been 

*  prefented  to  the  late  King  by  them  alone,  with- 
'  out  the  Parliament  of  England,  for  that  were  to 
'  have  afTumed  to  themfelves  and  him  a  Power  of 
'  impofing  Laws  upon  this  Nation  as  they  pleafed  j 

*  which  were  an  Infringement  of  the  diftindt  Rights 
'  and  Liberties  of  the  free  People  of  this  Nation, 

*  contrary  to  all  Treaties,  and  the  Covenant  itfelf, 
'  and  an  Ufurpation  not  to  be  indured  without  jufi 

*  Indignation  on  ourParts,and  Reparation  on  theirs ; 

*  and  yet  their  Language  fcems  to  import  no  lefs : 

*  But  if  they  meant  Propofitions  from  them,  to  have 
'  been  prefented  to  the  Parliament,  and  then,  if 

*  approved,  to  the  King,  as  from  both  Kingdoms, 

*  we  have  already  had  Experience  enough  of  ad- 
'  mitting  the  Commiflioners  of  Scotland  to  an  In- 
'  tereft  or  Communication  with  us,  in  Propofitions 

*  concerning  the  Affairs  of  this  Nation;  andfartoo 
'  much  of  multiplying  Propofitions  or  Addreffes  to 

*  that  Man,  and  attending,  for  our  Peace,  the  Plea- 

*  fure  of  him,  who,  for  the  Advancement  of  his 

*  own  Will,  Power,  and  Perfonal  .Intereft,  againft 
'  the  Public  Intereft  of  the  feveral  Kingdoms,  hath 
'  been  the  chief  Author,  Continuer,  and  Rencwer, 

*  of  all  the  Wars  and  Troubles  in  the  three  King- 

*  doms  3  and  hath  too  abundantly  demonftrated, 

«  That 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       19 

*  That  he  would  not  willingly  admit  of  any  Peace  Inter-regntirru 
'  or  Settlement,  but  for  thf/  Advantage  of  his  and 

'  his  Family's  Intereft,  to  the   public  Prejudice  of 

*  the  feveral  Kingdoms,  r jr  at  leaft  of  this; 

*  In  Anfwer  to  the  fe  cond  Paragraph  :  We  are 
'  very  forry  to  fee  marty  Paflages  in  their  Letter, 

*  which  if  we  {hould  p?  .fs  over  in  Silence,  we  fhould 
c  do  wrong  to  the  pui  dicCaufe  in  our  Hands  ;  and 

*  if  we  anfwer  them,  as  we  ousrht,  we  muft  fpeak 

*  the  Things  we  had  rather  forbear.     From  whence 

*  thefe  late  Diftra^  .ions,  which  they  fay  are  grown 

*  fo  high,  had  tb  eir  firft  Contrivance,  and  from 
c  whom  they  wer.e  fomented  in  their  Breeding  and 
c  Infancy,  we  a;  .e  not  ignorant,  though  there  are 
c  thofe  of  the  St  :0ts  Nation  that  know  it  better  than 

*  we  ;  and  hoi  <v  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  did,  in 
'  the  Midft  of   thofe  DiftradYions,  invade  us  with  a 

*  great  Army  ,  is  known  to  all  Men  ;  which,  with- 

*  out  the  e-  xtraordinary  Power  of  God  appearing 

*  wonderfu'  Jy  for  us,  had  overwhelmed  us,  as  the 
'  State  of    our  Affairs  was  then  complicated  and 

*  diftradf  ,d  by  the  working  of  the  faid  Contrivances, 
'  and  rar  .fmg  of  InfurredYtons  in  moft  Parts  of  the 
4  Land  .•  t  and  as  our  Forces  were  then  in  feveral 
'  Place'  3  divided,  and  engaged  for  fupprefling  fuch 
«  Infur  re£lions :  But  as  God  was  then  pleafed  to 
'  own    our  own  weak  Condition,  and  execute  Judg- 

*  me'  llt  by  a  handful  of  Men  upon  the  proud  Ene- 
'  mi  ,9  that  had  already  fwallowed  us  up  in  De- 


foedifragous 

us  in  our  diftra&ed  Condition;  and  in  all  o- 

ther  Places  of  the  Kingdom  was  with  us,  blef- 

*  fing  our  Forces  with  Succefs,  to  a  happy  Ending 

«  of  this  fecond  and  moft  dangerous  War ;  fo  we 

«  hope  he  will  carry  us  through  in  the  Execution  of 

«  Juftice  impartially  upon  all  the  principal  Authors 

«  of  thefe  Troubles  and  Diftradions,  and  thereby 

«  to  lay  the  furer  Foundation  of  a  found  Peace,  the 

«  Execution  of  Juftice  being  the  beft  Means  to  e- 

B  2  '  ftablifh 


20      'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  ftablifh  the  Tranquility    ar.d  Happinefs  of  an}' 
'  People  j  and  without  our  thus  proceeding,  even- 

*  againft   the    grcateft  Offender,  the   King,   (for 
ebruary.      <  wnOm  this  Letter  pleaded)  we  could  not  expect 

'  to  fee  any  End  of  our  Troubles. 

'  To  what  they  fay  concerning  a  Force  placed 
'  upon  the  Paffages  to  the  Houfes,  and  the  reil  that 
c  followeth  in  that  Point,  we  fhould  have  expected, 

*  of  all  Men,  to  have  heard  Icalt  of  that  from  thefe 
'  Commiffioners  of  Scotland :  It  is  not  fix  Months 
c  fince  that  (the  Army  of  the  Parliament  of  Scot- 
'  land,  which   invaded  this  Kingdom,  being,  by 
'  the  Bleffing  of  God,  overcome)  thofe  that  now 
'  govern  Affairs  there,  who  were  before  oppreffed 
'  by  them,  raifed  Forces  of  their  own  Authority  > 

*  and,  by  Force,  caufed  them  who  had  the  Parlia- 

*  mentary  Authority,  to  fly  from  Edinburgh  ;  and, 
'  by  the  Help  of  our  Forces  then  in  the  North,  in- 
'  vitcd  to  their  Afiiftance,  did  compel  the  difband- 
'  ing  of  the  Forces  there  remaining  that  were  raifed 
'  by  the  Parliament ;  and,  having  modelled  their 
'  own  Forces,  did  call  another  Parliament  while, 
'  the  former  was,  by  Adjournment,  continued;  and 
'  gave  fuch  Limitations  to  the  new  Elections  as 
'  they  judged   molt  for  the  Intercft,  Safety,  and 
4  Peace  of  that  Kingdom  ;  and  that  Parliament 

,  *  hath  fince  fat  under  the  Protection  of  thofe  Forces. 
.'  fo  raifed. 

'  All  which  Particulars  put  together,  do  certain- 

'  ly  amount  to  as  much  Irregularity  and  Breach,. 

'  in  Form,  of  both  Privilege  of  Parliament,  and 

'  Freedom    of  Elections  thereto,  as  that  which. 

'  our  Army  (raifed  by  full  Authority  of  Parliament, 

*  for  Defence  of  the  Liberties  of  this  Kingdom) 

*  hath  done,  in  fecluding  fome  Members  of  Parlia- 

*  ment,   and  imprifoning  others,  who  had  begun, 

*  carried  on,  and  were  proceeding,  refolvcdly,  to 

*  finifh  fuch  a  Conjunction  with  the  common  Ene- 
'  my,  as  would  vifiWy  have  rendered  up  thofe  Li- 
'  berties  into  his  Hands  ;  debarred  that  Juflice  upon 

*  Delinquents,  to  which  even  the  Covenant  did 

*  engage;  ;:nd  defeated  the  Hopes  of  that  Reform  a- 

*  tioii 


Of    ENGLAND.       21 

*  tion,  and   precluded  the  Coufideration  of  thofe 

*  Matters  of  Religion,  which  thefe  Commiffioners 

*  here  plead  for,  and  for  which  only,  or  principally, 
'  they 'fay,  they  were  employed  hither. 

'  The  Impriloning  of  fome  of  which  Members 

*  is  alledged,  by  the  Army,  to  be,  amongft  other 

*  Things,  for  Confederacies  or  Correfpondences 

*  with  that  Party  in  Scotland,  againft  whom,  and 

*  in  thofe  Engagements  and  Actings   for  which, 

*  the  faid  Committee  of  Eftates  there  hath  fo  pro- 
'  ceeded  as  aforefaid  ;  which  we  fuppofe  will,  in 

*  due  Time,  be  made  appear  accordingly.     Nei- 

*  ther  furely  can   our  continuing,    without  thofe 

*  Members,  to  fit  in  Parliament,  under  the  Safe- 
4  guard  of  this  Army,  be  lefs  justifiable  in  Form, 

*  than  their  Committee  of  Eftates,  fitting  under 
'  the  Protection  of  that  Force  they  had  fo  raifed  as 

*  aforefaid,  without  the  Members  they  had  driven 

*  away  thereby;  of  than  their  new  Parliament's  fit- 
'  ting  by  virtue  of  thofe  Actings,  and  under  Pro- 
4  tec~Hon  of  the  fame  Force. 

'  We  do  not  mention  thefe  Things  as  condemn- 
'  ing  them,  or  to  recriminate  or  retort  upon  them  ; 
'  nor  do  we  think  their  Examples  to  be  our  or  the 
'  Army's  Juilification  ;  for  it  is  the  Juftnefs  of  the 
'  Grounds  and  Ends,  the  Integrity  of  Intentions, 
'  and  Neceflity  of  the  Actings  in  relation  to  thofe 
'  Ends,  that  only  can  juftify  them  or  us  in  fuch 

*  Proceedings:  But  we  conceive  thefe Commifiion- 

*  ers  might  well  have  fpared  the  Mention  of  thefe 
4  Particulars,  both  for  that  they  are  Strangers  to 
'  our  Intereft,  and  ought  not  to  interpofe  in  it ;  and 
4  for  that  they,  and  the  Committee  of  Eftates  that 

*  fent  them,  have  a6led  higher  in  the  fame  Nature 

*  themfelvfes,  and  their  Parliament  now  fits  by  the 

*  Power  of  thofe  Actings. 

*  And  whereas  they  fay,  The  Members  were  fe- 

*  eluded  during  Transactions  of  bighejl  Moment ; 
'  the  late  Papers  from  the  Army,  and  our  late  Re- 
'  folutions  in  relation  to  that  Seclufion,  may  fuffi- 

*  ciently  evidence  that  it  was  immediately  done, 

B  3  'and 


22       *Tbe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regmim.  *  and  is  continued,  upon  occaiion  of  that  Vote  of 

1648.         *  the  5th  of  December  laft;  whereupon  we  leave 

c— ^v-^^    <  it  to  be  confidered,  whether  thole  Transactions, 

February.      <  jn  reiatjon  to  which  the  Members  were  exclu- 

'  c|ed,  were  not  their  Endeavours  of  doling  with 

'  the  King,  to  the  deferting  of  thofe  Matters  of 

'  religious  Concernment,   for  which  thcfe  Com- 

'  miflioners  were  fent,  and  do  hoc  fo  much  plead  ; 

*  or  whether  the  Members,  fo  excluded,  were  any 

*  other  than  fuch  as  were  guilty  of  that  Endeavour  ? 

'  And  whereas  they  fay,  It  bath  occafioned  many 
(  others  to  withdraw,  becaufe  they  cannot  aft  as  a 

*  free  Parliament :  Whether  this  be  their  Judg- 

*  ment,  or  the  Commiffioners  own,  we  know  not; 

*  if  fome  Members,  that  are  abfent,  be  of  that 
'  Judgment,  that  they  cannot  act  freely,  we  nei- 

*  ther  force  their  Judgments,  nor  find  ourfelves 
'  under  any  fuch  Force,  as  to  hinder  the  free  Ex- 

*  ercife  of  our  own.     We  doubt  not  but  ftrong 
<  Endeavours  are  ufed,  as  they  have  been,  and 

*  will  be,  to  overturn  all  true  and  thorough  Re- 

*  formation ;    and  the   Reformation    in    Scotland 

*  hath  not  wanted  Oppofition  in  their  own  Na- 
'  tion,    and   Endeavours  of  Subverfion,    as  well 

*  formerly  as  now  lately,  by  that  wicked  Army 

*  that  invaded  us :  In  which  Action  had  they  pro- 

*  fpered,  thefe  Commiflioners,  and  their  Friends 

*  there,  might  furely  have  expected  the  utter  ex- 

*  tirpating  of  their  Reformation,  and  all  that  had 
'  pretended  to  it,  although  that  Army  profeffed  al- 
c  fo  for  the  Covenant.     But  why  the  Commif- 

*  fioners  complain  of  it  to  us  we  underftand  not, 

*  nor  are  confcious  of  any  Guilt  in  oppofing  Re- 
f  formation  ;  but  truft  that  God  will  carry  on  his 

*  own  Work  of  a  perfect  and  thorough  Refor- 

*  mation,  according  to  his  own  Will,  in  his  own 

*  Way,  againft  all  the  Endeavours  and  Oppoft- 
'  tions  of  any  Profanenefs  or  Formality  whatfo- 

*  ever  :  And  we  ti  uft  alfo  that  God  will  make  us 
f.                     *  faithful  in  the  Contribution  of  our  utmoft  Power 

*  to  that  End,  as  far  as  he  fhall  r.eveal  his  Will  un- 
5  to  us  concerning  our  Duty  in  it. 

*  Fct' 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      23 

*  For  c  aft  ing  off  the  Minijiry :  We  have  no  fuch  Inter-regnum. 
4  Intention,  nor  know  we  any  fuch  Thing  in  fa&  ;       l648- 

*  if  any  of  them  find  their  Audience  thinner  than    <^j^"*J 
4  formerly,  they  may  do  well  to  examine,  whether 

*  the  Caufe  hath  not  been  chiefly  from  themfelves, 

*  by  feeking  their  own  Things,  more  than   the 

*  Things  of  Chrift;  but  for  thofe  to  whom  God 

*  hath  given  Grace  to  be  found  faithful  in  the  Work 

*  of  the  Gofpel,  and  continue  fo,  we  know  not  any 
4  fuch,  who  want  either  due  Honour  and  Refpect, 

*  or  competent  Maintenance  amongft  us  :  And  as 
4  we  are  refolved,  for  our  Parts,  during  the  Time 
4  of  our  Truft,  fo  we  are  confident  it  will  be  the 
4  Care  of  thofe  that  (hall  fucceed  us  in  the  Legif- 
4  lative  Power  of  this  Nation,  that  very  comfortable 
4  Subfiftence  fhall  be  provided  for  all  fuch,  in  what 
4  Way  foever  it  fhall  be  fettled,  for  the  moft  quiet 

*  and  beft  Contentment  both  of  fuch  Minifter  and 
4  People. 

'  For  the  Toleration  of  all  Religions  and  Forms  of 
(  IVorjbip,  that  their  Letter  objeits  ;  we  know  not 
4  whom  they  intend  in  that  Charge :  As  for  the 

*  Truth  and  Power  of  Religion,  it  being  a  Thing 
4  intrinfical  betwen  God  and  the  Soul,   and  the 
4  Matters  of  Faith  in  the  Gofpel  being  fuch,  as  no 
4  natural  Light  doth  reach  unto,  we  conceive  there 

*  is  no  human  Power  of  Coertion  thereunto,  nor  to 
4  reftrain  Men  from  believing  what  God  fuffers 
4  their  Judgments  to  be  perfuaded  of;  but  if  they 
4  mean  only  the  outward  and  public  Forms  of  Pro- 

*  feflion  or  Worfhip,  we  know  no  fuch  univerfal 
4  Toleration  endeavoured  or  intended  amongft  us, 
4  neither  yet  do  we  find  any  Warrant  to  perfecute 

*  all  that  do  not  worfhip  God,  or  profefs  to  believe 

*  in  the  fame  Form  that  we  do. 

4  Neither  do  we  conceive  that  this  were  to  de- 
4  Jiroy  the  Caufe ',  in  ivhicb  we  have  been  engaged. 
4  The  main  Caufe  in  which  we  have  been  engaged 
4  hath  been,  the  Vindication  of  the  Freedom  and 
4  Liberties  of  the  Nation  from  Tyranny  and  Slave- 
4  *y  j  which,  we  hope,  by  the  Blefling  of  God, 

*  will 


24       Ibe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Xnter-rcgnum.  *  will  be  effected  ;  and  without  this   (being  the 

1648.         *  Foundation  of  all  the  other  Superftrudtures)   it 

>l—  ~\L~  — '    *>  were  in  vain  to  pleale  ourfelves  with  Apprehen- 

*  fions  of  that  Reformation  and  thofe  Formalities, 
4  which  would  be  in  the  Power  of  an  uniubdued 

*  Tyrant  to  abolifh,  whenfoever  it  fhould  be  found 
4  inconfiftent  with  his  other  Defigns.     But  a  free 

*  Condition  of  a  juft  Liberty  being  once  fettled  in 
4  the  Nation,  it  will  be  then  capable  of  receiving  all 
4  the  Additions  of  a  bcne  eJTe  either  in  civil  Things, 

*  or  thofe  of  Religion:  ds  for  fruftrattng  the  Ends  of 
'  the  Covenant,  "with  private  or  fenijier  Ends  any 
4  may  have  had  therein  (which  perhaps  they  may 

*  fear  will  be  fruftrated)  we  know  not  5 -but,  as  to 

*  any  public  vilible  Ends  of  it,  nothing  hath  pafled 
4  from  us  to  the  Fruftration  thereof ;  we  wiih  we 
4  could  fay  fo  of  the  late  Parliament  of  Scotland,  or 
4  of  Commifiioners  that  have  been  lent  from  them ; 

*  or  that  there  had  been  lefb  Swearing,   and  more 

*  Performance,  toward  all  honeft  and  godly  Ends. 
'  And  if,  upon  fuch  a  complex  Engagement  to  fe- 

*  veral  Things  (which  may  not  always  be  confiftent) 

*  any  Actions  which  may  bear  a  Colour  of  Failure, 

*  as  to  one  or  other  Particular  have  been  neceffi- 
4  tated  to  be  undertaken,  for  the  preferving  of  the 
4  higher  and  more  principal  Ends  engaged  ;  we 
4  hope  fuch  Things,  which  fome  are  apt  to  render 
4  as  Breach  of  Covenant,  and  tending  to  fruftrate 

<  the  Ends  of  it,  will  yet,   before  God  and  good 
'  Men,  be  found  the  moil  real  Performance  and 

<  fulfilling  thereof. 

4  And  thus  we  might  leave  their  Fears,  expref- 
4  fed  in  the  Remainder  of  this  Paragraph,  to  abate 

*  together  with  their  prqmifed  Grounds,  which  we 
4  have  feverally  anfwered  :  But  that  thefe  Things 

*  enumerated   (tho*  they  were  as  true  and  foul  as 

*  they  are  reprefented)  fhould  alone  be  the  Matter 
*.  of  fuch  Fears,  as  thence  they  infer,  we  cannot  al- 

*  together  agree.    We  muft  acknowledge  there  are 

*  manyotherThings  that  have  been,  and  ?.rz,Mat- 

*  ter  of  high  Provocation  to  the  Wrath  of  God,  and 

4  whereby 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        25 

*  whereby  Dijhonour  bath  been  done  to  his  Name,  and  Inter-regnum. 

*  Reproach  brought  upon  Religion;  and  we  do  much 

*  rejoice  to  fee  any  tender  Heart  fo  really  fenfible 

*  of  his  own  Fault  or  Failing,  as  to  ftir  him  up  to 

*  the  moft  effectual  Endeavours  after  an  univerfal 

*  Change  and  Reformation  ;  and  we  earneftly  de- 
4  fire  that  God  will  give  us  all  fuch  a  Senfe  and  fuch 

*  Efre&s  of  it,  and  that  a  general  Reformation  in 
4  this  Kingdom  may  be  rather  the  genuine  and  na- 

*  tural  Refult  of  our  changed  Minds,  drawing  near 
4  to  God,  than  the  external  Drefs  of  an  impofing 
4  Law. 

4  If  there  be  fuch  Divifeon  as  to  weaken  usy  we 

*  hope  the  Caufe  {hall  not  be  on  our  Parts  ;  how 
4  any  of  the  Bands  of  Union  between  us  and  Scot" 
4  land  have  been  broken,  we  are  well  able  to  give 
4  the  World  an  Account ;  and  this  Nation  is  very 

*  fenfible  how  much  we  fuffered  to  have  prevented 
4  it. 

*  If  we  underftood  how  any  Thing  we  are  about, 

*  mould  invite  foreign  Enemies  againjl  us,  we  mould 

*  do  our  beft  to  avoid  it :  We  are  at  prefent  in 

*  League  with  all  our  tranfmarine  Neighbours,  and 
4  mall  endeavour  to  deal  juftly  with  them  accord- 
4  ing  to  our  Treaties,  and  to  keep  the  Articles  of 
4  our  feveral  Alliances ;  and  we  hope  they  will  not 
4  efpoufe  a  Quarrel  foreign  to  them,  to  the  Inter- 
4  ruption  of  mutual  Commerce  with  us,  wherein 

*  they  are  more  concerned. 

*  For  the  promoting  of  the  Popi/h  Intereft,  and 
4  deftroying  the  Reformed  Religion ,  and  the  Peace 
4  and  Happinefs  of  the  Kingdoms ;  we  know  not 
4  why  fuch  Suggeftions  came  into  this  Catalogue  of 
4  ill  Confequences,  as  objected  to  us,  unlefs,  asf 
4  many  of  the  reft,  that  the  Paper  being  publifhed, 
4  might  caft  the  greater  Odium  upon  our  prefent 
4  Tranfadtions :  Neither  can  we  underftand  any 
4  other  Reafons  why  the  lofeng  of  Ireland  mould 
4  be  thruft  in  amongft  thofe  Confequences :  But  as 
*  to  that  poor  Kingdom,  which  thefe  Commifiion- 
4  ers  would  feem  fo  felicitous  for,  we  cannot  but 

4bc 


26       The  Parliamentary  HISTORV 

*  be  fenfible  of  any  Lofs  there,  as  ours  more  im- 
*  mediately,  and  not  theirs:  And  what  Lofs  or 

'  Prejudice  hath  of  late  Years  been  incurred  there, 
'  hath  been  chiefly  occafioned,  either  by  the  fail- 
'  ing,  or  evil  Carriage,  of  the  Scots  Forces,  enter- 
'  tained  and  pretending  to  ferve  us  there,  or  elfe 
'  through  Inckequin's  Revolt  j  whom  the  prevail- 
'  ing  Faction  of  thofe  corrupt  Members  lately  a- 
c  mongll  us  (in  whofe  Behalf  thefe  Commiffioners 
c  are  now  fo  zealous)  had  put  into  the  Capacity  of 

*  doing  us  and  Englijh  Proteftants  there  fo  much 
'  Mifchief  j  yet  we  hope  God  will  carry  us  on  in 
'  fuch  Counfels  and  Ways,  whereby  thofe  Lofles 

*  may  be  recovered,  and  that  miferable  Country 
c  timely  relieved,  notwithftanding  the  Interruption 

*  given  by  thefe  Papers,  and  the  Difcontents  there- 
«  by  endeavoured  to  be  raifed  to  the  Hinderance  of 

*  that  Service. 

'  To  the  third  Paragraph,  which  contains  what 
'  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  hath  done  for  this  King- 

*  dom,  and  what  they  have  undertaken,  we  fay, 

*  Whatever  the  Well-affeaed  in  Scotland  did,  in 
'  their  brother-like  Affe&ion  to  this  Nation,  when 

*  our  Preffures  were  heavieft  upon  us,  we  fhall  not 

*  forget:  We  deny  not  their  firft  coming  into  Eng- 
*•  land  was  an  Occafion  of  the  calling  of  this  Par- 
'  liament;  and  we  were  not  unthankful  to  them 

*  for  what  they  then  did  ;  but,  out  of  a  brotherly 

*  Acknowledgment  of  the  Benefit,  gave  them  for 
«  their  brotherly  Afiiftance  300, ooo/.     We  defire 

*  alfo  the  Commiflioners  may  remember,  that  the 

*  laft  Parliament  before  this  fuffered  itfelf  to  be  bro- 

*  ken  up,  without  any  vifible  Hopes  of  ever  feeing 
?  another,  rather  than  contribute  Monies  to  the 

*  King,  when  they  faw  it  would  have  been  em- 

*  ployed  to  the  oppreffing  and  ruining  of  the  Scots 
•*  Nation  :  And,  long  before  this,  tho'  we  fhould 

*  forget  it,  the  People  of  Scotland  have  left  it  upon 

*  Record,  with  much  Gratitude  and  Truth,  that, 

*  under  God,  they  were  delivered  by  the  Forces  of 

*  this  Nation,  in  the  very  Infancy  of  their  Refor- 

'  mation 


Of    ENGLAND        27 

'  mation,  from  the  French  and  therewith  the  Popifh  Interregnum. 

*  Yoke,  which  nothing,  under  God,  then  hinder'd 

*  from  putting  on,  but  that  ieafonable  and  effectual 

*  Afiiftance  they  received  from  hence.     We  know 
'  alfo  they  cannot  forget  fo  foon,  that  we  have  not 

*  been  wanting  to  our  Friends  in  Scotland,  who  now 
'  have  the  governing  Power  there,  when  they  wers 

*  brought  low  by  the  Power  of  the  Army  ;  which, 
'  by  Order  of  the  Parliament  of  Scotland,  invaded 

*  this  Nation,  to  the  Breach  of  all  Leagues  and 

*  Treaties  between  us :  And  when  that  Army,  by 

*  the  juft  Hand  of  God  againft  them,  were  deftroy- 
'  ed;  and  that  Lieutenant- General  Cromwell,  in 
'  purfuance   of  that   Vi£tory,    with  our  Forces, 
c  marched  to  the  Borders  for  the  Recovery  of  the 
4  Towns  treacheroufly  taken  from  us,  he  entered 
4  not  Scotland  in  Hoftility,  and  without  Difcrimi- 
'  nation,  to  retaliate  the  Injuries  and  Spoil  this  Na- 

*  tion  fuffered  from  that  invading  Army;  but  came 

*  to  the  Affiftance  of  the  Well-affecled  there,  up- 
'  on  their  Defire;  and  we,  out  of  a  Senfe  of  the 
4  Oppreflion  of  our  Friends,  before  we  had  heard 

*  either  from  him  or  them,  gave  Order  that,  upon 

*  their  Defire,  he  ftiould  afford  them  all  feafonable 
4  Relief  and  Affiftance;  and  accordingly  fuch  of 
6  our  Forces  were  left  there,  as  thofe  our  Friends 
4  judged  neceffary,  for  the  finifhing  their  Work, 
4  and  fettling  their  Security  againft  thofe  who  had 
4  oppiefled  them  and  invaded  us,  and  forthwith 

*  marched  the  reft  out  of  that  Kingdom  that  they 

*  might  not  be  a  further  Charge  and  Burthen  there- 

*  to.     So  as,  we  truft,  we  have  given  fufficient 

*  Demonftration,  that  we  have  not,  for  that  na- 

*  tional  Invafion,  deferted  our  Friends  and  the  ho- 
4  neft  Party  in  that  Nation ;  but  affiiled  and  ftood 

*  by  them,  and  given  them  our  beft  Help  to  put 

*  Affairs  again  into  their  Hands. 

*  For  the  Epitome  of  the  Covenant,  that  is  the 

*  Matter  of  the  reft  of  this  Paragraph,  we  conceive 

*  there  is  little  Reafon  for  them  to  object  the  break- 

*  ing  thereof  unto  us,  being  wholly  broken,  and 
«-  all  Treaties  with  it,  by  that  national  Invafion ; 

'  which 


Jnter-regnum 
1648. 

Pebruary, 


28       'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  which  had  not  God  almoft  miraculoufly  blafted 
4  and  brought  to  nought,  all  the  Particulars  they 

*  have  enumerated  had  been  buried  in  the  Over- 

*  flowings  of  Tyranny  and  Profanenefs ;  only  be- 
'  caufe  the  dividing  the  King  from  his  People  is  one 
'  Particular  urged,  we  would  have  it  remembered 
'  who  protefted  againft  the  King's  pafling  four  Bills 

*  at  the  Ifle  of  Wight,  about  the  End  of  December^ 

*  1647,  which  fhould  have  been  the  Aflurance  of 

*  a  following  Treaty ;  not  only  ufurping  therein 

*  a  Negative  Voice  upon  the  Legiflativc  Power  of 
'  England,  but  being  thereby  the  vifible  Caufe  of 
'  not  proceeding  then  to  a  Treaty ;  and  whether 
'  this  was  not  more  truly  a  Means  of  dividing  the 
«  King  from  the  People,  we  leave  to  the  Judgment 
«  of  all  Men. 

'  As  for  preserving  Peace  and  Union  between  the 
6  Nations  ;  we  wilh  they  would  have  let  this  pafs  ; 
'  for  we  blufh  to  repeat  fo  often  that  it  was  broken 
'  by  that  national  Acl,  we  being  invaded  by  their 
'  Army,  fet  out  by  the  Authority  of  their  Parlia- 

*  ment.     And  to  this  Particular  we  fhall  add  thus 
'  much  more,  That  we  were  fo  tender  of  keeping 
6  the  Treaties,  and  fo  defirous  of  maintaining  the 
c  Union  that  was  by  them  begun  between  the  two 
'  Nations,  that  although  we  knew  well  by  what 

*  Spirit  the  Affairs  of  Scotland  were  then  acted,  and 
c  what  Affection  they  who  were  in  Power  had  to 
'  Peace ;  and  were  not  ignorant  that  a  War  was 
'  determined,  and  Forces  levied  againft  us  early 

*  laft  Spring ;  and  that  many  of  our  own  Delin- 
'  quents  and  Malignants  did  daily  flock  into  Scot- 
'  land,  and  were  entertained  there,  and  would  not 
'  be  delivered  to  Punifhment,  though  required  ac- 

*  cording  to  the  exprefsTerms  of  the  Treaty,  by  our 

*  Commi0ioners  there  refident,  by  our  Special  Or- 

*  der  to  them  for  that  Purpofe  ;  yet  we  forbare  not 

*  only  to  put  Garrifons  into  the  Towns  of  Berwick 

*  and  Cartijle,  becaufe  it  feemed  againft  the  Great 

*  Treaty  ;  but  did  not  fo  much  as  bring  any  to  the 

*  Borders,  (as  we  might  have  done,  and  laid  them 

*  at  iuch  Diitancc  as  might  have  prevented  the  Sur- 

4  prize 


Of    ENGLAND.       29 

'  prize  of  thofe  Towns)  becaufe  we  would  not  give 
'  Alarm  to  that  Nation,  or  caufe  any  Apprehen- 
'  lion  in  our  Friends  there,  that  we  had  any  In- 

*  tentions  of  Hoftility  againft  them;  but  we  rather      rebruary- 
'  chofe  to  have  a  Breach  made  upon  us,  than  to 

'  make  it  j  and  to  have  our  Towns  taken  from  us, 

*  which  we  forefaw  was  like  to  happen,  rather  than 
'  to  do  any  Thing  that  might  be  interpreted,  to 
'  tend  to  a  Breach  of  Union,  or  of  the  Treaties : 

*  And  we  repent  not  ourTendernefs  therein,  tho* 
'  we  are  not  infenfible  of  what  we  fuffered  by  itr 

*  God  having  owned  our  Caufe,  and  borne  witnefs 
'  to  our  Defire  of  Peace,  by  ftretching  out  his 

*  Hand  upon  that  Hypocritical  and  Faith-breaking 
'  Army,  and   their  Adherents,   and   by  reducing 
'  them  to  a  Neceflity  of  ordering  the  Reititution  of 

*  our  Towns. 

'In  the  fourth  Paragraph,  they  fay  what  the 
'  Houfes  and  their  Nation  have  declared;  and  here 
'  again  reckon  tip  Reformation  of  Religion^  Extir- 
4  pat  ion  of  Popery'  and  Prelacy,  and  SuppreJJion  of 
'  Herefy  and  Scbifm  j  and  to  this  we  ftill  fay,  We 

*  fhall  endeavour,  with  all  that  Power  that  God 
'hath  given  us,  that  Religion  maybe  reformed 
'  according  to  the  Word  of  God,  which  is  the 
'  Rule  of  Truth,  and  that  which  is  fo  reformed 
'  according  to  the  bed  Reformed  Churches ;  for  the 
<  very  Rule  of  their  Reformation  is  alfo  the  Scrip- 

*  tures,  'to  which  what  Church  foever  draws  moft 
f  near  in  its  Reformation,  that  is  the  beft  reformed 
'  Church.    And  if  we  fhould  acknowledge  any  one 
'  Church  to  be  fo  well  reformed,  as  it  might  ob- 
'  trude  its  Reformation  for  a  Pattern,  which  others 
'  might  neceflarily  follow,  though  its  Conformity 
'  to  that  fupreme  Rule  be  not  evident  to  thofe  up- 
'  on  whom  fuch  Uniformity  is  obtrudqd,  it  were 
4  juflly  to  be  accounted  a  Part  of  that  Popery  which 

*  we  have  declared  to  extirpate. 

4  For  Prelacy ;  we  know  not  why  that  is  in  the 
'  Paper,  we  conceiving  that  all  their  Jurifdi&iou 

*  is  taken  away,  and  a  great  Part  of  their  Lands 
'  fold ;  and  they  know  very  well  to  what  Pur- 

*  pofc 


30       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  pofe  a  great  Part  of  the  Money  was  employed  ; 

*  and  we  wifn  them  and  all  Covenanters,  as  to  this 

*  Point,  to  confider  whether  what  they  fo  complain 

*  of,  in  behalf  of  fccluded  Members,  were  not  done 
'  in  reference  to  their  endeavoured  Conjunction 
'  with  the  King,  on  fuch  Terms  as  would  have  left 
'  to  Prelacy  a  remaining  Root  and  Foundation  in 

*  this  Nation. 

e  By  Popery  we  Conceive  they  mean  Popifh  Doc- 

*  trine  or  \Vorfhip,  for  the  Jurifdiction  of  it,  they 

*  know, hath  been  long  extirpated  out  of  this  Na- 
'  tion ;  and,  for  that  Doctrine  or  Worfhip,  we 

*  give  it  no  Allowance  of  public  or  private  Teach- 
'  ing  or  Practice :  And  as  it  is  a  Matter  of  Opinion 

*  in  the  Minds  of  particular  Men,  we  have  found 

*  that  all  the  Sharpnefs  of  our  Laws,  which  have 

*  been  fufficiently  fevere  againft  them,  hath  not 
f  been  able  to  extirpate  it ;  and,  as  thefe  the  Com- 

*  miflioners  well  know,  all  that  hath  been  done  in 

*  Scotland  againft  Popery,  in  purfuance  of  their  Co- 

*  venant,  hath  not  yet  wrought  fuch  Effects,  but 
'  that  many  of  that  Profeffion  are  ftill  living  among 

*  them  :  And,  indeed,  that  fome  Tares,  both  of 
'  evil  Men  and  Mifworfhippers,  will  be  left  in  the 
4  Field  of  the  World  till  the  Harveft,   notwith- 

*  Handing  the  good  Seed  fown  by  the  Mafter,  and 
'  all  the  Care  of  the  Servants,  we  find  it  not  barely 

*  foretold,  but  the  violent  plucking  of  them  up  for- 

*  bidden,  and  a  plain  Injunction  added,  That  both 

*  Jhould  be  let  grow  together  imtill  Harve/f ;   which 

*  certainly  were  intended  as  Rules  to  the  Servants, 

*  at  leaft,  in  relation  to  fuch  Weeds  and  to  fuch 

*  Ways  of  plucking  up,    where  there  might  be 

*  Danger  with  the  Weeds  to  pluck  up  the  Wheat 

*  nlfo :   And  therefore,  as  to  Herefy^  Schifm^  c5V. 
«  firft  we  muft  defire  all  Men  to  take  Notice,  that 
4  the  Covenant  doth  not  engage  abfolutely  that  we 

*  will  extirpate  or  fupprefs,  as  thefe  Commiflioners 
'  render  it  (which  were  an  high  Prefumption)  j 

*  but  that  we  will  endeavour  it,    in  our  feveral 

*  Places  and  Callings,  and  by  all  lawful  Ways  and 
«  Means ;   which  certainly  is  to  be  underftood, 

'that 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        31 

*  that,  to  the  feveral  Things  to  be  endeavoured,  Inter-regrram, 

*  fuch  Ways  and  Means  ihould  be  ufed  as,  accord- 

*  ing;  to  the  Nature  of  the  Things  feverally,  are 

i  *        f  i        A      t  11 

'  proper  and  lawful :  And,  next,  we  declare  that 
'  the  beft  Way  for  the  Extirpation  and  Suppref- 
'  fion  of  Herefy  and  Schifm,  as  we  conceive,  is, 
'  to  hold  forth  the  Truth  in  Love  ;  which,  fo  held 

*  out,  will  beget  I/ove,  and  thereby  gain  the  bet- 

*  ter  Reception  in  them  that  hear  it.     And  it  fhall 

*  be  our  Care  to  provide  for  thofe  who  may  fo  hold 
'  it  out,  and  then  wait  for  an  effectual  Bleffing  from 

*  God  upon  thofe  Means. 

'  To  what  they  tell  us  of  our  declaring,  That 
4  we  will  maintain  the  Fundamental  Government  of 

*  this  Kingdom,  by  King,  Lords,  and  Commons  ;  we 

*  defire  to  know  what  Intereft  Scotland  hath  in  the 

*  Government  of  England,  that  there  fhould  be 

*  any  Interposition  in  it.     What  Government  the 
'  People  of  England  fhall  chufe,  we  know  none 
6  that  have  any  Negative  upon  it :  The  Legiflative 
'  Power  being  in  them  originally  and  fundamen- 

*  tally,  and  exercifed  by  thole  that  reprefent  them, 

*  what  Laws  they  declare  or  enact  they  have  Power 

*  alfo  to  annul  and  repeal  when  they  fhall  judge  it 

*  to  be  no  longer  for  the  Good  and  Safety  of  the 
'  People,  which  is  the  higheft  Law,  to  which  all 

*  other  Laws  and  Declarations  muft  fubmit ;  and 
'  there  can  be  no  foreign  Judgment  of  that  Safety. 

4  To  that  they  fay  in  this  Letter,  That,  by  Con- 
'  fent  of  both  Kingdoms,  the  King  was  to  come  to 

*  Holdenby;  and  to  that  in  their  fecond  Letter, 

*  That  it  will  be  a  great  Grief  to  their  Hearts,  and 
'  lie  heavy  upon  their  Spirits,  to  fee  their  trujling 

*  of  his  P erf  on  to  the  Parliament  of  England  made 
'  ufe  of  to  his  Ruin,  it  hath  been  fo  fully  cleared  in 
'  the  aforefaid  Declaration  of  this  Houfe  of  the 

*  28th  of  November,  1646,    that    the  Kingdom 

*  of  Scotland  had  no  Right  of  difpofmg  of  the  Per- 

*  fon  of  the  King  in  England,  as  that  we  fhall  add 

*  nothing  to  it:    We  (hall  only  fay,  That  they  did 

*  not  truft  the  King  with  the  Parliament  of  Eng- 
f  land-t  for  he  was  not  at  all  in  the  Power  of  the 

«  King- 


32      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

lotcr-regnum.  *  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  for  he  was  not  then  in 

1648.        <  Scotland;  neither  was  the  Army  of  Scots  in  Eng- 

*--"7v-"-'    •<  land,  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  nor  the  Army  of 

:uary*      c  Scotland:  It  was  indeed  an  Army  of  the  Scots 

'  Nation ;  but  it  was  the  Army  of  England  in  their 

*  Service,  and  in  their  Pay  ;  and  to  whom  fhould 
'  they  deliver  the  King  of  England,  coming  into 

*  their  Power  in  England,  while  they  were  in  the 

*  Service  and  Pay  of  England,  but  to  the  Parlia- 

*  ment  of  England? 

*  Befides,  how  can  they  affirm  the  common  Enemy 

*  was  fubdued,  as  in  the  next  Words  before,  if  he 
'  was  then  in  an  Army,  that  had  Right  to  defend 
'  him  ftill  againft  this  Parliament,  and  not  deliver 
'  him  up  at  their  Commands  ?  What  other  com- 

*  mon  Enemy  was  it,  who  made  all  thatWar  againft 

*  this  Nation,  was  it  not  he  ?  And  was  it  not  by 

*  his  Commifiions  and  Commands  ?  And  how  was 
'  he  then»fubdued,  if  the  Army,  confifting  of  the 
'  Scots  Nation  in  the  Pay  of  England,  might  have 
«  defended  him,  and  fought  for  him  ?  And  if  they 

*  thought  they  might  refufe  to  deliver  him,  why  did 

*  not  that  Army  carry  him  with  them  into  Scotland? 
'  Was  it  becaufe  they  knew  they  had  no  Authority 
'  fo  to  do,  or  becaufe  they  knew  or  feared  his  Pre- 

*  fence  and  the  Peace  of  that  Place,  wherever  he 
'  fliould  come,  would  be  incompatible  ? 

'  To  what  they  fay,  That  this  Parliament  did 
1  then  declare  that  Rejpetf  Jheuld  be  had  to  the  Safety 
'  and  Prefervation  of  his  Perfon,  in  the  Preferva- 

*  tion  and  Defence  of  the  true  Religion  and  Libcr- 
'  ties  of  the  Kingdom  ;  and  that  they  would  join  to 

*  procure  his  AJ/ent  to  the  Propofitions,  &c.  And  In 

*  cafe  the  King  Jhould  not  affent,  yet  they  will  jlill 

*  maintain  the  Union  between  the  two  Kingdoms,  ac- 
'  cording  to  the  Covenant  and  Treaties ;    we  fay, 
'  that  meeting  with  thefe  Things  fo  often  repeated, 

*  they  force  us  again  to  aflc,  Who  broke  the  Union  ? 
'  Was  it  according  to  the  Treaty  and  Covenant 
'  to  invade  England  with  an  Army,  and  that  by 

*  the  Authority  of  the  Parliament  of  Scotland?  Or 

*  can  they  think  that  we  were  bound  and  they  at 

•  Liberty 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        33 

«  Liberty  to  keep  it,  or  require  it  to  be  kept,  as  far  inter-regiiufti» 
4  only  as  it  mould  ferve  the  Intereft  of  Scotland?          JM- 
*  And  for  joining  to  procure  the  King's  Ajfent  to    *>-  '— v"~  '••* 

*  Proportions ;  whereas  it  was  then  deiired  but  for      FebruaT« 

*  once  more,  hath  it  not  fmce  been  fulfilled  many 
4  Times  over  on  the  Part  of  the  Parliament  of  Eng- 
4  land?  Were  not  the  Propofitions,  agreed  to  by 

*  their  Commiflicners,  fent  fince  that  Time  unto 

*  the  King  at  Hampton- Court ,  and  again  refuied 
'  by  him  ?  And  was  there  not  afterwards  an  Addrefs 

*  made  to  him,  at  the  Ifle  of  Wight  ^  with  four  Bills, 
'  concerning  only  three  of  thofe  many  Things  con- 
4  tained  in  the  large  Propofitions,  with  an  efiential 
4  Precaution  in  order  to  Treaty,  viz.  That  the  Par- 

*  liamcnt  might  adjourn  itfelf  to  fuch  Place  as  they 

*  Jhould  find  moft  convenient  and  jafe,  and  art  Offer 

*  to  treat  with  him  for  the  reft  of  the  Things  con- 
4  tained  in  the  Prapofitions  ?  And  did  not,  as  we 
'  faid  before,  the  CommiiTioners  ofScotlandthen  and 
4  there  proteft  againft  thefe  Overtures  (Oh  that  ! ) 

*  in  Behalf  of  the  King,  and  for  his  Intereft,   a- 
«  gainft  the  Judgment,  not  only  of  the  Parlia- 

*  ment  of  England,   but   againft   what  was    the 
c  Judgment  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  alfo,  in 
'  their  former  Addrefies  with  us,  wherein  the  fame 
'  Things,  for  the  main,  were  infifted  on  with  many 

*  more  f  But  if  Scotland  had  never  join'd  to  infift 

*  on  any  of  thofe  four  Things,  yet,  unce  they  con- 

*  cerned  the  Security  of  this  Nation,  was  not  the 
4  Parliament  of  England  competent  to  demand  of 

*  him  Things  of  that  Nature,  without  the  Allow- 

*  ance  of  the  Scots  Commiflioners  ?  Have  we  at 

*  any  Time  interpofed  to  hinder  them  in  any  of 

*  their  Addrefies  for  Things  concerning  Scot/and? 
4  Have  we  not  left  it  wholly  to  themfelves,  to 

*  pitch  upon   what  Demands  they  thought    ne- 
4  ceflary  for  that  Kingdom,  and  been  ready  to  af- 

*  fift  and  join  with  them,  whenever  they  have  de- 

*  fired  us,  to  further  the  procuring  of  them  ? 

4  As  to  the  Matter  of  RefpecJ  to  be  had  to  the 

*  Safety  of  his  Perfon,  in  Defence  of  the  true  Reli- 

*  gion   and  Liberties  j   can  any  Man   underftand 

VOL.  XIX  C  '  thofe 


34      Tfo  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Xnter-regnum.  '  thofe  Words  not  to  intend  fome  Limitation  of 
1648.  <  that  Refpedl  ?  And,  underftanding  them  fo,  (to 

*— —v— ^**  *  fay  nothing  of  the  Inconfiftency  of  that  Refpect 
February.  t  wj^  ^  Security  of  true  Religion,  wherein  them- 
'  felves  fay,  in  their  fecond  Letter,  bis  latejl  and 
'  large  ft  ConceJJions  were  fo  unfatisfaffory)  we  an- 
'  fwer  ;  as  to  our  Liberties,  there  hath  fince  then 
'  been  a  fecond  War,  raifed  by  him  againft  this  Na- 
'  tion,  wherein  the  Power  of  Scotland  aflifted  ; 
'  which,  if  God  had  not  mightily  aflifted  us,  had 
'  for  ever  ruined  our  Liberties :  And  mould  there 

*  ftill  have  been  a  Refpeft  had  to  the  Prefervation 
'  of  his  Perfon,  who  was  reftlefs  and  endlefs  in  his 

*  Endeavours  and  Defigns  for  the  Deftru&ion  of 

*  the  Liberties  and  Happinefs  of  this  Nation  ? '  Put 
'  the  Cafe  he  had  gotten  into  the  Head  of  fome 

*  one  of  thofe  feveral  Armies,  by  his  Influence 

*  raifed  the  laft  Summer  to  difturb  our  Peace,  and 

*  deftroy  our  Liberties,  muft  we  have  given  them 
c  Leave  to  fhoot  Bullet,   and  return  them  only 
'  Powder,  left  we  fliould  perhaps  hurt  his  Perfon  f 

*  As  to  the  Declarations  of  the  Kingdom  of 

*  Scotland,  which  the  laft  Part  of  the  fourth  Para- 

*  graph  of  their  Letter  mentions ;  as  we  are  no 

*  Parties  thereto,  fo  we  have  no  more  to  fay  to  it, 
'  fave  that  we  muft  and  mall  ever  difavow  any  Au- 
c  thority  or  Colour  of  Right  in  them,  to  determine 

*  or  declare  the  Succeffion  of  the  King's  Pofterity 

*  to  the  Government  of  this  Nation ;  nor  do  we 

*  know  any  Authority  they  have  to  declare  or  de- 
'  termine  any  fuch  Thing  concerning  any  other 
4  Kingdom  than  their  own. 

*  In  the  laft  Paragraph  of  their  Letter  of  Janu- 

*  ary  6th,  we  have  the  Epitome  of  their  whole  large 
'  Letter,  and  a  Profeflion  of  their  Opinion  what 

*  is  their  Duty  to  endeavour.     To  that  Part  which 

*  concerns  Religion  ;  we  have  before  declar'd  our 

*  Opinion,  as  we  have  alfo  to  what  is  the  Power 
e  of  this  Nation  in  the  Fundamentals  of  Govern- 
e  ment :  And  if  Scotland  hath  not  the  fame  Power 
'  or  Liberty,  as  we  do  not  go  about  to  confine 
e  them  to  us,  fo  we  fhall  not  limit  ourfelves  to 

4  diem  ; 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        35 

e  them ;  but,  leaving  them  to  aft  in  relation  to  inter-regnumr 
'  theirs  as  they  fliall  fee  Caufe,  refolve  to  maintain        l648- 
'  our  own  Liberties,  as  God  mall  enable  us  :  And    *— ~v- «^ 

*  as  we  are  far  from  any  Thought  of  impofmg      Februai7» 
'  upon  them,  fo  we  fhall  not  willingly  fuffer  Im- 

*  pofitions  from  them,  while  God  gives  us  Strength 

*  or  Lives  to  oppofe :  And  therefore,  both  to  this 

*  Paragraph  of  their   firft,   and  to  their  whole 
'  fecond  Letter,  we  fhortly  make  this  Anfwer, 
c  That  after  a  long  and  ferious  Deliberation  of  our 
'  own  intrinfical  Power  and  Truft,  derived  to  us, 
'  by  the  Providence  of  God,  through  the  Delega- 
'  tion  of  the  People ;  and  upon  like  Confideration 

*  of  what  we  and  this  Nation  have  fuffered  from 

*  the  Mifgovernment  and  Tyranny  of  that  King^ 

*  both  in  Peace  and  by  the  Wars  j  and  confider- 

*  ing  how  fruitlefs,  and  how  full  of  Danger  and 

*  Prejudice,  the  many  AddrefTes  to  him  for  Peace 

*  have  been ;  and  being  confcious  how  much  we 

*  have  provok'd  and  tempted  God  by  the  Negleft 
'  of  impartial  Execution  of  Juftice,  in  relation  to 

*  the  innocent  Blood  fpilt  and  Mifchief  done  in 

*  the  late  Wars ;  we  have  proceeded  to  fuch  a 

*  Courfe  of  Juftice  againft  that  Man  of  Blood,  as- 
«  we  doubt  not,  the  juft  God,  who  is  no  Refpe&er 

*  of  Perfons,  doth  approve  and  will  follow  with  hift 
'  Bleffing  upon  this  Nation  j  and  though,  perhaps* 

*  we  may  meet  with  many  Difficulties  before  our 

*  Liberties  and  Peace  be  fettled,  yet  we  hope  we 
c  (hall  be  preferved  from  Confufion,  by  the  Good- 

*  will  of  him  that  dwelt  in  the  Bum,  which  burnC 

*  and  was  not  confumed  ;  and  the  Courfe  we  have 
«  taken  with  the  late  King,  and  mean  to  follow 

*  towards  others,   (the  Capital  Enemies  of  our 
'  Peace)  is,  we  hope,  that  which  will  be  for  the 

*  Good  and  Happinefs  of  both  Nations ;  which 
«  if  that  of  Scotland  fhould  think  fit  to  make  Ufa 

*  of,  and  vindicate  their  own  Liberty  and  Freedom, 

*  which  lies  before  them  if  they  give  it  not  away, 

*  we  fhall  be  ready  to  give  them  all  friendly  and 

*  neighbourly  Affiftance  in  the  eftablifhing  thereof  5 

*  and  defire  they  would  take  it  into  their  moft  ferioua 

C  3  «  Con- 


36      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

'  Confederation,  before  they  efpoufe  that  Quarrel, 
'  which  can  bring  them  no  other  Advantage,  than 
Februa  '  '  t'ie  entaning  uPcm  them  and  their  Poiterities  a 
'  lafting  War,  with  all  the  Ivliferies  that  attend  it, 
'  and  Slavery  unto  a  Tyrant  in  the  Iffue.' 

The  Commons       The  fame  Day  that  the  Commons  pafs'd  the 
order  two  Seals  foregoing  Declaration,  they  ordered  that  the  Coun- 
Jhe  Ufeof  the  cil  of  St*te  ft°ul.d  Prepare  two  Seals',  a  greater  and  a 
Council  of  Statejlefs,  for  their  Ufe;  each  of  them  to  have  engraved 
thereon  the  Arms  of  England  and  Ireland^  with  this 
Infcription,  The  Sfui  cf  the  Council  of  State,  ap- 
pointed by  the  P#rtt#fnfftt  °f  England.     Ordered^ 
alfo,  That  Whitehall  be  prepared  for  this  Council 
to  meet  in. 

The  Commons  continuing  tp  apply  themfelves, 
And  fettle  new  with  great  Aiftduity,  to  the  eoniiituting  of  their 
Forms  of  Wnts, new  £ommon wealth,  much  Time  was  employed 
in  fettling  the  Forms  of  Writs,  Oaths,  fefr.  Copies 
of  which  are  enter'd  in  the  "Journals.  The  main 
Alterations  were  the  fubftituting,  inftead  of  the 
Kirg'i  Name,  thefe  Words,  The  Keepers  of  the  Li- 
berty of  England  by  Authority  of  Parliament.  And 
indeed  the  Houfe  were  fq  taken  up  with  fettling 
their  new  Plan  of  Government,  that  very  little  Mat- 
ter of  any  other  Kind  now  occurs  in  their  Jour- 
nals. 

An  Engagement  A  Form  of  an  Engagement  having  been  drawn 
up' for  the  Members  ot  the  Council  of  State  to  fign 
before  they  acied  in  that  Connmiflioh,  whereby  they 
were  required  to  declare. '  That  they  approved  of 
'  what  the  Houfe  of  Commons  and  the  High 
*  Court  of  Juftice  had  dona  againft  the  King  j  alfo 
'  of  -their  abolifhing  of  Kingly  Government  and 
'  the  Houfe  of  Peers  ;  and  that  the  Legifiative  and 
'  Supreme  Power  was  wholly  in  the  Houfe  of  Com- 
'  mons,'  on  the  iQth  of  this  Month  Lieutenant- 
General  Crcmivell  reported  to  the  Houfe,  *  That 
leveral  Members  met  on  Saturday  Night  laft,  where 
thirteen  of  them  fubicribed  that  Engagement  j 
and,  upon  their  Sabfcription,  did  no  other  Aft  but 

order 


Of     E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        37 

order  the  reft  of  the  Members  to  be  fummoned  to  Interregnum, 
be  there  that  Morning  ;  where  others  alfo  fubicri- 
bed,  in  ail  to  the  Number  of  nineteen,  viz.  the 
Lord  Grey  ofGroby,  Sir  John  D' drivers,  Col.  Hen- 
ry Martin,  Mr.  HeVtninghAm,  Col.  LufUow,  Col. 
William  Perfoy,  Sir  IViUiam  Conftalle,  Mr.  Stape- 
/<?>•,  Mr.  Holland,M.t.  Robinfon,  Mr.  Scot*. Colonel 
Wanton^  Mr.  Lijle,  Mr.  Hutchhfon,  Mr.  'Jones, 
Alderman  Perimngton,  Sir  Henry  Mildtnay^  Mr. 
Wallop,  and  himfelf.  He  alfo  reported,  That  this 
Day  the  Lords  who  were  named  of  that  Council 
gave  in  the  following  Anfwers,  as  to  .their  fubfcri- 
bing  this  Engagement,  viz. 

The  Earl  of  Denbigh  faid,  <  He  took  it  as  a 
great  Honour  to  be  named  by  the  Houfe  of  Com- 
mons for  this  Service  :  That  he  hath  formerly  had 
the  Honour  to  be  employed,  by  the  late  King  to  the 
State  of  Venice  and  other  States,  and  ferv'd  therein 
faithfully :  That  he  was  fince  employed,  by  both 
Houfcs,  in  Arms,  and. was  alfo  faithful  in  that : 
That  now  there  is  no  other  Power  in  England  but 
that  of  the  Houfe  of  Commons,  in  whom  the  Li- 
berty and  Freedom  of  the  People  is  fo'^fnvolv'd,  he 
is  refolved  to  live  and  die  with  them  ;  and  doth  ac- 
"  knowledge  them  the  Supreme  Power  of  this  Nation; 
and  that  what  Government  they  fhall  fet  up  and 
appoint  he  will  faithfully  ferve,  to  the  befi:  of  his 
Power,  with  his  Life  and  Fortune  :  But  that,  in 
this  Engagement,  there  are  fome  Particulars  that 
look  backward,  which  he  conceives  he  cannot, 
with  Honour,  fubfcribe ;  as  being  contrary  to  what 
he  then  a£ted  as  a  Peer  in  the  Houfe  of  Lords, 
then  acknowledged  a  third  Eftate  of  this  Kingdom, 
and  to  which  he  was  fubordinate  as  a  Member  of 
that  Houfe,  by  a  particular  Relation  of  Duty  and 
Obedience  :  But  faith,  as  before,  that  he  will  for 
the  future  ferve  them  with  the  beft  of  his  Power.' 
The  fame  Anfwers,  as  to  the  general  Matter,  were 
given  by  the  Earls  of  Pembroke^  Salijbury^  and  Mul- 
grave,  as  alfo  by  the  Lord- General  Fairfax ;  only 
the  Lord  Grey  of  Warke  faid,  *  That  he  was  al- 
ways willing  tp  do  Service  in  any  Thing  which  he 
C  3  was 


38     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

was  commanded  by  both  Houfes  ;  but  this  coming 
onjy  from  one  Houfe,  he  defired  to  be  excufed.' 
~Z~?r~*^  Lieutenant-  General  Cromwell  having  alfo  report- 
ed the  Names  of  fome  other  Perfons,  nominated 
to  be  of  the  Council  of  State,  as  were  not  fatisfied  to 
fubfcribe  the  faid Engagement11,  after  orderingCan- 
dies  to  be  brought  into  the  Houfe,  it  was  refolved, 
That  no  Member  do  go  forth  without  Leave. 
And  then  the  Queftion  being  propounded,  That  it 
be  referred  to  all  the  Perfons  nominated  to  be  of 
the  Council  of  State,  except  the  Lord  Grey  of 
Warke,  to  confer  among  themfelves  upon  the  Mat- 
ter had  in  Debate  in  the  Houfe  this  Day,  touch- 
ing the  Engagement,  and  to  report  their  Opinions 
what  they  conceive  fit  to  be  further  done  therein, 
it  patted  in  the  Affirmative  by  45  againft  22.  Ac- 
cordingly three  Days  after  General  Cromwell  re- 
ported the  following  Form,  agreed  on  by  way  of 
Expedient,  which  was  approved  by  the  Houfe c. 

7heFormthercf  I"  A,  B,  being  nominated  a  Member  of  the  Council 
•f.  J-  of  State  by  this  prefent  Parliament,  do  tejlify 

that  I  da  adhere  to  this  prefent  Parliament,  In  the 
Maintenance  and  Defence  of  the  Public  Liberty  and 
Freedom  of  this  Nation,  as  it  is  now  declared  by  this 
Parliament,  (by  whofe  Authority  I  am  conjiituted  a 
Member  of  the  faid  Council)  and  in  the  Mainte- 
nance and  Defence  of  their  Resolutions  concerning  the 
fettling  of  the  (government  of  this  Nation  for  the 

future 

b  The  Lord  Fairfax  (who,  with  Col.Rt'cb,  on  the  xyth  of  thif 
Month,  had  been  declared  duly  elected  Members  for  Cirencejler,  after 
the  Return  had  lain  above  two  Years  dormant^  defired  to  be  excufed 
fubfcribing  his  Approbation  of  what  was  part  :  But  he  and  the  reft 
of  the  Refufers  affirm' d,  That  for  the  future,  if  the  Parliament 
thought  them  worthy  to  be  employed,  they  would  join  with  them. 
Mr.  Wbitlocke  fcrupled  that  Part  of  approving  the  Proceedings 
of  the  High  Court  of  Juftice,  becaufe  he  was  not  privy  to  them, 
nor  did  know  what  they  were  in  particular,  nor  ever  did  hear  any 
Report  of  therp  made  to  the  Houfe  j  and,  not  knowing  what  they 
were,  he  could  not  fign  that  Paper  to  approve  of  them.  The  like 
was  faid  by  divers  others.  Memorials,  p.  377. 

c  The  Refolution  of  the  Houfe,  of  February  22,  concerning  thi* 
Engagement,  is  erafed  in  the  Commons  Journals  by  an  Order  ot 
March  1 3,  1659.  The  Copy  of  it  here  given  is  fupplied  from  Wai". 
ktr1*  Hijitry  of  Independency,  p,  130. 


.Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       39 

future,  in  way  of  a  Republic,  without  King  or  Houfe  Inter-regnum* 
of  Peers ;  and  I  do  promife  in  the  Sight  of  God,  thatt        l64-8> 
through  his  Grace,  I  will  be  faithful  in  the  Perform-    ^T^^ 
ance  of  the  Trujl  committed  to  me  as  aforefaid,  and 
therein  faithfully  purfue  the  Inftruftions  given  to  the 
faid  Council  by  this  prefent  Parliament ;  and  not  re- 
veal or  difclofe  any  Thing,  in  Whole  or  in  Part,  di- 
recJly  or  indirectly,  that  jhall  be  debated  or  refolved 
upon  in  the  Council,  without  the  Command  or  Direc- 
tion of  the  Parliament,  or  without  the  Order  or  Al- 
lowance of  ihe  major  Part  of  the  Council,  or  of  the 
major  Part  of  them  that  Jhall  be  prefent  at  fucb 
Debates  or  Refolutions.     In  Confirmation  of  the  Pre- 
mifes  1  have  hereto  fubfcribed  my  Name. 

Feb.  20.  The  next  material  Bufinefs  reported  to 
the  Houfe  from  this  Council,  was,  That  it  W'JJ 
their  Opinion  the  Ordinance  for  conftituting  thef,om  the  office 
Earl  of  Warwick  Lord- High- Admiral  of  England,  of  Lord  High. 
fhould  be  repealed.  The  Houfe  agreed  to  this,  and  Admiral» 
ordered  an  A6r.  to  be  brought  in  for  that  Purpofe ; 
and  that  the  Council  of  State  fliould  have  and  exe- 
cute all  fuch  Power  and  Authority,  as  any  Lord- 
Admiral  or  Commiffioners  of  the  Admiralty  have 
had,  or  ought  to  have  had,  and  exercifed.  Pro- 
vided, That  the  faid  Council  fliould  take  Care  that, 
by  the  repealing  of  the  Power  of  the  Lord- Admi- 
ral, no  Prejudice  might  come  to  the  Common- 
wealth. Several  more  Ads  were  ordered  in  for  the 
Encouragement  of  Officers,  Mariners,  and  im- 
prefs'd  Seamen,  and  other  Regulations  in  the  Na- 
vy, in  this  and  the  next  Day's  Proceedings.  And 
foon  after  Col.  Edward  Popham,  Col.  Richard 
Dean,  and  Col.  Robert  Blake,  were  appointed  by 
the  Parliament  to  command  the  Fleet,  with  an 
Appointment  of  9  /.  per  Diem,  to  be  equally  divi- 
ded amongft  them. 

The  Prince  Elector  Palatine  having  taken  Leave  The  PrinwElee. 
of  the  Parliament,  they  ordered  the  Arrears  of  histor  an<!  D"**- 
Allowance  of  8ooo/.  per  Annum  (being  6500/0  to£SE£  ~~ 
be  forthwith  paid  him.  On  the  20th  his  Highnefs  turn  home. 

went 


40      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.  went  by  Water  to  Grave  fend,  and  embark'd  for  Ho/- 
l648-  land  on  his  Return  home,  under  Convoy  of  a  Man 

Cr7v~"~"'  of  War  appointed  by  the  Houfe  for  that  Purpofe; 
as  did  alib  the  Lord  Paw,  Amb-'iTador  Extraordina- 
ry from  the  States  Genera!,  on  the  23d. 

Several  Days  now  pafs'd  without  any  remarkable 
Article  entered  in  the  Journals  ;  except  that  the 
Houfe,  in  order  to  a  little  Relaxation  from  Attend- 
ance on  the  public  Bufmefs  of  the  Nation,  agreed 
to  fit  only  on  Mondays,  ffadnefdays,  and  Fridays  in 
every  Week,  but  Committees  every  Day. 

It  has  been  already  obferved,  that  the  Parliament 
of  Scotland  had  proclaimed  Prince  Charles  for  their 
King,  and  fent  a  Deputation  to  inform  him  of  it; 
and  that  the  Houfe  had  imcc  publifliod  their  Anfwer 
to  the  Scots  Commiffioners  Letters  prefented  in  'Ja- 
nuary laft.  On  the  24th  of  this  Month  thofeCom- 
iniflioners  fent  another  Paper,  fubfcribed  by  them 
all,  and  direded  to  the  Speaker;  which  is  not  gi- 
ven us  in  the  Journals,  nor  do  we  find  a  Copy  of 
it  in  any  Contemporary  Writer  :  Mr.  JVbitlocke^ 
indeed,  tells  us,  *  That  the  Speaker  acquainted  the 
Houfe  this  Day  with  a  Letter  the  Scots  Commif- 
fioners fent-  him,  at  their  going  away,  which  was 
without  taking  Leave.'  And  adds,  '  It  was  full  of 
Bitternefs  ag.inft  the  Parliament  and  their  late 
Proceedings  againft  the  King,  the  Houfe  of  Lords, 
and  the  fecluded  Members  :  But  gives  no  Particu- 
lars thereof.  This  ETeficiency  is  luckily  fupplicd 
by  a  printed  Copy  of  the  original  Letter  at  large, 
lately  fallen  into  our  Hands,  in  ban:  Verba  d. 


February  24, 

A  Remonftrancec  -r  jj  t^c  Year  1642,  and  afterwards  in  the  Year 
§±£1*°'  1  1643,  when  the  Popilh,  Prelatical,  and  Ma- 
fioners  in  Lon-  *  lignant  Party  did  grow  prevalent  in  this  Kingdom, 
don,  to  the  Par-  <  the  Honourable  Houfes  of  Parliament  did  com- 
IhTTate3  Pro-  '  municate  feveral  Declarations  and  Papers  to  the 
seeding*  j  ~  '  Kingdom  of  Scotland  e,  thereby  to  inform  their 


^  Printed  for  Mattbcw  S:mtncns,  in  Aldet  -fgate-Jireet. 
e  D^cJaration  aad  Account  to  all  the  World,  slugujl,  1642, 


Of    ENGLAND.       41 

4  Judgments  of  the  State  of  the  Differences  here,  inter-regnum. 
'  and  to  gain  their  Affiftance,  and  invite  their  Forces        l648- 
'  to  come  into  this  Kingdom  ;  in  which  Declara-  *— "~~^~~  ~~* 

*  tions  and  other  Papers  they  affirm  and  declare,  e  tudrj" 

'  That  the  Army  of  the  Houfes  of  Parliament 

*  was  raifed  for  Maintenance  of  the  true  Religion, 
'  the  King's  Pet-fa:,  Honour ,  and  Efiate,  Privileges 

*  of  Parliament,  Rights  and  Liberties  of  Subjects, 

*  and  for  tic  Prevention  of  the  Alteration  of  Re- 
'  ligion  :  That  their  Enemies  Dcfign  was  to  corrupt 
'  and  alter  Religion  throughout  the  whole  Jjland\ 
'  that  they  begun  zwY/;  Scotland, /£«<?«;;«?' "well  that  the 

*  fame  Fate  attended  both  Kingdoms :  Thai  they  have 
'  only  inverted  the  Manner  of  their  Proceedings,  con- 
'  ceiving  it  an  eafier  IVay  to  dejlroy  them,  if  they  may 

*  firft  prevail  over  the  Parliament  and  Kingdom  of 
*•  England  :   That  ivhcnfocvcr  Religion  is-  jubvertcd 
(  or  changed  in  one  Kingdom,  it  will  be  eajjily  accom- 
'  plijhed  in  the  other  ;  Religion  being  the  Band  and 
'  Foundation  of  the  Happinefs  of  both  :  That  ivhat 
'  Corruptions  take  Roct  in  England,  will  quickly 

*  fpread  their  Venom  and  Infection  to  their  3\Tcigb- 
'  b our  Church  of  Scotland.  b 

4  They  declare  jfce  true  State  of  the  Quarrel  to 
'  be  Religion  ;  in  Reformation  whereof  they  are 
'  fo  forward  and  zealous,  as  there  is  nothing  ex- 

*  prefTed  in  Scotland's  former  or  later  Declarations, 
'  which  they  have  not  feriouily  endeavoured  to  ef- 

«fca. 

'  They  earneftly  intreat  the  General  AfTembly 

*  to  further  and  expedite  the  Afliflance  defircd  by 
'  both  Houfes  from  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  up- 
6  on  this  Ground  and  Motive,  That  thereby  they 
'  faatt  do.  great  Service  to  God,  and  great  Honour 
'  may  redound  to  thenif elves  in  becoming  the  Injlru- 
'  ments  of  a  glorious  Reformation,  not  only  through - 
'  out  this  IJIand,  but  from  thence  pojjibly  to  be  fprer.d 
'  to  other  Churches,  opprefod  under  the  Antichriftian 
'  Bondage  and  Tyranny  of  the  Pcpift)  and  Prelatical 

*  Faftion. c 

*  They 

b  Englljh  Commiflioners,  Augufl,  1643. 

«  Declaration,  Sept.  1643,  in  Anfvver  to  the  Scots  Declaration. 


42       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

«  They  commend  the  Prudence  and  Faithfulnefs 
'  of  the  General  Aflembly  of  the  Church  of  Scot- 

1  land)  in  propounding  thofe  Things  which  may  con- 
February.       <  ^^   ^   ^   ^^  ^gj-g    Q^  ^m  jjnjon   Oj-  tfoe  twff 

*  Churches  and  Nations  of  England  and  Scotland  ; 
'  in  preferring  and  maintaining  the  Truth  and  Pu~ 

*  rity  of  the  Reformed  Religion,  not  only  againjl 

*  Popery,  but  all  Superjiitions,  Seels,  and  Innova- 
'  tions  whatfoever  ;  and  declare,  That  the  Houfes 

*  of  Parliament  have  ever  made  the  Reformation  of 

*  Church  Government  and  Difcipline  their  chiefeji 

*  Aim,  though  they  have  been  frequently  interrupted, 

*  and  powerfully  oppos'dtin  theProfecution  andAccom- 

*  plijhment  of  it ;  and  however  they  continue  Jlill  in 

*  their  Storm  andConjUtt^yet  they  take  the  Peace,  Li- 

*  berty^  and  Prefervation  which  God  hath  afforded 

*  Scotland,  as  a  Pledge  of  the  like  Mercy  intended 

*  to  them,  in  his  good  Time  ;  hoping  that  God  will 
'  pfrfett  their  Dejigns  and  Endeavours  of  a  full 
4  Reformation  in  all  Things  pertaining  to  Religion  ; 

*  They  profefs  their  earneft  Defires/cr  Unity  of  Re- 

*  ligion,  in  all  fubjiantial  Parts  of  Do£iriney  Wor- 

*  Jhip)  and  Difcipline,  that  both  Kingdoms  might  be 

*  more  Jtrittly  unitedt  and  enjsy  the  Advantages  of 

*  his  Majejiy's  mtre  eafy,  fafe,  and  comfortable  Go- 

*  vernment ;  the  People  a  more  free  Communion  in 
'  all  holy  Exercifes  and  Duties  ofWor/hip  ;  and  that 

*  there  might  be  a  more  conftant  Security  of  Religion, 

*  again/}  the  bloody  Practices  ofPapijls,  and  deceitful 
'  Errors  of  Sectaries.     They  remonftrate, d  That 

*  it  is  far  from  their  Ptirpofe  or  Dejire  to  let  loofe 

*  the  golden  Reins  of  Difcipline^  and  Government  of 
'  the  Church  ;  to  leave  private  Perfons,  or  particu- 

*  lar  Congregations ,  to  take  up  what  Form  of  Divine 

*  Service  they  pleafe ;  but  do  hold  it  requiftte  that 

*  there  Jhould  be,  throughout  the  whole  Realm,  a 

*  Conformity  to  that  Order  which  the  Laws  enjoin, 

*  according  to  the  Word  of  God.     They  proteft,  in 

*  the  Prefence  of  the  All- feeing  Deity,6  That  the 
'  Services  which  they  have  been  deferous  to  perform 

ti 
*  Remonilrance  in  Dumber,  1641.       «  May,  164;. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      43 

*  to  their  Sovereign  Lord  and  King,  and  to  his  Church  Inter-regnnns- 
«  and  State,  in  providing  for  the  Public  Peace,  Pro- 

*  fperity  of  his  Majejly  and  all  his  Realms,  to  have 
c  been,  and  Jl ill  to  be,  the  only  End  of  all  their 

*  Counfels  and  Endeavours  ;  wherein  they  have  re~ 
tfolved  to  continue  freed  and  enlarged  from  all  pri- 

*  vote  Aims,  perfonal  Refpefts,  or  Pajftons  whatfo- 
'  ever.     They  oft  mention  the  Proteftation  taken 

*  by  every  Member  of  both  Houfes,  promifmg,  in 

*  the  Prefence  of  Almighty  God,  to  defend  his  Ma- 
'  Jefy  '  an^  difclaim  the  having  any  Purpofe  to  offer 
'  the  leajl  Violence  to  his  P erf  on,  which  bath  and 
'  ever  jhall  be  dear  unto  them.     They  declare  f, 

*  That  they  expeft  the  Help  and  AJJiftance  of  Scot- 

*  land,  in  Defence  of  the  Caufe  ;  which,  if  the  Po- 
'  pijh  Party  prevail,  muji  needs  either  involve  them 
'  in  that  Alteration  ofRelig\on,  which  will  be  made 

*  heret  or  engage  them  in  a  War  againft  this  $ing* 
c  domt  to  defend  their  own  Religion  and  Liberty  $ 

*  and  they  profefs,  before  the  ever-living  God  g,  the 

*  Safety  of  Religion*  Laws,  and  Liberties,  in  this 

*  and  all  other  his  Majejly  s  Dominions^  to  he  the 
6  chief  End  of  all  their  Counfels  and  Refolutions  with" 
'  out  any  Intention  or  Dejire  to  hurt  or  injure  his 

*  Majejly ',  either  in  his  Perfon*  or  in  his  juft  Power: 

*  That  they  reft  aj/ured,  both  God  and  Man  will  ab- 

*  hor  and  abominate  that  monftrous  and  injurious 
c  Charge,  laid  upon  the  Reprefentative  Body  of  this 

*  Kingdom,  of  deftgning  the  Ruin,  not  only  of  his 

*  Majejlfs  P  erf  on,   but  of  Monarchy  itfelf;  and 
'  appeal  to  all  the  World,  whether  worfe  Words 
'  than  thefe  can  be  given  them. 

'  Thefe  Declarations  and  folemn  Engagements 

*  were  communicated  to  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland^ 

*  before  they  did  join  in  the  War  with  the  Houfes 

*  of  Parliament ;  and  alfo  both  Kingdoms  entered 

*  into  a  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  for  Refor- 
'  motion  and  Defence  of  Religion ;  forUniformity  tit 

*  one  ConfeJJion  of  Faith ^  Form  of  Church  Govern- 

*  ment9 

f  Declaration,  OElcber,  1642,  in  Anfwer  to  the  King's,  concern- 
ing Keinton  Battle. 

£  Declaration  and  Froteftatioo  to  all  the  World  ia  1642, 


44       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  *  went,  DircRory  for  Wcrjhip  and  Catechiftrtg  ;  for 
1648.  *  Extirpation  of  Pcpcry,SupcrJiition,Herefy,  Schifm, 

^~~v~— '  '  Profanenefs,  find  ivhatjoever  Jkull  be  found  con- 
'  trary  10  jound  Dofirine  and  the  Power  of  God- 
'  li fiefs  5  for  Prefervation  of  the  Rights  and  Privi- 
6  leges  of  Parliament,  and  Liberties  of  the  Subjctt  ; 

*  for  the  Honour  and  Happinefs  of  the  King  and  bis 
'  Pojlerity,  and  the  Peace  and  Safety  of  thefe  King- 

*  doms. 

« In  the  Year  1646,  after  the  Power  and  Strength 

*  of  the  Enemy  was  broken,  the  Houfe  of  Com- 

*  rnons  did,  upon  the  I  jth  of  April,  publifh  a  De- 

*  duration,  which  the}'  likewife  caufed  to  be  fet  up 
'  and  affixed  in  every  Pat  lib-Church,  wherein  they 
'  vindicated  themfelves  from  fcveral  Mifconfrruc- 

*  tions  and  Mifreprefentations  of  theirProceedings; 
'  As  that  they  Jhould  have  any  Intention  or  Dejir:  to 
c  make  Uje  of  t he  great  Succejs  Gcd  had  given  them, 

*  contrary  to  their  fortner  Profeffions ;  cr  to  exceed 
'  or  fwerve  from  their  fir  ft  Aims  and  Principles t  in 
'  the-  undertaking  this  I  Far  ;  and  to  recede  from  the 
e  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  and  Treaties  betwixt 

*  the  Kingdo?ns ;  or  to  prolong  thefe  uncomfortable 

*  Troubles  and  bleeding  Dijiraftions,  in  order  to  al- 

*  ter  the  Fundamental  Conftitution  and  Frame  cf  this 
'  Kingdom^    and  to    leave  all  Government  in   the 
'  Church  loofe  and  unjettled ;    or  themfelves  to  exer- 
e  cife  the  fame  arbitrary  Power  over  the  Perfons  and 
<  Eftates  of  the  Sub/efts,   which  the  prefect  Parlia- 
4  ment  bad  thought  fit  to  abolij}),  by  taking  aivay  the 

*  Star-Chamber,  High-Commillion,  and  other  ar- 
'  bitrary  Courts^  and  the  exorbitant  Poiver  of  the 

*  Council-Table.     And  further  they  declare,  That 

*  their  true  and  real  Intentions  are^  and  thetr  En- 

*  deavours  Jhall  be^  to  fettle  Religion  in  the  Purify 
'  thereof,  according  to  the  Covenant ;   and  to  main- 
4  tain  the  antient  and  Fundamental  Conjiitution  and 

*  Government  of  this  Kingdom^  by  King,  Lords,  and 
'  Commons. 

'  In  November  1647,  wr!en  a  Petition  was  pr'e- 

*  fentcd  to  the  Houfe  of  Commons,  ftyling  them 
6  the  Supreme  Authority  of  tie  Nation,  together 

*  with 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       45 

1  with  a  printed  Paper  annex'd,  intitled  An  Agree-  Inter-regnum. 
4  ment  of  the  People^  for  a  firm  and  prefent  Peace,        l648- 
'upon   Grounds  of  common  Ri?bt,   (which  A<rree-    VT"!V""^'1' 

r>        r  i      r  i       i       •          February. 

4  ment.,  as  we  have  found  upon  rerufal  of  both,  is 
4  the  fame  for  Subftance  with  the  Agreement  lately 
4  publiflied)  the  Houfe  of  Commons  did  declare, 
4  That  the  Matters  contained  in  thoje  Papers  were 
4  deftrucli-ve  to  the  Being  of  Parliaments ,  and  to  the 
4  Funda?nental  Government  of  the  Kingdom;  and  ap- 
4  pointed  a  Letter  to  be  written  to  the  General,  to 

*  examine  the  Proceeding  of  that  Buimefs  in  the 
4  Army,  and  to  return  an  Account  thereof  to  the 
4  Houfe  :  And  when  another  Petition,  dire&ed  To 
4  the  Supreme  Authority  of  England,  the  Commons 
4  in  Parliament  ajjembled,  was  presented  the  23d 
4  of  the  fame  Month,   they  voted  that  Petition 
4  a  /editions  and  contemptuous  Avowing  and  Profe- 
4  cution  of  the  former  Petition  and  Paper  annex' dy 
'Jlylcd  An  Agreement  of  the  People,  formerly  ad- 
4  judged  to  be  deJJrufiive  to  the  Being  of  Parliaments 
4  and  Fundamental  Government ;  and  another  Let- 
4  ter  was  appointed  to  be  lent  to  the  General,  to 
4  take  Notice  of  his  Proceedings,  in  the  Execution 
4  of  a  mutinous  Perfon  (who  was  an  Abetter  of 
4  that  Agreement)  at  the  Rendezvous  near  Ware  ; 
4  and  to  give  him  Thanks  for  it,  and  defire  him 
4  to  profecute  the  Examination  of  that  Bufmefs  to 
4  the  Bottom,  and  to  bring  fuch  guilty  Perfons  as 
4  he  fliall  think  fit  to  condign  and  exemplary  Pu- 
4  nifhment. 

'  All  which  Declarations,  Proteftations,  Oaths, 
4  Covenants,  and  folemn  Engagements  notwith- 
4  ftanding,  we  find,  to  our  great  Grief,  Wonder, 
4  and  Aftoniihment,  that,  contrary  to  the  Diflent 
4  and  Proteftation  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  his 

*  Majefty  is  removed  out  of  this  Life,  by  a  vio- 
4  lent  Death  :  That  Orders  are  publiflied  in  Print, 
4  intitled,  Acis  of  Parliament,  prohibiting  the  pro- 
4  claiming  of  the  Prince  of  Wales  as  Kingofthefe 

*  Kingdoms :  That  the  Commons,  which  now  fit 

*  at  Weftminfter  (after  many  Members  of  that 

*  Houle  have  been  imprifoned,  fecluded  by  Force, 

4  or 


46       lie  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  or  neceflitated  to  withdraw,  becaufe  they  cannot 

<  aft  as  in  a  free  Parliament)  have  voted  away  the 
'  Kingly  Office  and  the  Houie  of  Lords,  and  claim 

ruary*  '  the  Authority  of  a  Parliament;  and,  under  Co- 
'  lour  thereof,  the  Power  of  repealing  all  Oaths  of 
'  Allegiance  and  Obedience  whatfoever  ;  even 

*  without  Exception  of  the  Solemn  League  and 
8  Covenant,  from  which  the  Confcience  cannot  be 
'  abfolved  by  all  the  Powers  on  Earth. 

4  We  fee  likewife  ftrong  Endeavours  ufed,  and 

*  Refolutions  taken,  to  maintain  a  licentious  Li- 

*  berty  and  ungodly  Toleration,  in  Matters  of  Re- 
c  ligion,  as  appears  by  a  Paper  lately  publifhed, 

*  commonly  call'd  An  Agreement  of  the  People  ; 
'  againft  which,  upon  the  26th  of  'January  laft, 

*  we  did  prefent  a  Teftimony  of  the  Commiflioners 
«  of  the  General  Aflembly  of  the  Church  of  Scot- 

*  land)  approved  of  by  the  Eftates  of  the  Parliament 

*  of  that  Kingdom. 

'  If  the  Honourable  Houfes  of  the  Parliament  of 

*  England^  who  made  the  Declarations  and  En- 

*  gagements  aforefaid,  had  been  permitted  to  fit 

*  and  acl  with  Freedom,  we  know  there  would 
c  have  been  no  fuch  Proceedings  as  we  have  alrea- 

*  dy  feen,  nor  Caufe  to  fear  fuch  dangerous  Evils 

*  and  ftrange  Alterations  as  are  now  carried  on  by 

*  Will  and  rower.    We  may  confidently  fay,  they 

*  would  have  been  more  mindful  of  their  many  De» 
'  clarations  and  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant, 

*  and  more  ready  to  hearken  to  the  Advice  of  their 
'  Brethren  of  Scotland.     And  however  no  Regard 
«  hath  been  had,  by  thofe  who  rule,  to  what  we 

*  have  formerly  faid,  and  fo  we  have  fmall  Hopes 
'  that  any  great  Notice  {hall  be  taken  of  what  we 
«  fliall  further  fay;  yet,  in  purfuance  of  the  Inftruc- 

*  tions  we  have  received  from  the  Parliament  of 
'  Scotland^  we  hold  it  our  Duty  to  defire,   that 

*  there  may  be  no  Toleration  of  Idolatry,  Popery, 
«  Prelacy,  Herefy,  Schifm,  or  Profanenefs  :  That 

*  there  be  no  Change  of  the  Fundamental  Confti- 

<  tution  and  Government  of  this  Kingdom,  by 

*  King, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       47 

c  King,  Lords,  and  Commons :  That  there  may  be  Inter-regnum. 

*  nothing  done  which  may  wrong  King  Charles  the  ^J^4^ 

*  Second  in  his  Succeffion,  as  righteous  Heir  of  the  p^ruT*^ 

*  Crown  of  thefe  Kingdoms ;  but  that,  by  the  free 

'  Councils  of  both  Houfes  of  Parliament,  Refor-  . 
'  mation  of,  and  Uniformity  in,  Religion  may  be 
'  fettled  according  to  the  Covenant ;  and  particu- 
'  larly  that  Preibyterian  Government,  the  Confef- 
'  fion  of  Faith,  Directory  for  Worftlip,  and  Ca- 
c  techifm,  may  be  eftablifhed:  That  the  juft  Right 
'  and  Title  of  King  Charles  the  Second  to  the 

*  Crown  of  thefe  Kingdoms  may  be  acknowledg'd; 

*  and,  upon  juft  Satisfaction  given  to  both  King- 

*  doms,  he  may  be  received  and  admitted  to  the 
4  Exercife  of  his  Government  j  and  if,  notwith- 
«  ftanding  all  our  earneft  Defires  and  Endeavours 
'  to  the  contrary,  the  Commons  now  fitting  at 

*  Wejimmjler  (hall  proceed  otherwife  in  all  or  in 

*  any  of  the  Particulars  aforefaid,  we  do  hereby, 
'  in  the  Name  of  the  Parliament  and  Kingdom  of 
'  Scotland,  diflent  from  the  fame ;  and  folemnly 
'  proteft,  That  they  may  be  free,  before  God  and 
'  Man,  of  the  Guiltinefs,  Evils,  Confufions,  Mi- 
'  feries,  and  Calamities  that  may  follow  thereupon 
'  to  thefe  diftracled  Kingdoms. 

LOTHIAN. 
JOHN  CHIESLEY. 
WILL.  GLENDINNING, 

How  highly  the  Commons  were  affronted  at  this 
Remonftrance  fufficiently  appears  from  the  follow- 
ing Declaration,  pafs'd  on  the  26th  of  this  Month, 
which  they  ordered  to  be  forthwith  printed  and 
publifhed. 

'  '"•AH  E  Parliament  having  received  a  Paper,  Which theHbufc 

*  dated  February  24,   164!,  fubfcribed  byrefolve  to  be 
«  the  Earl  of  Lothian,  Sir  John  Chiejley,  and  Mr. 

*  Glendinningy  in  the  Name  of  the  Kingdom  of 

*  Scotland,  and  taking  the  fame  inco  their  ferious 
'  Confideratign : 

•They 


48       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

<  They  do  declare,-  That  the  faid  Paper  doth 
4  contain  much  fcandalous  and  reproachful  Matter 

*  againlt  the juft  Proceedings  of  this  Parliament ; 

*  and  an  AfTuming,  on  the  Behalf  of  that  Kingdom, 
•  '  to  have  a  Power  over  the  Laws  and  Government 

*  of  this  Nation,  to  the  high  Dishonour  thereof; 
'  and  laftly,  a  Defign  in  the  Contrivers  and  Sub- 
'  fcribers  of  it,  to  raife  Sedition  and  lay  the  Grounds 
'  of  a  new  and  bloody  War  in  this  Land  ;  that, 

*  under  the  fpecious  Pretences  in  that  Paper  con- 
'  taincd,  they  may  gain  Advantages  to  fecond  their 

*  late  perfidious  Invafion.     And 

e  It  is  further  declared,  That  all  Perfons  what- 
'  foevcr,  refiding  in  England  or  Ireland,  or  the  Do- 
'  minions  thereof,  that  fhall  join  with,  or  adhere 

*  unto,  or  voluntarily  aid  or  aflift,  the  faid  Con- 
'  trivers  and  Subfcribere,  or  any  whofocver  of  the 
'  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  in  purfuance  of  the  Grounds 
'  by  them  laid  in  the  faid  Paper,  for  raifnig  Sedi- 
'  tion  and  a  new  and  bloody  \Var  in  this  Land,  are 
'  Rebels   and  Traitors  to  the  Commonwealth  of 

*  England ;  and  fhall  be  proceeded  againft  as  Trai- 
'  tors  and  Rebels.' 

HENRY  SCOBELL,  Cler.  Par. 

Befides  printing  and  publifhins;  this   refentful 
And  thereupon  Declaration,  the  Houfe  ordered,  That  the  Lord 

order  the  Scots      _      ..          c-      «-*•   r      /or  •   n  \\m        m       >• 

Commiflioners    Lothian,  oir  joffH  Lhiejley,  and  Mr.  (jlenainning^ 
to  be  put  under  Commiflioners  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  fhould 
anAneft,  &c.    j,ave  a  Quarj  fet  UpOn  the;r  Lodging,  to  fecure 
them  from  Violence.;   and  alfo  to  retrain  them 
from  Communication  with  any  by  whom  the  Sedi- 
tion, contained  in  their  Paper,  dated  the  24th  In- 
jftant,  might  be  promulged  :    And  that  none  be 
fuffered  to  have  Accefs  to  them,  or  to  pafs  out  from 
them,  but  for  their  Supply  with  NeceiTaries  during 
their  Abode  here. 

It  was  alfo  ordered,  That  a  Meflagc,  with  a 
Duplicate  of  the  foregoing  Remonftrance,  be  forth- 
with fent  to  the  Parliament  and  Kingdom  of  Scot- 
land* To  know  whether  they  do  or  will  own  and 

juftif/ 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      49 

jtiftify  what  hath  been  prefented  to  this  Parliament  Inter-regnum; 
in  their  Names  j  the  Care  whereof  was  particularly        l648- 
referred  to  the  Council  of  State.  V""TV""*"^ 

r  ebruary. 

The  fame  Day,  Feb>  26,  the  following  Petition 
was  prefented  to  the  Houfe,  and  read, 

To  the  Supreme  intruded  Authority  of  this  Nation) 
the  Commons  ajjembled  in  Parliament  y 

The  HUMBLE  PETITIO^  of  divers  ofthewell- 
affeSied  Officers  and  Soldiers  of  the  Army^  under 
the  Command  of  his  Excellency  Thomas  Lord 
Fairfax. 

c  T  T  T  E  having  ferioufly  weighed  and  confider- A  Petition  from 

*  V  V     ed  tne  late  Votes  of  this  Houfe,  in  which  feve™l  Officers 

1  the  People  are  declared  to  be  the  Supreme  Power,  "n^f6^  for 
'  and  from  whom  all  juft Authority  is  derived :  TheLavrs  irfto  Eng- 
'  Confideration  of  this  hath  emboldened  us  to  make  li/h>  aboli/hing 
'  known  and  difcover  our  own  and  the  Kingdom's Tythcs>&c* 
"  Grievances,  which  cry  aloud  forjuftice  to  be  fpee- 

*  dily  and  impartially  executed  ;  without  which  we 
4  cannot  chufe  but  look  upon  ourfelves  as  a  dying 
'  and  ruinated  People  :  All  which  we  apprehend  is 
'  coming  upon  us  like  a  Deluge,  unlefs  Grod  be 
'  pleafed  to  appear  for  us,  in  railing  up  of  your 

*  Honours  to  (land  for  us  in  the  anfwering  of  thefe 

*  our  juft  Defires. 

1.  *  To  make  and  eftablifh  fuch  wholfomeLaws, 
'  in  our  native  Language,  as  may  preferve  the  In- 

*  tereft  and  Liberties  of  this  Commonwealth. 

2.  '  That  all  Tythes  may  be  for  ever  fpeedily 
c  abolifhed,  and  no  forced  Maintenance  come  in 
«  the  Place  thereof. 

3.  «•  That  no  Punifhment  be  inflicted  upon  any 

*  Perfon  for  the  Exercife  of  his  Confcience  in  Mat- 

*  ters  of  Religion,  it  being  deftruclive  to  the  Free- 
'  dom  of  the  Commonwealth.     And  that  all  fuch 
'  as  are  now  in  Cuftody  for  fuch  Matters  may 

*  forthwith  be  fet  at  Liberty,  and  Reparation  given 

*  them  for  their  unjuft  Imprifonment. 

VOL.  XIX.  D  4,  « That 


50       T.'he  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

4.  4  That  all  Committee-men,  Excife-men,  and 
all  other  Perfons  whatfoever  that  have  had  to 
4  deal  in  the  public  Treafury  of  the  Nation,  may 
:bruan.     t  fpee(jj]v  {-,<,  caljcc{  to  an  Account,  for  all  Monies  re- 

*  ceived  by  them  ;  and  that,  for  the  Time  to  come, 
4  the  intolerable  Burden  of  Excife  may  be  wholly 

*  taken  away  from  this  Commonwealth. 

5.  '  That  all  Perfons,  of  what  Condition  or  Qua- 

*  lity  foever,  may  have  a  jui'l  and  equal  Admini- 

*  ftration  of  Law,  according  to  the  Nature  of  their 
«  Actions. 

6.  '  That  a  fpeedy  Courfe  be  taken  for  the  En- 
'  largement  of  all  Perfons  that  are  imprifoned  for 
4  Debt,  and  have  not  wherewithall  to  fatisfy  their 

*  Creditors  ;  and  a  Courfe  alfo  taken  for  the  ma- 
4  king  fuch  Perfons  pay  their  Debts,   being  able, 
4  that  {belter  themfelves  in  a  Prifcn,  on  purpofe  to 

*  defraud  their  Creditors,  by  which  Means  many 
4  honeft  People  are  brought  to  Ruin. 

7.  *  That  all  Perfons  whatsoever,  that  are  now 

*  in  Prifon  for  pretended  Words  or  Forgeries,  may 
4  be  brought  to  a  fpeedy  Trial  j  and  as  to  thofe 
4  whofe  Innccency  mall  appear,  Reparation  may 

*  be  given  them  for  their  falfelmprifonmcnt. 

8.  4  That  fpeedy  Provifion  may  be  made  for 
'  the  continual  Supply  of  the  Neceffities   of  the 

*  Poor  of  this  Nation,  whofe  Miferies  cry  aloud  in 
'  our  Ears  for  Redrefs. 

9.  '  That  conftant  Pay  may  be  provided  to  fup- 
4  ply  the  Neceffities  of  the  Army,  that  the  Soldiery 

*  may  be  enabled  to  difcharge  their  Quarters;  and, 
4  for  the  future,  prevent  that  which  hath  been  fo 

*  much  complained  of,  viz.  Free-quarter. 

10.  '  That  all  the  Arrears  of  the  Army,  and 

*  the  reft  of  the  Soldiery  of  the  Nation  (who  have 
c  been  in  actual  Service  for  the  Parliament,  and 

*  continued  faithful  therein)  may  be  audited  ;  and 

*  a  Courfe  taken  for  the  fpeedy  Payment  of  them, 
4  out  of  the  Revenues  of  the  Crown,  Deans  and 
4  Chapters  Lands. 

II.4  That  whereas  feveral  Soldiers  of  the  Army, 
4  by  their  tedious  and  hard  Service  laft  Summer, 

4  and 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D        51 

4  and  fince  they  came  to  London^  have  loft  and  Inter-re9:num» 

*  fpoiled  many  of  their  Horfcs  ;  and,  by  reafon  of        1648. 

*  the  Smallnefs  of  their  Pay,  are  not  able  to  furnifh    <"r7v~"~"J 

\          r  i  -i  /"<        r  u          i  rebruarvi 

'  tbemfelves  with  any  more,  Courfe  may  be  taken 

*  for  a  fpeedy  Supply  of  our  Wants,  that  we  may 
'  be  enabled   to   perform  that  Service  that  is  ex- 
'  pecked  from  us. 

12.'  That  whereas  we,  with  many  others  of  the 

*  Commonwealth,  have  been  much  abufed  with 

*  clipt  Money ;  therefore  we  defire  fome  Courfe 

*  may  be  taken  for  the  fpeedy  Prevention  thereof. 

13.  '  That  the  Articles  of  War  may  now  be 
'  renewed  and  mitigated,  as  being  too  fevere  and 

*  tyrannous  for  any  Arnty  of  free-born  RagUjhrneni 
'  and  that  Martial  Law  may  not  be  fo  frequently 

*  exercifed,  nor  in  fo  cruel  a  Manner. 

14.  '  That  the  Soldiers  may  not  be  put  upon  the 

*  Execution  of  Civil  Orders  or  Ordinances,  as  fei- 
'  fmg  upon  unlicenfed  Books,  or  Printing  Prefles  ; 
'  or  in  diftraining  for  Monies,  or  the  like,  untill, 
c  in  thofe  Cafes,   the  Civil  Authority  hath  been 

*  forcibly  refilled  ;  that  fo  the  People  may  have 
'  no  Caufe  to  complain,  as  they  do,  of  our  Intrench- 
'  ment  upon  their  Liberties.' 

All  the  Notice  the  Houfe  took  of  this  very  ex- 
traordinary Petition,  was  only  to  order  that  thg 
General  be  defired  to  make  Inquiry  among  the 
Officers  of  every  Troop  what  Horfes  had  been 
loft  in  thelaft  Summer's  Service,  and  not  been  re- 
cruited by  Prize- Horfes,  or  otherwife,  in  order 
that  the  Committee  of  the  Army  might  take  pro- 
per Means  to  fupply  the  Deficiency :  As  to  all  F°r  which  fome 
the  other  Heads  thereof  they  were  only  referred  of(,thfn?  are  pu~ 

,.  r,     .  .       '       r  niflied  by  a 

to  the  Committee  of  Petitions ;  from  whence  we  Court-ManiaU 
hear  no  more  of  them  in  the  ^Journals.  But  a  Me- 
morialift f  of  thefe  Times  informs  us,  That  five 
of  the  Troopers  who  had  prefented  this  Petition 
were  tried  for  it  by  a  Court  Martial,  and  fentenced 
to  ride  the  wooden  Horfe,  on  the  6th  of  Marchy 
D  2  in 

f  Mercuriui  Pragmatlcust  N°.  47. 


52       'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  in  the  Old  Palace  Yard,  Wejlmlnfter  ;  the  Gene- 
1648.         raj   having  commanded  that    no    private    Soldier 
*"Trv~r"";    Ihould  fet  on  Foot  any  Petition  to  Parliament  with- 
out the  Confent  of  the  Chief  Officer  of  each  Re- 
giment. 

The  fame  Day  alfo  a  Paper  was  prefented  to 
the  Houfe  hy  Lieutenant- Colonel  Lilbourne^  fub- 
fcribcd  by  himfelf  and  many  others,  intitled  The 
Jerious  Apprehenftons  of  a  Part  of  the  People  in 
behalf  of  the  Commonwealth ,  being  Prefentcrs,  Pro- 
moters^ and  Approvers  of  the  large  Petition  of  the 
nth  of  September  la  ft  s,  which  was  read. 

This  Paper  was  much  to  the  fame  EffecT:  as 
the  foregoing  Petition. 

Feb.  28.  In  confequence  of  the  before-recited 
Orders  touching  the  iSt-ff/iCommifiioners,  the  Com- 
mons were  this  Day  inforni'd  that  they  had  been 
apprehended  at  Gravefind,  as  they  were  embark- 
ing on  their  Return  home,  and  were  now  under  a 
Guard :  Hereupon  the  Houfe  voted  firft  a  Gratuity 
of  20  /.  to  Col.  Saxbie  for  his  Service  done  to  the 
Commonwealth  in  fecuring  thofe  Commiffioners ; 
The  Houfe  re-    and  then  it  being  put  to  the  Queftion,  Whether  to 
folve  to  fend  the  fend  them  back  to  Scotland  by  Land,  fo  guarded  ?  it 
£S?C2'    Pafl*ed  in  the  Affirmative  without  a  Divifion.     To 

iioners    home      £  n          _  _ 

by  Land,  under  a  luch  a  Degree  of  Contempt  was  the  Scots  Nation 
Cturd.  at  this  Time  reduced. 

March.  The  new-erected  Council  of  State  ha- 
ving all  the  public  Bufmefs  of  the  Nation  now 
before  them,  the  Houfe  of  Commons,  which  con- 
ftituted  them,  had  little  to  do,  except  to  confirm, 
by  A61,  fuch  Proceedings  as  the  other  thought  fit 
for  that  Sanction :  This  Council  had  alfo  taken 
into  their  Body  great  Part  of  the  Houfe  of  Com- 
mons. The  High  Court  of  Juftice,  now  fitting  on 
Trials,  engaged  ftill  more  ;  and  by  the  expurga- 
tive  Teft  pafied  on  the  firft  of  laft  Month,  deny- 
ing Admiffion  to  every  Member  who  would  not 

enter 
*  Thi*  Petition  is  gi v«n  in  our  Seventeenth  Volume,  p.  451. 


Of    ENGLAND.        53 

enter  his  DifTent  or  Difapproval-  to  the  Vote  of  Inter-regnant. 

the  5th  of  December  lair,  many  more  were  fhut  out 

that  had  eone  great  Lengths  with  them  before  ;       ,7*T 

/•i        r  rr     -K./T       i  •        •       i      rr      /-  March. 

io  that  icarce  nrty  IViembers  meeting  in  the  tioule  at 
this  Time,  little  Buiinefs,  except  Petitions  and 
other  Things  of  fmall  Moment  to  the  Public,  was 
done  in  this  Skeleton  of  a  Houfe  of  Commons. 

March  2.  To  fhew  how  great  Harmony  there 
was  between  the  Houfe  and  the  principal  Officers 
of  the  Army  at  this  Juncture,  we  ihall  mention 
one  Petition,  prefented  this  Day  hy  Col.  Whaley 
and  others,  intitled,  The  bumble  Petition  of  the  Ge- 
neral Council  of  the  Army^  under  the  Command  of 
his  Excellency  Thomas  Lord  Fairfax.  This,  and 
a  Letter  from  the  General,  recommending  it  to  the 
fpeedy  Confideration  of  the  Houfe,  were  both  read. 
We  are  not  told  by  the  Journals  what  the  Sub- 
ftance  of  it  was;  nor  do  we  find  it  in  any  of  our 
Collections  of  the  Pamphlets  of  thefe  Times :  But 
Mr.  Whitlocke  writes  that  the  Heads  thereof  were 
thefe  : 

1.  '  That  Free-quarter  be  forthwith  totally  ta-  Another  PetJ- 
«  ken  away.  tion  from  the 

*  r«       n        •  r        r  n         T»          /•    i       A  Lord-General 

2.  *  For  Provifion  for  conftant  Pay  of  the  Army.  Fairfax  and  h;s 

3.  '  For  Receivers  to  account.  Council  of  Wat, 

4.  c  Abufes  of  dipt  Money  to  be  redrefs'd. 

5.  Soldiers  Accounts  to  be  ftated,  and  Deben- 
'  tures  given  out. 

6.  '  Security  for  them  by  Deans  and  Chapters 
*  Lands,  orotherwife. 

7.  *  For  Satisfaction  for  Soldiers  Horfes  flain  or 
c  loft  in  Fight. 

8.  *  For  Maintenance  of  maim'd  Soldiers  and 
«  Widows  of  Soldiers. 

9.  «  For  Relief  of  Ireland. 

10.  c  For  the  Supply  of  the  Irifl)  Officers  come 
6  from  the  Earl  of  Inchequin,  &c.' 

This  Petition  was  fo  extremely  grateful  to  the 
Houfe,  that  they  ordered  their  Speaker  to  return 
the  following  Anfwer  to  it.     And,  indeed,  who- 
ever compares  it  with  that  of  the  26th  of  lafl; 
D  3  Month 


54      The   Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Month,  in  which,  amongft  many  hi^h,  and  perhaps 
fome  not  inequitable,  Demands,  it  was  required 
that  all  who  had  been  anywife  concenvd  in  finger- 
ing the  Public  Money  fhould  be  called  to  Account 
for  it,  will  be  at  no  Lofs  in  finding;  out  a  Reafon  for 
the  different  Fate  of  thefe  two  Petitions. 

The  Anfwer  to  the  latter  of  them  was  exprefs'd 
in  the  following  Terms  of  Approbation  and  Re- 


Gentlemen^ 

For  which  they  c  ri^HE  Houfe  hath  read  the  Letter  of  the  Ge- 

Thinks*  of  the  '     A     liefal  and  your  Petition,  and  look'd  over 

Houfe.  '  every  Part  of  it :  I  muft  needs  fay,  and  you  will 

'  wonder  at  it  I  fhould  tell  you  fo,  this  Day  will  be  a 

'  Day  of  much  Difcontent ;  I  mean  to  all  the  com- 

*  mon  Enemies  of  you  and  us:  But,  as  to  all  good 

*  Men  that  have  engaged  to  carry  on  the  Good  of 
*•  the  Kingdom  with  us,  it  will  be  a  great  Rejoicing 

*  and  Satisfaction  by  this  your  modeft  and  difcreet 
'  Petition:  And  as  in  yourlelves  it  {hews  your  Mo- 
'  deration,  fo  all  thofe  whofe  Mouths  are  open  to 

*  Malice  and  Detraction,  will  fee  that  both  the 
'  Army  and  Parliament  are  fo  unanimous  in  pro~ 
<  moting  the  Public  Good :  The  Things  them- 
'  felves  they  confider  as  Matter  of  great  Concern- 
'  mem,  and  iotend  to  take  them  into  immediateCon- 

. '  fide-ration :  And,  as  you  have  fhewn  yourfelves  in 

* '  former  Services  (for  all  tha:  you  and  we  do  is  b»it 

'  Service)  forward  and  faithful,  for  thefe  your  dif- 

'  creet  and  ferious  Reprefentations  they  have  com- 

*  manded  me  to  return  you  the  heartieft  Thanks  I 
'  can  :  And  accordingly  I  do  give  you  the  hearty 
<  Thanks  of  this  Houfe ;  and  clefire  you  likewifc 
'  to  return  the  like  hearty  Thanks  from  this  Houfe, 
'  to  the  General,  and  to  the  whole  General  Coun- 

*  cil  of  the  Army.' 

The  Parliament  The  Parliament  now  feem'd  to  be  in  fome  Jea- 
vote  an  addition-  loufy  of  another  Vifit  from  the  Scots;  for  this  Day, 
March  6,  they  voted  an  Addition  of  4000  Foot  to 
the  44,373  Forc.es  already  on  the  Eftabli{hme,nt 

in 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       55 

in  England  and  Wales  *  for  the  better  fecuring  Eer-  Int^-regnum. 
wick  and  Carlifie,  and  the  other  new  Garrifons  in  ^_J -jLl^/ 
thofe  Parts :  Likewife  an  Addition  of  1 2,000  Horfe,  March. 
Foot,  and  Dragoons  to  be  forthwith  fent  into  Ire- 
land, i  • 

On  the  fecond  of  laft  Month  the  Commons  had  Proceedings  up- 
refolved  to  erect  a  new  High  Court  of  Juftice,  foron  a  Petition 

the  Trials  of  feveral  Delinquents  ;   as,  James  Earl  fl™  th<|  Duke. 
en       i    -j     3     TT  v     i     c  TT  n      j/J  T        ,  of  Hamilton  and 

ot  Gavtortage*,  Henry  Earl  of  Hol!and,George  Lord  others,  fentenced 
Goring^  Arthur  Lord  Gapel,  and  Sir  John  Given,  t°  Death  by  the 
who  were  all  included  in  an  A6t  made  for  that  Pur-  jjj£c£0ttrt  of 
pofe.     The  Proceedings  againft  thefe  Lords  and 
Gentlemen  have  been  often  printed5;  it  may  there- 
fore be  fufficient  to  obferve,  that  they  having  been 
fentenced  to  undergo  the  fame  Fate  with  their  late 
King  and  Mailer,  this  Day,  March  7,  the  Commons 
were  prefented  with  Petitions  from  their  Ladies,  in 
Perfon,  or  their  neareft  Relations,  to  fpare  their 
Lives  c.     The  Houfe  ordered  the  Petitions  to  be 
all  read  ;  and,  on  the  Queftion,  Whether  to  refer 
them  to  further  Confideration  ?   it  parted,  for  that 
Time,  in  the  Negative  by  38  againft  28.     But 

However,  next  Day,  March  8,  the  Houfe  thought 
fit  to  fhew  Mercy  to  fome  of  thefe  unhappy  Vic- 
tims ;  for  on  a  Revival  of  their  Petitions,  and  the 
former  Queftion  being  again  put,  it  was  carried  in 
the  Affirmative  by  31  againft  28.  The  Houfe, 
after  ordering  Candles  to  be  brought  in,  and  no 
Member  fuffered  to  go  out  without  Leave,  pro- 
ceeded 

a  The  firft  of  thefe  Noblemen  was  the  Duke  of  Hamilton,  Ge- 
neral of  the  Scots  Army,  defeated  at  Prefton,  fome  Time  before  j 
but  tried  now  by  the  Tide  of  Earl  of  Cambridge,  his  Englijh  Peer- 
age. 

b   State  Trials,  Vol.  II.   p.  I,  &  fey. 

c  The  Petitions  of  the  Earl  of  Holland  and  the  Lord  C&ptl  were 
prefented  by  their  Countefles  in  Perfon.  The  Earl  of  J^arivick 
alfo  prefented  a  Petition  of  his  own  in  favour  of  his  Brother  the 
Earl  of  Holland. 

Mr.  Ludloiv  adds,  That  the  Earl  of  Denbigh  propofed,  on  behalf 
of  the  Duke  of  Hamilton,  his  Brother-in-Law,  to  give  the  Parlia- 
ment a  Blank,  fign'd  by  the  faid  Duke,  to  anfwer  faithfully  fuctv 
Qncftions  as  ihould  be  there  inferted  j  but  that  they  refufed  to 
hearken  to  the  Prop»fai. 


56 


Parliamentary  HISTORY 


Jnter-regnum.  ceeded  next  to  confider  the  Petitions  feparately  ; 
1648.  and,  after  feveral  more  Divifions,  they  thought  fit 
to  refpite  the  Execution  of  Lord  Goring  and  Sir 
John  Owen  ;  and  even  the  Earl  of  Holland's  Ex- 
ecution was  carried  but  by  one  Vote,  31  againft 
30.  In  the  Lord  Goring's  Cafe  the  Number  was 
equal,  24  and  24,  fo  the  Speaker  turned  the  Scale 
for  Mercy,  The  refpiting  of  Sir  John  Owen's 
Execution  pafied  by  a  larger  Majority,  28  againft 
23.  All  the  reft  went  for  Blood  without  any  Di- 
vifion. 

Mr.  IWithcke  writes  h,  c  That  the  Speaker  voted 
for  Lord  Goring^  becaufe  he  had  formerly  received 
fome  Civilities  from  him;  and  fo,by  his  fingleVote, 
now  faved  his  Life  :  But  when  the  Earl  of  Holland's 
came,  and  the  Votes  were  again  even,  the  Speaker 
gave  his  Voice  againft  him.  Thus,  adds  our  Me- 
morialift,  the  Lord  Goring^  who  had  been  no 
Friend  to  the  Religious  Party,  was  faved  ;  and  the 
Earl  of  Holland^  who  had  been  a  moft  civil  Per- 
fon  to  all,  and  a  very  great  Friend  to  the  old  Pu^ 
ritans,  and  protected  them  in  the  Time  of  his 
greateft  Intereft,  by  the  fame  fingle  Vote  loft  his 
Life/ 

General  Ludlow  informs  us,  That  Sir  John 
Owen  was  beholden  to  Commiilary-General  Ire- 
ton  for  his  Efcape  *  ;  who,  obferving  no  Motion 
made  in  favour  of  that  Gentleman,  defired  the 
Houfe  to  confider  that  Sir  John  was  a  Commoner, 
and  therefore  more  properly  to  have  been  tried  by 

a  Jury. But  another  Contemporary  k  accounts 

for  this  Reprieve  in  a  quite  different  Manner :  For 
he  tells  us,  That  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Ifle  of  An- 
gltfey-)  hearing  that  Sir  John  Owen  was  certain  to 
be  condemn'd,  procured  fome  of  the  Navy  Royal, 
then  under  the  Command  of  Prince  Rupert^  to 
land ;  and  feize  upon  fome  of  the  Parliament's 
Committees  in  thofe  Parts,  whom  they  fwore  to 
hang  if  Sir  John  fuffered  Death. — But  leaving  Ire- 


Memorials,  p.  37?.  i  Memirs,  Vol. 

Mercuriui  Pragmaiicus,  N°.  45. 


P»  287. 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D. 

ton's  real  Motives  on  this  Occaiion  to  the  Reader's  Inter-regnum. 
Judgment,  we  (hall  only  obferve  that,  in  the  Com- 
rnons  Journals*  we  find  him  a  Teller  in  favour  of 
Sir  John 


March  12.  The  Houfe  ordered  that  it  fhould  be 
referred  to  a  Committee  to  take  into  £oniidera- 
tion  the  State  of  the  Englijh  Prifoners  of  War, 
whether  any  more  of  them  were  proper  to  be  pro- 
ceeded againft  for  Life,  befides  thofe  who  were 
appointed  to  be  tried,  or  were  triable  by  a  Court 
Martial,  for  Revolts  by  Sea  and  Land  ;  likewife 
to  confider  what  other  of  thofe  Prifoners  were  fit 
to  be  kept  in  Cuftody,  or  bani&ed,  and  their  Eftates 
confifcated  ;  and  what  other  Delinquents,  in  refe- 
rence to  the  late  Wars,  that  were  formerly  except- 
ed  from  Pardon,  were  fitteft  to  continue  fo  except- 
ed  and  profcribed.  Their  Opinions  to  be  report- 
ed to  the  Houfe. 

The  Intereft  of  Money,  which  had  been  long 
at  eight  Pounds  per  Cent,  was  this  Day,  by  Order 
of  the  Houfe,  reduced  to  Six,  to  take  Place  from 
the  29th  of  September  next, 

March  14.  Sir  Arthur  Heflerigge,  from  the  laft 
Committee  appointed  to  draw  up  an  Acl:  touching 
Delinquents,  reported  their  Refolutions  thereupon, 
and  the  Rules  they  propofed  for  Compofitions. 
The  lait  Part  wa^  referred  back  to  the  fame  Com- 
mittee that  brought  it  in  ;  but,  after  a  fmall  Hia- 
tus in  the  Journal,  the  Houfe  proceeded  with  theRefo'ut?fH1sasts 
former  Part,  which  was  to  vote,  Thzt  Sir  J 
Stawelly  Knight,  and  David  Jenkin^  Efq;  fhould 
be  proceeded  againft  for  Life,  by  Indictments,  at 
Common  Law,  in  the  feveral  Counties  where 
they  liv'd  :  That  Major-General  Laugharne,  Col. 
Powely  Co\.Poyer,  Capt.  Linden,  and  Capt.  Bujhell, 
fhould  be  tried  by  a  Court  Martial  for  revolting  by 
Sea  and  Land  :  That  the  Marquifs  of  Wincbefter 
and  Mattheiv  Wren>  late  Bifhop  of  Efy,  fhould 
be  excepted  againft  for  any  Compofition  for  their 

Eftates, 


j  8     *The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Eftates,  and  remain  Prifoners  during  the  Pleafure 

1648.         of  the  Houfe.     After  which,  Candles  being  order- 

*""""rrvT  ^  ed  to  be  brought  in,  the  Perfons  reported  for  Ba- 

nifhment  and  Confifcation  of  their  Eftates,  were 

every  one  particularly  put  to  the  Queftion  ;  when 

it  was  refolved, 

Names  of  thofe        That  Charles  Stuart i  eldeft  Son  of  the  late  King, 
Accepted  from    James,  fecond  Son  of  the  late  King,  John  Earl  of 
•K*'  Brijiol,   William  Earl  of  Newcajile,  Sir  J^illiam 

Widdrington,  George  Lord  Digby,  Sir  Philip  Muf- 
grave.  Sir  Marmaduke  Langdale,  Sir  Richard 
Greenville,  Sir  Francis  Dodington,  the  Earl  of  Wor- 
ceJJer,  Sir  John  Winter^  Sir  John  Colepeper,  Sir 
John  Byron,  and  George  Duke  of  Buckingham ;  as 
alfo  all  that  have  been  plotting,  defigning,  or  aflift- 
ing  in  the  Irijb  Rebellion  ;  with  all  fuch  Perfons 
as  now  do  hold  out  any  Caftle,  Fort,  or  Ifland 
againft  the  Parliament,  {hall  be  profcribed  as  Ene- 
emies  and  Traitors  to  the  Commonwealth,  and 
fliall  die  without  Mercy  wherever  they  {hall  be 
found  within  the  Limits  of  this  Nation,  their  Eftates 
confifcated,  and  forthwith  employed  for  the  Ufe  of 
the  Commonwealth.  Next  it  was  refolved,  That 
there  be  no  further  Addition  of  Names  to  this 
Queftion:  Notwithftanding  which,  on  the  iyth  of 
this  Month,  Col.  Matthew  Boynton,  late  Governor 
of  Scarbrough  Caftle,  and  Sir  John  Morley,  were 
added  j  and  Col.  Thomas  Levefon,  on  the  21  ft. 

The  Houfe  had  been  employed  for  a  confiderable 
Time  paft,  by  Committees  or  otherwife,  in  fra- 
ming and  perfecting  two  Bills  of  a  very  extraordi- 
nary Nature  ;  the  one  called  An  Act  for  abolijh- 
ing  the  Kingly  Office  in  England  and  Ireland,  and 
the  Dominions  thereunto  belonging ;  and  the  other 
Fcr  abolijhing  the  Houfe  of  Peers.  The  firft  of 
thefe  was  read  a  third  Time,  on  the  i7th  of  this 
Month,  and  parted  without  any  Divifion  :  The 
htter  had  the  fame  Sanction  on  the  igth.  Both  of 
them  were  ordered  to  be  forthwith  printed  and  pub- 
liftied  3  and  alfo  to  be  proclaimed  in  Wejiminfler^ 

Cheap- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       59 

Cheapjtde,    and   the  Old  Exchange,  by  the  Lord  Jnter-rcgnunu 
Mayor  and  Sheriffs.  l64s- 

Thefe  twoAnti-conftitutional  Acls  were  in  besc  ^~"    ^"^^ 

Tr     ,  March. 

Verba  : 

An  ACT  for  the  abolijhing  the  KINGLY  OFFICE 

in  England,  Ireland,  and  the  Dominions  there- 
unto belonging. 

'  T  IT  THereas  Charles  Stuart,  late  King  of  Eng-  An  Aft  for  abo- 
«.    Vy      land,  Ireland,  and  the  Territories  juidjjjjjf  **  Mo* 
'  Dominions  thereunto  belonging,  hath,  by  Autho- 
'  rity  derived  from  Parliament,  been,  and  is  hereby 

*  declared  to  be,  juftly  condemned,  adjudged  to 
'  die,  and  put  to  Death,  for  many  Treafons,  Mur- 
'  ders,  and  other  heinous  Offences  committed  by 

*  him  ;  by  which  Judgment  he  flood,  and  is  here- 
'  by  declared  to  be,  attainted  of  High  Treafon, 
'  whereby  hislfiue  and  Pofterity,  and  all  others  pre- 
'  tending  Title  under  him,  are  become  incapable 

*  of  the  faid  Crowns,  or  of  being  King  or  Queen 
'  of  the  faid  Kingdoms  or  Dominions,  or  either 
'  or  any  of  them :  Be  it  therefore  Enacted,  Or- 
'  dained,  and  Declared  by  this  prefent  Parliament, 

*  and  by  Authority  thereof,  That  all  the  People 

*  of  England  and  Ireland,  and  the  Dominions  and 
'  Territories  thereunto  belonging,  of  what  Degree 
'  or  Condition  foever,  are  difcharged  of  all  Fealty, 
'  Homage,  and  Allegiance,  which  is  or  fhall  be 
'  pretended  to  be  due  unto  any  of  the  IfTue  and  Po- 

*  flerity  of  the  faid  late  King,  or  any  claiming  un- 

*  der  him ;  and  that  Charles  Stuart,  eldeft  Son,  and 
'  James,  call'd  Duke  of  York,  fecond  Son,  and  all 
'  other  the  IfTue  and  Pofterity  of  him  the  faid  late 
'  King,  and  all  and  every  Perfon  and  Perfons  pre- 
'  tending  Title  from,  by,  or  under  him,  are  and 
<  be  difabled  to  hold  or  enjoy  the  faid  Crown  of 
'  England  and  Ireland,  and  other  the  Dominions 
*.  thereunto  belonging,  or  any  of  them  ;  or  to  have 
«  the  Name,  Title,  Style,  or  Dignity  of  King  or 
'  Queen  of  England  and  Ireland,  Prince  of  Walesy 

*  or  any  of  them ;  or  to  have  ar\d  enjoy  the  Power 


60      'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

'  and  Dominion  of  the  faid  Kingdoms  and  Domi- 
'  nions,  or  any  of  them,  or  the  Honours,  Manors, 

*  Lands,  Tenements,  Pofleflions,  and  Heredita- 
c  ments,  belonging  or  appertaining   to  the   faid 

*  Crown  of  England  and  Ireland^  and  other  the 
'  Dominions  aforefaid,  or  to  any  of  them  ;  or  to 

*  the  Principality  of  Wales ,  Duchy  of  LancaJJer  or 

*  Cornwall^  or  any  or  either  of  them,  any  Law, 

*  Statute,  Ordinance,  Ufage,  or  Cuftom  to  the 
'  contrary  hereof  in  any  wife  notwithftanding. 

'  And  whereas  it  is  and  hath  been  found  by  Ex- 

*  perience,  that  the  Office  of  a  King  in  this  Na- 

*  tion  and  Ireland^  and  to  have  the  Power  thereof 

*  in  any  fmgle  Perfon,  is  unneceflary,  burdenfome, 
'  and  dangerous  to  the  Liberty,  Safety,  and  public 

*  Intereft  of  the  People  ;   and  that  for  the  moft 

*  Part  Ufe  hath  been  made  of  the  Regal  Power 

*  and  Prerogative,  to  opprefs,  impoverilh,  and  en- 
*•  flave  the  Subject;  and  that  ufually  and  naturally 
'  any  one  Perfon,  in  fuch  Power,  makes  it  his  In- 

*  tereft  to  encroach  upon  the  juft  Freedom  and 

*  Liberty  of  the  People,  and  to  promote  the  fet- 
fc  ting  up  of  their  own  Will  and  Power  above  the 
'  Laws,  that  fo  they  may  enflave  thefe  Kingdoms 

*  to  their  own  Luft :  Be  it  therefore  Enadled  and 
'  Ordained  by  this  prefent  Parliament,  and  by  the 
6  Authority  of  the  fame,  That  the  Office  of  a 

*  King  in  this  Nation,  mall  not  henceforth  refide 
6  in,  or  be  exercifed  by,  any  one  fmgle  Perfon ; 

*  and  that  no  one  Perfon  whatfoever  ihall  or  may 
e  have  or  hold  the  Office,  Style,  Dignity,  Power, 

*  or  Authority  of  King   of  the  faid   Kingdoms 
'  and  Dominions,  or  any  of  them,  or  of  Prince 

*  of  Wales  5  any  Law,  Statute,  Ufage,  or  Cuftom 

*  to  the  contrary  thereof  in  any  wife  notwithftand- 
«ing. 

'  And  it  is  hereby  Enafted,  That  if  any  Perfon 

*  or  Perfons  fhall  endeavour  to  attempt,  by  Force 

*  of  Arms,  or  otherwife,  or  be  aiding,  affifting, 
'  comforting,  or  abetting  unto  any  Perfon  or  Per- 

*  fons  that  mall,  by  any  Ways  or  Means  whatfo- 
c  ever,  endeavour  or  attempt  the  reviving  or  fetting 

<up 


Of    ENGLAND.       61 

*  up  again   of  any  pretended   Right  of  the  faid  Inter-regnum, 
«  Charles,  eldeft  Son  of  the  late  King,  James,  cal- 

*  led  Duke  of  York,  or  of  any  other  the  liTue  and 
4  Pofterity  of  the  faid  late  King,  or  of  any  Perfon 

*  or  Perfons  claiming  under  him  or  them,  to  the 
'  faid  Regal  Office,  Style,  Dignity,  or  Authority, 
'  or  to  be  Prince  of  IVales  j  or  the  promoting  of 
'  any  one  Perfon  whatfoever  to  the  Name,  Style, 

*  Dignity,  Power,  Prerogative,  or  Authority,  of 

*  King  of  England  and  Ireland,  and  Dominions 

*  aforefaid,  or  any  of  them  ;  that  then  every  fuch 
'  Offence  fhall  be   deem'd    and   adjudged   High 
'  Treafon ;  and  the  Offenders  therein,  their  Coun- 

*  fellors,  Procurers,  Aiders,  and  Abetters,  being 
'  convicted  of  the  faid  Offence,  or  any  of  them, 

*  (hall  be  deemed  and  adjudged  Traitors  againft  the 
'  Parliament  and  People  of  England;  and  fliall  fuf- 
£  fer,  lofe,  and  forfeit,  and  have  fuch  like  and  the 

*  fame  Pains,  Forfeitures,  Judgments,  and  Execu- 

*  tion,  as  is  ufed  in  Cafe  of  High  Treafon. 

'  And  whereas  by  the  Abolition  of  the  Kingly 

*  Office  provided  for  in  this  A6t,  a  moft  happy 

*  Way  is  made  for  this  Nation,  if  God  fee  it  good, 
'  to  return  to  its  juft  and  ancient  Right,  of  being 

*  governed  by  its  own  Reprefentatives  or  National 
'  Meetings  in  Council,  from  Time  to  Time  chofen 

*  and  intrufted  for  that  Purpofe  by  the  People :  It 

*  is  therefore  refolved  and  declared  by  the  Com- 

*  mons  affembled  in  Parliament,  That  they  will  put 

*  a  Period  to  the  Sitting  of  this  prefent  Parliament, 

*  and  diflblve  the  fame,  fo  foon  as  may  poffibly  ftand 
'  with  the  Safety  of  the  People  that  hath  intrufted 

*  them,  and  with  what  is  abfolutely  neceffary  for 
'  the  preferving  and  upholding  the  Government 
'  now  fettled  in  the  Way  of  a  Commonwealth  ; 

*  and  that  they  will  carefully  provide  for  the  cer- 
'  tain  chufing,  meeting,  and  fitting  of  the  next  and 
'  future  Reprefentatives,  with  fuch  other  Circum- 
c  fiances  of  Freedom  in  Choice,  and  Equality  in 
'  Diftribution  of  Members  to  be  elected  thereunto, 

*  as  fhall  moft  conduce  to  the  lafting  Freedom  and 

*  Good  of  this  Commonwealth. 

'And 


6 2     Tbe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regmim.       <  And  it  is  hereby  further  Ena&ed  and  Declared* 

j648.        c  notwithstanding  any  Thing  contained  in  this  Act, 

*^^'^j7->    '  That  no  Perfon  or  Perfor.s  of  what  Condition  and 

*  Quality  fc.ever,    within  the  Commonwealth  of 
4  England  and  Ireland,  Dominion  of  Wales,  the 
'  Iflands  of  Gnernfey  and  Jcrfey,  and  Town  of  Ber- 
4  wick  upon  Tweed,  (hall  be  difcharged  from  the 
4  Obedience  and  Subjedtion  which  he  and  they  owe 
4  to  the  Government  of  this  Nation,  as  it  is  now 
'  declared  ;  but  all  and  every  of  them  fhall  in  all 
4  Things  render  and  perform  the  fame,  as  of  Right 
4  is  due  unto  the  Supreme  Authority  hereby  decla^ 
4  red  to  refide  in  this  and  the  fucceffive  Reprefenta- 
4  lives  of  the  People  of  this  Nation,  and  in  them 
4  only.' 

jfn  ACT  for  alaltjbing  the  Hcufe  of  PEERS. 

nd  of  the  Peer-'  r  •  HUE  Commons  of  England  afkmblcd  in  Par- 
*e*  '     X      liament,  finding,  by  too  long  Experience^ 

4  that  the  Houfe  of  Lords  is  ufelefs  and  dangerous 
c  to  the  People  of  England  to  be  continued,  have 
4  thought  fit  to  Ordain  and  Enact,  and  be  itOrdain'd 
4  and  Enacted  by  this  prefent  Parliament,  and  by 
4  the  Authority  of  the  fame,  That  from  henceforth 
4  the  Houfe  of  Lords  in  Parliament,  fhall  be  and  is 
4  hereby  wholly  abolifhed  and  taken  away  ;  and 
4  that  the  Lords  fhall  not  from  henceforth  meet  or 
4  fit  in  the  faid  Houfe,  called  the  Lords  Houfe,  or 
4  in  any  other  Houfe  or  Place  whatfoever,  as  a 
4  Houfe  of  Lords ;  nor  {hall  fit,  vote,  advife,  ad- 
4  judge,  or  determine  of  any  Matter  or  Thing  what- 
4  foever,  as  a  Houfe  of  Lords  in  Parliament:  Never- 
4  ihelefs  it  is  hereby  declared,  That  neither  fuch 
4  Lords  as  have  demean'd  thcmfelves  with  Honour, 
4  Courage,  and  Fidelity  to  the  Common  wealth  * 
4  nor  their  Posterities  who  fhall  continue  fo,  fhall 

*  be  excluded  from  the  public  Councils  of  the  Na- 
4  tion;  but  fhall  be  admitted  thereunto,  and  have 
4  their  free  Vote  in  Parliament,  if  they  fhall   be 
4  thereunto  elected,  as  other  Perfons  of  Intereit, 
'  elected  and  qualified  thereunto,  ought  to  have. 

4  And 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       63 

*  And  be  it  further  Ordained  and  Enaited  by  the  Inter-regnum, 

*  Authority  aforefaid,  That  no  Peer  of  this  Land,        1648. 

*  not  being  elected,  qualified,  and  fitting  in  Par-    *~M^h 

*  liament  as  aforefaid,  (hall  claim,  have,  or  make 
'  ufe  of  any  Privilege  of  Parliament,  either  in  re- 
'  lation  to  hisTerfon,  Quality,  or  Eftate ;  any  Law, 
'  Ulage,  or  Cuftom  to  the  contrary  notwithftand- 

*  ing.' 

Thev  Commons  having,  by  the  two  foregoing 
Acts  of  their  own  Houfe  alone,  abolifhed  both 
Monarchy  and  the  Peerage,  on  the  twenty-fecond 
of  this  Month  they  publifhed  the  following  Decla- 
ration, pafs'd  on  the  lyth.  Two  thoufand  Co- 
pies thereof  were  ordered  to  be  printed  for  the  Ufe 
of  the  Members,  who  were  required  to  diftribute 
them  in  their  feveral  Counties ;  befides  which  it 
was  ordered  to  be  tranflated  into  Latin,  French,  and 
Dutch ". 

A  DECLARATION  of  the  PARLIAMENT  of  ENG- 
LAND, exprejffing  the  Grounds  of  their  late  Pro- 
ceedings^ and  of  fettling  the  prefent  Government 
in  the  way  of  a  free  State. 


£  rT">HE  Parliament  of  England,  elected  by  the  The  Commons 
*  People  whom  they  reprefent,  and  by  them  Declaration  of 

<  trufted  and  authorized  for  the  common  Good, ™ 


*  having  lone;  contended  againft  Tyranny,  and  to  Commonwealth. 

*  procure  the  Well-being  of  thofe  whom  they  ferve, 

'  and  to  remove  Oppreffion,  arbitrary  Power,  and       , 
6  all  Oppofition  to  the  Peace  and  Freedom  of  the 
4  Nation,  do  humbly  and  thankfully  acknowledge 
'  the  Blefling  of  Almighty  God  upon  their  weak 

*  Endeavours,  and  the  hearty  Afliftance  of  theWell- 
<•  affe&ed  in  this  Work,  whereby  the   Enemies 
4  thereunto,  both  public  and  fecret,   are  become 
'  unable,  for  the  prefent,  to  hinder  the  perfecting 
«  thereof. 

<  And 

n  From    the  original  Edition,    printed  by  Edward  Hujbandt, 
March  22,   1648. 


64       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.        *  And,  to  prevent  their  Power  to  revive  Tyranny* 

1648.         «  Injuftice,War,  and  all  our  former  Evils,  the  Par- 

*— -V-— •*    *  liament  have  been  neceffitated  to  the  late  Altera- 

'  tions  in  the  Government,  and  to  that  Settlement 

*  which  they  judge  moft  conducible  to  the  Ho- 
'  nour  of  God  and  the  Good  of  the  Nation,  the 

*  only  End  and  Duty  of  all  their  Labours. 

4  And  that  this  may  appear  the  more  clearly  and 
4  generally,  to  the  Satisfaction  of  all  who  are  con- 

*  cerned  in  it,  they  have  thought  fit  to  declare  and 
'  publifh  the  Grounds  of  their  Proceedings. 

'  They  fuppofe  it  will  not  be  denied,  That  the 

*  firft  Institution  of  the  Office  of  King  in  this  Na- 

*  tion  was  by  Agreement  of  the  People,  who  chofe 
'  one  to  that  Office  for  the  Protection  and  Good 

*  of  them  who  chofe  him,  and  for  their  better  Go- 
'  vernment,  according  to  fuch  Laws  as  they  did 
'  confent  unto. 

'  And  let  thofe  who  have  obferv'd  our  Stories, 
'  recollect  how  very  few  have  perform 'd  the  Truft 
'  of  that  Office  with  Righteoufnefs,  and  due  Care 
'  of  their  Subjects  Good  : 

4  And  how  many  have  made  it  their  Study  and 
'  Labour,  to  fatisfy  their  particular  Ambition  and 

*  Power,  with  high  Preffures  and  Miferies  upon 
'  their  Subjects ;  and  with  what  horrid  Prodigality 
'  of   Chriitian   Blood,  upon  Punctilio's  of  their 

*  own  Honour,  perfonal  Titles  and  Diftaftes  : 

'  And  in  the  whole  Line  of  them,  how  far  the 

*  late  King  hath  exceeded  all  his  PredecefTors,  in 
'  the  Deftruction  of  thofe  whom  he  was  bound  to 

*  preferve  ;  and  inftead  of  fpreading  his  Protection 

*  to  all,  fcarce  permitting  any  to  efcape  the  Violence 

*  of  his  Fury. 

*  To  manifeft  this  Truth,  it  will  not  be  impro- 
'  per  to  take  a  fhort  View  of  fome  Paflages  in  his 

*  Reign,  wherein  he  much  further  out- went  all  his 
'  Forefathers  in  Evil,  than  any  Example  can  be 
'  found  of  Punifhment. 

'  In  the  Diflblution  of  the  Parliament  in  the  fe- 
<  cond  Year  of  his  Reign,  and  afterwards,  he  fhew'd 
*•  an  unnatural  Foro-etfulnefs,  to  have  the  violent 

'  Death 


Of   ENGLAND.       6$ 

*  Death  of  his  Father  examined  :  The  fad  Bufi-  Inter-regnurt. 
4  nefs  of  Rocbetle,  and  the  Lie  of  Rbtft  the  poor        l648- 

*  Proteftants  of  France  do  yet  lament :  The  Loans,  ^""^^h 
4  unlawful  Imprifonments,  and  other  Opprefiions, 

4  which  produced  that  excellent  Law  of  the  Peti- 

*  tion  of  Right,  were  moft  of  them  again  adted, 

*  prefently    after   the  Law  made   againft  them  ; 
4  which  was  moft  palpably  broken  by  him,  almoft  in 

*  every  Part  of  it,  very  foon  after  his  folemn  Con- 
4  fent  given  unto  it :  His  Imprifoning  and  Prole - 
4  cution  of  Members  of  Parliament,  for  oppofing 

*  his  unlawful  Will ;  and  of  divers  worthy  Mer- 

*  chants,  for  refufmg  to  pay  Tonnage  and  Pound- 
c  age,  becaufe  not  granted  by  Parliament,  yet  ex- 
4  acted  by  him  exprefly  againft  Law ;  aftd  Punifli- 
4  ment  of  many  good  Patriots,  for  not  fubmitting 
4  to  whatfoever  he  pleafed  to  demand,  though  ne- 

*  ver  fo  much  in  Breach  of  the  known  Law:  The 

*  Multitude  of  Projects  and  Monopolies  eftablifh- 

*  ed  by  him  ;   his  Defign  and  Charge  to  bring  in 

*  German  Horfe  to  awe  us  into  Slavery ;  and  his 

*  Hopes  of  compleating  all  by  his  grand  Projedl  of 

*  Ship-Money,  to  fubject  every  Man's  Eftate  to 

*  whatfoever  Proportion  he  only  pleafed  to  impofe 

*  upon  them  :  The  private  Solicitations,  Promifes 
4  of  Reward,   and  Threats,   from  him  unto  the 
'  Judges  of  the  Law,  to  caufe  them  to  do  his 

*  Will,  rather  than  equal  Right,  and  to  break  his 
4  and  their  own  Oaths :  The  Oppreffions  of  the 
4  Council-Table,  Star-Chamber,  High-Commif- 

*  fion,  Court  Martial ;    of  Wardftiips,    Purvey- 
€  ances,   Knighthood,   Afforeftations,    and  many 

*  others  of  the  like  Nature,  need  no  large  Repeti- 

*  tion,  remaining  yet  in  moft  of  our  Memories. 

4  The  exa£t  Slavery  forced  upon  thofe  in  Ireland, 

*  with  the  Army  of  Papifts  to  maintain  it,  and  the 

*  Pofition  of  being  loofe  and  abfolved  from  all 
'  Rules  of  Government,  was  but  a  Pattern  for  the 
'  intended  Model  here. 

4  The  long  Intermiflion  of  our  Parliaments,  arid 
'  the  Determination  to  be  troubled  with  no  more, 

*  and  the  great  Miftake  in  firft  fending  the  new 

VOL.  XIX  E  Service- 


66       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  Service-Book  into  Scotland,  raifed  their  Oppofi- 
'  tion  again  ft  him,  and  gave  no  Encouragement  to 

*  the  Engltjh  to  engage  againft  them  ;  which,  with 

*  the  Doubtfulnefs  of  Succefs,  produced  the  laft 
'  fhort  Parliament,  which  was  only  confidered  as 
'  to  fcrve  the  King's  Pleafure,  to  cloak  his  Breach 

*  of  the  Pacification   with    Scotland ;    and,   with 

*  twelve  Subfidies  demanded  by  him,  to  buy  out 

*  his  unlawful  and  unjuft  Exaction  of  Ship-  Money; 

*  but  failing  in  his  Expectation  therein,  he  fudden- 

*  ly  and  wilfully,  to  the  Terror  of  moft  Men,  dif- 

*  folved  it. 

4  The  Scots,  upon  the  King's  Breach  of  his  Faith 
'  with  them,  and  perceiving  the  Difcontentsamongft 

*  us, came  with  an  Army  mtoEngland:  TheKing, 

*  by  many  unjuft  and  unlawful  Means,  raifed  and 
c  brought  a  great  Force  into  the  North  to  oppofe 
'  them  ;  where,  being  moved  by  worthy  Petitions 
'  from  feveral  Parts,  and  by  the  Honourable  En- 
'  deavours  of  many  Noble  Perfons,  but  principally 

*  by  perceiving  the  Backwardnefs  of  his  Subjects  of 

*  both  Kingdoms  at  that  Time  to  engage  in  the 

*  Deftru<5tion  of  one  another,  for  which  End  fuch 

*  Numbers  of  gallant  Men  were  prepared  by  him, 

*  whofe  Office  was  to  be  the  Preferver  of  them  ; 
'  and  feeing  no  other  Way,  he  did  at  laft  conde- 

*  fcend  to  do  that  Part  of  his  Duty  to  call  this  Par- 

*  liament. 

*  Vaft  Sums  of  Money  were  required  and  raifed 

*  of  the  People  of  England,  to   gratify  thofe  by 
'  whom  they  had  been  highly  damnified  ;  and  both 

*  Armies  paid  by  them,  who  neither  occafioned  nor 
'  confented  to  the  railing  of  either.     But,  above 
c  all,  the  Englijh  Army  was  laboured  by  the  King 
'  to  be  engaged  againft  the  Engli/h  Parliament  : 

*  A  Thing  of  that  Grange  Impiety  and  Unnatural- 

*  nefs,  for  the  King  of  England  to  follicit  his  Sub- 

*  jects  of  England  to  {heath  their  Swords  in  one 

*  another's  Bowels,  that  nothing  can  anfwer  it  but 
'  his  own  being  born  a  Foreigner;  nor  could  it 

*  eafily  have  purchafcd  Belief,  but  by  his  fucceed- 
4  ing  vifible  Actions  in  full  Purfuance  of  the  fame. 


Of    ENGLAND.         67 

*  The  firft  Execution  of  this  Defign  of  Mifery  Inter-regnum, 

*  fell  upon  our  poor  Brethren  in  Ireland,  where  fo 

*  many  Scores  of  Thoufands  of  them  were  with 
c  fuch  wonderful  Cruelty  murdered,  that  fcarce 
'  any  Bowels  but  are  filPd  with  Compaflion  at  it; 
'  and  yet  fome  of  the  Murderers  themfelves  have 
c  not  forborne  to  affirm,  That  they  had  the  King's 

*  Commiffion  for  their  Actions. 

'  His  late  and  flender  proclaiming  of  them  Re- 

*  bels ;  his  Confent  to  a  Cefiation  when  the  Re- 
'  bels  gain'd  all  Advantages,  and  the  Proteftants 
'  were  deftroyed  by  it ;  his  intercepting  and  taking 
c  away  Provifions  and  Supplies  going  unto  them, 
'  are  no  good  Teftimonies  of  his  Clearnefs  from 
'  that  Blood  which  cried  loud  for  Vengeance. 

'  But  to  return   to  England,   where   appeared 

*  Matter  enough  of  Mourning. 

c  Upon  the  King's  coming  in  Perfon  to  the 
«  Houfe  of  Commons  to  feize  the  five  Members, 
«  whither  he  was  followed  with  fome  Hundreds  of 
'  unworthy  debauched  Perfons,  arm'd  with  Swords 

<  and  Ptftols,  and  other  Arms  ;  and  they  attend- 

<  ing  at  the  Door  of  the  Houfe,  ready  to  execute 
«  whatsoever  their  Leader  fhould  command  them  : 

*  And    upon    fome    other    Grounds,    (whereby 
«  Doubts  being  raifed  in  the  People,  that  their 

*  Grievances  would  not  be  redrefs'd,  they  grew 
«  into  fome  Diforders)   the  King  took  Occafion 
'  from  thence  to  remove  from  London,  where  pre- 

*  fently  Forces  appeared  for  him  of  his  own  Com* 

*  pany  at  Kingjlon. 

*  From  thence  he  travelled  to  the  North,  endea- 
'  vouring to  raife Forces  there;  inticed  manyMem- 
'  bers  of  both  Houfes  to  defert  the  Parliament,  and 

*  Truft  repofed  in  them  by  their  Country,  and  to 
'  join  with  him  in  bringing  Deftru&ion  upon  their 

*  Brethren  and  upon  themfelves.     Inftead  of  do- 
'  ing  Juftice,  he  protected  Delinquents  from  it.  At 
«  'Nottingham  he  fet  up  his  Standard  ;  from  Wales 
'  and  the  Marches  he  got  together  a  powerful  Ar- 

*  my,  and  gave  the  firft  Onfet  of  Battle  at  Edge" 

<  hill. 

E  2  'He 


68      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.        '  He  pofiefs'd  and  fortified  Oxford,   his  Head- 

1648.         *  quarter^  an(j  many  other  Towns  and  Places  of 

_7V~         *  Strength ;  and  profecuted  a  fierce  and  bloody  War 

'  againft  the  Body  of  all  his  own  Subjeds  reprefent- 

'  ed,  and  then  fitting  in  Parliament;  a  Thing  ne- 

*  ver  before  attempted  by  any  King  in  this  Nation, 

*  and  which  all  Men  have  too  fadCaufe  with  much 
'  Grief  to  remember. 

*  Their  Towns  and  Habitations  burnt  and  de- 

*  molifhed  ;  their  pleafant  Seats  wafted  ;  their  In- 
c  heritances  given  away  to  thofe  that  were  moft 
'  a<5live  in  doing  Mifchief ;  their  Servants,  Bro- 

*  thers,  Friends,  and  Children,  murder'd.     Thus 
'  his  own  People,  whom,  by  the  Duty  of  his  Of- 

*  fice,  he  was  bound  to  protect  from  all  Injury, 
6  were,  by  himfelf  in  Perfon,  purfued  with  Fire 
'  and  Sword,  Imprifonments,  Tortures,   Death, 

*  and  all  the  Calamities  of  War  and  Defolation. 

'  Notwithftanding  all  this,  and  in  the  Heat  of 

*  it,  many  Addrefies  were  made  by  the  Parliament 
'  unto  the  King  for  Peace ;  but  in  none  of  them 

*  could  an  Agreement  be  obtain'd  from  him,  when 

*  the  leaft  Word  of  his  Confent  would  have  ftopp'd 

*  that  IfTue  of  Blood  and  Torrent  of  Mifery  which 

*  himfelf  had  open'd  in  all  Parts  of  his  Kingdom. 

*  When  the  great  God  of  Battle  had  determined 

*  very  much  in  favour  of  the  Parliament,  and  the 
'  King's  Strength  was  almoft  fallen  away,  fo  that 

*  he  thought  it  unfafe  to  truft  himfelf  any  longer 

*  with  his  own  Forces,  yet  would  he  not  then 
c  vouchfafe  to  come  in  unto  the  Englijh,  but  ren- 
'  der'd  himfelf  to  his  Countrymen,  the  Scots ;  gi- 
'  ving  unto  them  the  Honour  both  of  receiving  him, 

*  and  parting  with  him  again,   upon  their  own 
'  Terms. 

'  After  his  Reftraint  yet  further  Addrefles  were 

*  made  unto  him  by  the  Parliaments  of  both  King- 

*  doms  for  Peace,  with  Propofitions,  not  heighten'd 

*  by  Succefs  ;  but  thefe   would   not  be  granted, 
'  there  being  new  and  hopeful  Defigns  of  his  in 
'  Hand,  for  bringing  new Miferies  upon  his  People, 
6  which   an  Agreement   upon  thofe  Propofitions 

*  might 


Of    ENGLAND.       69 

'  might  cafily  have  prevented.     After  this  pa/Ted  inter-regnum. 

*  the  Votes  for  no  further  AddrefTes  to  be  made 
'  unto  him. 

«  The  laft  Summer  the  Effeft  of  thofe  Defigns, 
'  even  whilft  he  was  under  Reftraint,   began  to 

*  break  forth  ;  a  new  Vein  of  Blood  was  opened 
'  in  the  King's  Name  ;  a  Plot  laid  (as  the  Terms 
'  of  their  own  Boafting  were)  as  deep  as  Hell  ; 
'  the  Army  divided  into  feveral  Bodies ;  the  Fire 
'  brake  forth  in  many  Parts  of  the  Kingdom  at 
'  once ;  and,  for  fear  left  the  Numbers  of  their 

*  Englijh  fhould  be  too  fmali,  or  their  Compaf- 

*  fion  to  their  Countrymen  too  great,  a  malignant 
'  Party  in  Scotland  is  eafily  invited  hither :  And 

*  although  at  firft  they  underftood  die  Covenant  in 
'  that  Senfe,  and  profecuted  the  Ends  thereof,  in 
'  joining  with  the  Parliament  of  England,  and  fight- 
1  ing  againft  the  King's  Party;  yet  now  their  Judg- 
'  ments  are  rectified  to  profecute  the  fame  Ends  by 

*  joining  with  the  King's  Party,  and  fighting  againft 
'  their   Fellow-Covenanters,    the    Parliament   of 
'  England.     But  God  will  not  be  mocked  ;  and 
'  though  this  Cloud  of  frefh  Calamities,  both  here 
'  and  from  the  North,  threaten'd  the  poor  Nation  j 

*  and,  in  all  human  Probability,  was  pouring  utter 
'  Ruin  upon  us,  yet  the  vifible  Hand  of  God,  as 
'  many  Times  formerly,  fo  now  mightily  and  mi- 

*  raculoufly,  appeared  for  us  j  and  led  the  Army, 

*  whom  he  was  pleafed  to  make  his  Inftruments, 

*  with  that  Courage,  Wifdom,  and  Fidelity,  as  a- 

*  mazed  and  fubdued  our  Enemies,  and  preserved, 
'  under  him,  all  that  can  be  dear  unto  us. 

'  During  thefe  Diftraclions,  and  by  what  Means 
4  is  fuffictently  known,  and  related  more  fully  in  a 
'  late  Declaration,  an  eighth  Addrefa  muft  be  made 
'  unto  the  King,  contrived  by  his  Party  ;  the 
'  Votes  of  Parliament  to  the  contrary  revok'd,  and 
'  Commtflioners  fent  to  the  Ifle  of  Wight ;  where, 

*  inftead  of  yeilding  to  their  juft  Defires,  whilft 
'  they  were  treating  with  him  for  Peace,  even  then 

*  was  he  plotting  to  raife  a  new  War  againft  them, 

E  3  *  and 


yo       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  and  to  draw  more  Blood  of  his  People:  To  this 
1648.        t  j£ncj  his  two  elder  Sons  were  in  Hoftility,  and 

""rrvT"""''  c  armed  with  Power  of  granting  Commifiions  fur- 
4  ther  to  deftroy  the  People  committed  to  his 
'  Charge. 

'  Upon  all  thefe,  and  many  other  unparalellcd 
'  Offences  ;  upon  his  Breach  of  Faith,  of  Oaths 
'  and  Proteftations ;  upon  the  Cry  of  the  Blood  of 
'  Ireland  and  of  England ;  upon  the  Tears  of  Wi- 
'  dows  and  Orphans,  and  childlefs  Parents,  and 
'  Millions  of  Perfons  undone  by  him,  let  all  the 

*  World  of  indifferent  Men  judge,   whether  the 
'  Parliament  had  not  fuflkient  Caufe  to  bring  the 
6  King  to  Juftice. 

'  But  it  was  objected,  and  it  was  the  late  King's 

*  own  Affertion,  That  thoj'e  in  his  high  Place  are 
'  accountable  for  their  Atfions  to  none  but  God,  whofc 

*  Anointed  they  are.     From  whence  it  muft  follow, 

*  That  all  the  Men  of  this  Land  were  only  made  for 
'  the  Sake  of  that  one  Man  the  King,  for  him  to 
'  do  with  them  what  he  pleafeth ;  as  if  they  had 

*  been  all  created  for  no  other  Purpofe  but  to  fatif- 

*  fy  the  Lufts,  and  to  be  a  Sacrifice  to  the  perverfe 
«  Will,  of  a  Tyrant. 

4  This  will  not  eafily  be  believed  to  be  fo  or- 
'  dained  by  God,  who  punifheth,  but  never  efta- 
'  blifheth,  Injustice  and  Oppreflion  ;  whom  we 
'  find  offended  when  the  People  demanded  a  King, 

*  but  no  Exprcflion  of  his  Difpleafure  at  any  Time, 
'  becaufe  they  had  no  King.     Such  an  unaccount- 

*  able  Officer  were  a  ilrange  Monfter  to  be  per- 
'  mitted  by  Mankind  ;  but  this  Doctrine  is  better 

*  underftood  by  the  prefent  Age,  than  in  former 

*  Times;   and  requireth  the  lefs  to  be  faid  in  Coa- 
'  futation  of  it,  being  enough  to  confute  itfelf. 

'  For  the  Fhrafe  of  Anointed^  no  learned  Divine 
c  will  affirm  it  to  be  applicable  to  the  Kings  of 

*  England,  as  to  thofe  of  Judah  anu  Ifrae!,  or  more 

*  to  a  King  than  to  every  other  Magiftrate  or  Ser- 

*  vant  of  God  ;  or  that  the  Words,  touch  not  mine 
6  Anointed^  were  fpoken  of  Kings,  but  unto  Kings ; 

'  who 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.         71 

*  who  were  reproved  and  enjoined  to  do  no  Harm  inter-regnum. 
Vto  the  Prophets  and  Saints  of  God,  there  under-        1648. 

*  ftood  to  be  his  Anointed.  <— v— — > 

*  Another  Objection  was,  That  to  bring  a  King       Marcl1' 

*  to  Trial  and  capital  Punijhmcnt  is  without  Pre- 

*  cedent. 

'  So  were  the  Crimes  of  the  late  King ;  and  cer- 

*  tainly  the  Children  of  Ifrael  had  no  known  Law 

*  or  Precedent  to  punifh  the  Eenjamites  for  their 
'  odious  Abufe  of  the  Lcvitis  Wife,   yet  God 
'  own'd  the  Action. 

*  There  want  not  Precedents  of  fome  of  his  Pre- 
4  deceflbrs,  who  have  been  depoled  by  Parliaments, 
'  but  were  after  wards, 'in  Darknefs  and  in  Corners, 
4  bafely  murdered  :  This  Parliament  held  it  more 
4  agreeable  to  Honour  and  Juftice,  to  give  the  King 
'  a  fair  and  open  Trial,  by  above  an  hundred  Gen- 

*  tlemen,  in  the  moft  public  Place  of  Juftice;  free, 

*  if  he  had  fo  pleafed,  to  make  his  own  Defence  ; 
'  that  Part  of  his  Crime  being  then  only  objected 

*  againft  him,  of  which  the  Parliaments  of  both 

*  his  Kingdoms  had,  by  their  joint  Declaration, 

*  formerly  declared  him  guilty. 

*  With  his  Offences  were  join'd  all  along  a 
£  ftrange  Obftinacy  and  Implacablenefs,  and  in- 

*  cefTant  Labour  for  the  Deftruction  of  his  People; 

*  which  (with  the  unerring  Truth,  wherein  is  no 

*  Difpenfation  for  Kings,  that  no  Satisfaction  jhall 

*  be  taken  for  the  Life  of  a  Murderer ',  but  be  Jhall 
'  furely  be  put  to  Death  ;  and  that  the  Land  cannot 

*  be  cleanfed  of  the  Blood  that  is  Jhed  therein,  but 
'  by  the  Blood  of  him  that  Jhed  it)  brought  on  and 

*  effected  the  Work  of  Juftice  upon  him. 

*  The  King  being  dead,  the  next  Confideration 
'  fell  upon  his  Children  :    From  thefe  Branches 

*  could  be  expected  no  other  than  the  fame  bitter 
«  Fruit  which  fell  in  the  Reign  of  the  Father,  who 

*  had  engaged  them  in  his  own  Ways  and  Quarrel; 

*  and  the  two  eldeft  fo  early  appearing  in  actual 
'  Arms  and  Hoftility  againft  the  Parliament,  no 
'  more  Safety  or  Security  could  be   hoped    for 

<•  flora 


7 2       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jntfr-regnum.  '  from  them  than  from  their  Predeceflor  ;  nor,  in 

1648.         <  human  Probability,  as  Affairs  then  flood,  any 

*"7rvT"~''    4  fafe  Way  for  a  fure  Peace  and  Prevention  of  fu- 

4  ture  Troubles,  and  to  avoid  a  Succefiion  of  Mi- 

*  fery,  but  by  taking  away  the  Succeffion  of  that 

*  from  whence  it  hath  always  rifen,  and  would 

*  certainly  fpring  again,  if  permitted  to  take  new 
4  Root,  the  Defigns  and  Practices  of  Kings,  their 
'  Flatterers  and  evil  Counfellors. 

*  The  Objection  is  obvious,  of  Injujlice  to  dif- 
4  inherit  thofe  who  have  a  Right  and  Title  to  the 
4  Crown.  Surely  the  elder  Right  is  the  People's, 
4  whom  they  claim  to  govern :  If  any  Right  or 

*  Title  were  in  the  eldeft  Son,  the  fame  is  forfeited, 
4  by  the  Father's  A6t,  in  other  Cafes ;  even  of  Of- 
4  ficers  of  Inheritance,  which  being  forfeited  for 
4  Breach  of  Truft,  (a  Condition  annex'd  to  every 
4  Office)  none  will  deny  but  that  the  fame  exclu- 

*  deth  the  Children  as  well  as  the  Officer  :  But 

*  here  the  elder  Sons  levied  War  againft  the  Parlia- 
'  ment ;  and  it  cannot  be  alledged  that  the  young- 
4  er  Children  were  born  to  any  Thing. 

4  But  the  fame  Power  and  Authority  which  firft 
4  creeled  a  King,  and  made  him  a  public  Officer 
4  for  the  common  Good,  finding  him  perverted, 
4  to  the  common  Calamity,  it  may  juftly  be  ad- 
'  mitted,  at  the  Pleafure  of  thofe  whole  Officer  he 

*  is,  whether  they  will  continue  that  Officer  any 
'  longer,  or  change  that  Government  for  a  better; 
c  and,  inftead  of  reftoring  Tyranny,  to  refolve  into 
'  a  free  State. 

'  Herein  the  Parliament  received  Encourage- 
'  ment,  by  their  Obfervation  of  the  Bleffing  of  God 
4  upon  other  States :  The  Romans \  after  their  Regi- 

*  fugiuni)  for  many  hundred  Years  together,  pro- 
4  fpered  far  more  than  under  any  of  their  Kings  or 
4  Emperors :  The  State  of  Venice  hath  flourifhed 
4  for  one  thoufand  three  hundred  Years :    How 
4  much  do  the  Commons  in  Sivitzerland,  and  other 
4  free  States,  exceed  thofe  who  are  not  fo,  in  Riches, 
4  freedom,  Peace?  and  all  Happinefs  ?  Our  Neigh- 

4  bours 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        73 

*  bours  in  the  United  Provinces,  fmcc  their  Change  inter-rcgnur 
'  of  Government,   have  wonderfully  increafed  in        l64s- 

'  Wealth,  Freedom,  Trade,  and  Strength,  both  by    ' — ""^T" 

,   o  i   T         i  Marca» 

*  Sea  and  Land. 

'  In  Commonwealths   they    find    Juftice    duly 
£  adminifter'd,    the   great  Ones  not   able  to  op- 

*  prefs  the  Poorer,  and  the  Poor  fufficiently  pro- 

*  vided  for  ;  the  Seeds  of  Civil  War  and  Difien- 

*  tion,  by  particular  Ambition,  Claims  of  Succef- 
'  fion,  and  the  like,  (wherein  this  Nation  hath  been 
'  in  many  Ages  grievoufly  employed)  wholly  remo- 
'  ved  ;  and  a  juft  Freedom  of  their  Confciences, 
'  Perfons,    and  Eftates,  enjoyed  by  all  Sorts  of 
«  Men. 

'  On  the  other  Side,  looking  generally  into  the 

*  Times  of  our  Monarchs,  what  Injuftice,  Oppref- 

*  fion,  and  Slavery  were  the  common  People  kept 

*  under;  fome  great  Lords  fcarce  affording  to  fome 
'  of  their  Servants,  Tenants,  or  Peafants,  fo  good 
'  Meat,  or  fo  much  Reft,  as  to  their  Dogs  and 
'  Horfes  ?    It  was  long  fince  warned  in  Parliament, 
4  by  a  Privy  Counfellor  to  the  late  King,  That  we 
'  fhould  take  heed,   left,   by  lofing  our  Parlia- 
'  ments,  it  would  be  with  us  as  with  the  common 

*  People  in  a  Monarchy,  where  they  are  contented 
'  with  Canvafs  Cloathing  and  Wooden  Shoes,  and 
'  look  more  like  Ghofts  than  Men :   This  was  in- 
1  tended  for  the  Fate  of  England^  had  our  Monarch 

*  prevailed  over  us.     To  bring  this  to  pafs,  their 
'  Beafts  of  Forefts  muft  grow  fat,  by  devouring 
'  the  poor  Man's  Corn  ;  for  Want  of  which,  he 
'  and  hjs  Wife  and  Children  muft  make  many  a 
4  hungry  Meal :  A  Tradefman  furnifhing  a  great 
e  Man  with  moft  Part  of  his  Stock,  or  a  Creditor 
'  with  Money,  and  expecting  due  Satisfaction  and 
'  Payment,  is  anfvyered  with  ill  Words  or  Blows  ; 
'  and  the  dear-bought  Learning  that  Lords   and 
'  Kings  Servants  are  privileged  from  Arrefts  and 
'  Procefs  of  Law.     Thus  many  poor  Creditors  and 
'  their  Families  have  perifhed  by  the  Injuftice  and 
6  Prodigality  of  their  lawlefs  Creditors. 


74      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  A  poor  Waterman  with  his  Boat  or  Barge  ;  a 

*  poor  Countryman  with  his  Team  and  Horfcs, 
March        '  and  others  of"  other  Callings,  muft  fen'e  the  King 

4  for  the  King's  Pay  ;  which,  if  they  can  get,  is 

*  not  enough  to  find  themfelves  Bread,  when  their 
'  Wives  and  Children  have  nothing  but  the  Hus- 

*  band's  Labour  to  provide  for  them  alfo. 

*  For  that  one  Exaction  of  the  Court  called 
'  Purveyance,  about  which  our  Anceftors  made  fo 
'  many  good  and  fharp  Laws,  yet  none  of  them 
'  could  be  kept ;  it  hath  been  lately  computed  to 
'  coft  the  Country  more  in  one  Year  than  their 
'  AiTeflments  to  the  Army. 

4  Thefe  are  fome  of  thofe  generally  obferved, 
'  and  more  public  Exactions,  which  were  obvious, 

*  not  to  the  Underftandino;  only,  but  to  the  Senfe 

*  of  the  many  grieved  Sufferers  ;  but  if  the  vaft 
4  Expence  of  the  Court,  in  Ways  of  Luxury  and 

*  Prodigality,  be  confidercd  ;  as,  on  the  one  Side, 
by  a  Handing  ill  ordered  Diet  for  a  Number  of 
~>rones  and  unprofitable  Burdens  of  the  Earth  ; 

*  by  chargeable  Feafts,  and  vain-glorious  Mafques 
4  and  Plays,  (their  Sabbath-Days  Exercile  or  Pre- 
'  parations)  together  with  other  (lefs  fmful,  but  no 
4  lefs)  chargeable  Provifions  for  Sports  and  Recrea- 

*  tions,  for  which  thoufands  of  Acres,  fcores  of 

*  Miles,  and  great  Parts  of  whole  Counties  have 
'  been  feparated  from  a  much  better  and  public 
4  Improvement. 

*  On  the  other  Side,  by  thofe  profufe  Donations 
'  of  yearly  Salaries  and  Penfions  granted  to  fuch 

*  as  were  found,  or  might  be  made,  fit  Inftruments 
4  and  Promoters  of  Tyranny,  or  elfe  fuch  as  had 
4  Relation  to  the  King,  in  native  or  perfonal  Re- 
4  fpecls  :  In  v/hich  latter  Kind  may  be  (hewed  Ac- 
'  counts  of  above  50,000  /.  per  Annum  that  was 

*  paid  out  of  the  Exchequer  to  Favourites  of  the 

*  Scots  Nation  ;  befides  the   fecret  Supplies  from 
'  the  Privy-Purfe  and  otherwife,  beft  known  to  the 
'  Receivers ;  which  may  perhaps  be  one  Reafon 
«  why  they  are  fo  zealous  to  uphold  the  Kingly 

*  Power 


*  by 
'Dr 


Of    ENGLAND.        75 

4  Power  in  this  Nation,  whereof  the    King  wao 
4  their  Countryman. 

'  He  that  obferves  fo  many  hundreds  of  them- 

*  lands,  ccmwunibus  Annis,  expended  in  tholeWays ;  arc  ' 

*  and  {hall  know  that  the  legal  juitifiablc  Revenue 
'  of  the  Crown  (befides  the  Cufloms  and- fome  o- 
4  ther  Perquifites   charged  with  the  Maintenance 

4  of  the  Navy  and  Forts)  fell  fhort  of  one  hundred  . 
c  thoufand  Pounds,  might  juftiy  wonder  what  fe- 
4  cret  under- ground  Supplies  fed  thofe  Streams 
4  of  Vanity  and  Milchief,  were  it  not  as  notorious, 
4  that  the  Projects,  Monopolies,  Sales  of  Offices, 
4  Bribes,  Compositions  for  Breach  of  Penal  Laws, 
4  and  the  like  Ways  of  draining  the  People's  Purfes 
4  as  wickedly  got,  fo  were  only  fit  thus  to  be  em- 
4  ployed.  By  occafion  whereof  the  Court  arrived  at . 
4  that  unhappy  Height,  as  to  be  the  great  Nurfcry 
4  of  Luxury  and  Intemperance  ;  the  Corrupter  of 
4  the  Manners  and  Diipofitions  of  many  otherwiie 
4  hopeful  Branches,  fprung  from  the  nobleft  Fa- 
4  milies;  and  an  univerfal  Perverter  of  Religion  and 
4  Goodnefs  therein,  making  good  the  Proverb, 
4  Exeat  Aula  qul  vult  cjfe  pius. 

4  In  a  free  State,  thefe,  and  a  Multitude  of  the 
4  like  Grievances  and  Mifchiefs  will  be  prevented; . 
4  the  Situation  and  Advantages  of  this  Land,  both 
4  for  Trade  abroad,  and  Manufactures  at  home, 
4  will  be  better  underftood,  when  the  Dangers  of 
4  Projects,  Monopolies,  and  ObftrucYions  thereof, 
4  are,  together  with  the  Court,  the  Fountain  of 
4  them,  removed  ;  and  a  free  Trade,  with  Encou- 
4  couragement  of  Manufactures,  and  Provifion  for. 
4  the  Poor,  be  fettled  by  the  Commonwealth, 
4  whereunto  the  fame  is  moft  agreeable,  and  which 
4  the  former  Government  had  never  yet  Leifure 
4  eftecStually  to  do. 

4  Upon  all  thefe  before-mentioned,  and  many 
4  other,  weightyConfiderations,  the  Reprefentatives 
4  of  the  People,  now  aflembled  in  Parliament,  have, 
4  judged  it  neceffary  to  change  the  Government  of 
4  this  Nation  from  the  former  Monarchy  (unto 
'  which,  by  many  injurious  Incroachments,  it  had 

*  arrived) 


76       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.  *  arrived)  into  a  Republic,  and  not  to  have   any 

'  more  a  King  to  tyrannize  over  them. 
**~^fa~^~t         '  In  order  hereunto,  and  for  the  better  Settle- 

*  ment  of  this  Commonwealth,  it  being  found  of 

*  great  Inconvenience,  that  the  Houfe  of  Lords 
'  (fitting  in  a  Body  by  themfelves,  and  called  by 

*  Writ  to  treat  and  advife,  yet)   in  the  making  of 
4  Laws,  and  other  great  Affairs,  fhould  any  longer 
'  exercife  a  Negative  Vote  over  the  People,  whom 
'  they  did  not  at  all  reprefent ;  and  Hkewife  a  ju- 

*  dicial  Power  over  the  Perfons  and  Eftates  of  all 
'  the  Commons,  whereof  they  are  not  competent 
'  Judges  j  and  that  their  Power  and  Grcatnefs  did 

*  chiefly  depend  upon  the  Power  and  Abfolutenefs 
'  of  a  King,  whereunto  they  had  lately  exprefled 
'  a  fufficient  Inclination. 

*  And  it  being  moft  evident,  that  (efpecially  in 
'  the fe  Times  of  Exigency)   neither  the  Govern- 

*  mcnt  of  the  Republic,  nor  the  Common  Safety, 
'  could  bear  the  Delays  and  Negatives  of  a  Houfe  of 

*  Lords ;  it  was  therefore  thought  neceflary,  wholly 
'  to  abolifh  and  take  the  fame  away.     Leaving, 
'  neverthelefs,  unto  thofe  Lords  who  have  been, 

*  and   {hall  be,  faithful   to  the   Commonwealth, 
'  the  fame  Privilege  of  choofmg,  and  being  chofen, 

*  Reprefentatives  of  the  People,  as  other  Perfons 

*  of  Interelr.  and  good  Affections  to  the  Public  have 

*  Right  unto  ;  and  which  is  not  improbable  to  have 

*  been  the  Way  of  our  Anceftors,  when  both  Lords 
'  and  Commons  formerly  fat  together. 

*  But  an  Objection   is  frequently  made,  con- 
'  cerning  the  Declaration  of  the  Houfes,  of  April^ 
'  1646,  For  governing  the  Kingdom  by  King^  Lor  (Is  ^ 
'  and  Commons,  and  other  Declarations  for  making 

*  him  a  great  and  happy  Prince. 

'  This  was  then  fully  their  Intent,  being  at  that 

*  Time  confident,  that  the  King's  ill  Counfel  once 
'  removed  from  him,  he  would  have  conformed 
c  himfelfto  theDefiresof  his  People  in  Parliament; 
'  and  the  Peers,  who  remained  with  the  Parlir  ment, 
'  would  have  been  a  great  Caufe  of  his  fo  doing  ; 

*  but  finding,  after  leven  fruitlefs  AddrefTes  made 

'  unto 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       77 

c  unto  him,  that  he  yet  both  lived  and  died  in  the   inter-regnum, 

*  obftinute  Maintenance  of  his  ufurped  Tyranny,         l648- 

*  and  refuted  to  accept  of  what  the  Parliament  had    v v— — ' 

*  declared  ;  and  to  the  upholding  of  this  Tyranny,       March- 
'  the  Lords  were   all  obliged,  in  regard  of  their 

*  own  Intereft  in  Peerage  ;  whereby  they  affumed 
4  to  themfelves  an  exorbitant  Power  of  Exemption 
'  from  paying  of  their  juft  Debts,  and   anfwering 
4  Suits  in  Law,  befides  an   hereditary  Judicatory 
4  over  the  People,  tending  to  their  Slavery   and 
'  Oppreffion,  the  Commons  were  confl  rained  to 
4  change  their  former  Refolutions,    finding  them- 
'  felves  thus  fruftrated   in  their  Hopes  and  Inten- 
4  tions  fo  declared  :  Which  Change  being  for  the 
4  Good  of  the  Commonwealth,  no  Commoner  of 
4  England  can  juftly  repine  at ;  neither  could  the 
4  King  or  Lords  take  any  Advantage  thereof,  be- 

*  caufe  they  never  contented  thereto ;  and  where 

*  no  Contract  is  made,  there  none  can  be  faid  to 

*  be  broken  :  And  no  Contract  is  truly  made,  but 

*  where  there  is  a  Stipulation  on  both  Sides,  and 

*  one  Thing  to  be  rendered  for  another  ;  which 

*  not  being  in  this  Cafe,  but  refufed,  the  Com- 
'  mons  were  no  ways  tied  to  maintain  thatDeclara- 

*  tion,  to  the  Performance  of  which,  they  were  not 
4  jbound  by  any  Compact  or  Acceptance  of  the  o- 

*  ther  Part;  and  to  the  Alteration  whereof  fo  ma- 

*  ny  Reafons  for  the  Prefervation  of  the  People's 

*  Liberties   did    fo    neceflarily   and   fully   oblige 
4  them. 

4  Another  Objection  is,  That  thefe  great  Mat- 
'  ten  ought,  if  at  ally  to  be  determined  in  a  full 
4  Houfe,  and  not  when  many  Members  of  Parlia- 
4  ment  are  by  Force  excluded',  and  the  Privilege 
4  fo  highly  broken,  that  thofe  who  are  permitted  to 

*  fit  in  Parliament  do  but  acJ  under  a  Force,  and 
1  upon  their  good  Behaviour. 

4  To  this  it  is  anfwered,  That  every  Parliament 
4  ought  to  act  upon  their  good  Behaviour ;  and 
4  few  have  acted,  but  fome  Kind  of  Force  hath  at 
4  one  Time  or  other  been  upon  them  ;  and  moft 
6  of  them  under  the  Force  of  tyrannical  Will,  and 

1    4  Fear 


7 8       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

4  Fear  of  Ruin  by  Difplcafure  thereof;  fonie  under 
'  the  Force  of  ieveral  Factions  or  Titles  to  the 
'  Crown  ;  yet  the  Laws  made,  even  by  fuch  Par- 
4  liamcnts,  have  continued,  and  been  received  and 

*  beneficial  to  fticceedingfAges.     All  which,  and 

*  whatfoever  hath  been  done  by  this  Parliament, 
'  fince  fome  of  their  Members  defcrted  them,  and 
4  the  'late  King  railed  Forces  againft  them,  and 

*  Ieveral  Diforders  and  Affronts   formerly  offered 
4  to  them,  if  this  Objection  take  Place,  are  wholly 
4  vacated. 

4  For  any  Breach  of  Privilege  of  Parliament ;  it 
4  will  not  be  charged  upon  the  remaining  Part,  or 
'toJiave  been  within  their  Power  of  Prevention 
4  or  Reparation  ;  or  that  they  have  not  enjoyed  the 
4  Freedom  of  their  own  Perfons  and  Votes,  and 
4  are  undoubtedly,  by  the  Law  of  Parliaments,  far 
4  exceeding  that  Number  which  makes  a  Houfe, 

*  authorized  for  the  Difpatch  of  any  Bufmefs  what- 

*  foever:   And  that  which  at  prefent  is  called  a 

*  Force  upon  them,  is  fome  of  their  beft  Friends, 

*  called  and  appointed  by  the- Parliament  for  their 
'  Safety,  and  for  the  Guard  of  them  againft  their  E- 
'  nemies  ;  who,  by  this  Means,  being;  difappointed 
4  of  their  Hopes  to  deftroy  the  Parliament,  would 

*  neverthelefs  fcandalize  their  Actions,  as  done  un- 
4  der  a  Force  ;  who,  in  Truth,  are  no  other  than 
4  their  own  Guards  of  their  own  Army,  by  them- 

*  felves  appointed  :  And  when  it  fell  into  Confi- 
4  deration,  Whether  the  Privilege  of.  Parliament, 
4  or  the  Safety  of  the  Kingdom,  fhould  be  prefer- 
4  red,  it  is  not  hard  to  judge  which  ought  to  fway 
4  the  Balance  ;  and  that  the  Parliament  mould  pafs 
4  by  the  Breach  of  Privilege  (as  had  been  formerly 
4  often  done  upon  much  fmaller  Grounds)  rather 
4  than  by  a  fullen  declining  their  Duty  and  Truft, 
4  to  refign  up  all  to  the  apparent  Hazard  of  Ruin 
4  and  Confufion  to  the  Nation. 

*  There  remains  yet  this  laft  and  weighty  Ob- 
jection to  be  fully  anfwered,  That  the  Courts  of 
4  yuftice,  and  the  good  old  Laws  and  CuJ?oms  of 
4  England,  (the  Badges  of  our  Freedom,  the  Bene- 


Of    ENGLAND.        79 

*  fit  whereof  our  Anceflors  enjoyed  long  before  the  Inter-regnum. 
'  Conquejl,,  and  /pent  much  of  their  Blood  to  have        l648- 

4  confirmed  by  the  Great  Charter  of  the  Liberties  ;     ^M^^ 
4  and  other  excellent  Laws  which  have  continued  in 

*  all  former  Changes  ;  and,  being  duly  executed,  are 

4  the  moft  /'#/?,  free,  and  equal  of  any  other  Laws       ' 
4  in  the  World)  will,  by   the  prefent  Alteration  of 
4  Government,  be  taken  away,  and  lojl  to  us  and  our 
4  Pojhrities. 

4  To  this,  they  hope,  fome  Satisfaction  is  already 

*  given.by  the  Shorter  Declaration  lately  publiili'd  ; 

*  and  by  the  real  Demonftrations  to  the  contrary 

*  of  this  Objection,  by  the  earneft  Care  of  the 
4  Parliament,  That  the  Courts  of  Juftice  at  Wejl- 
4  minjler  fhould  be  fupplied  the  laft  Term,  and  all 
1  the  Circuits  of  England  this  Vacation,  with  learn- 

*  ed  and  worthy  Judges ;   that  the  known  Laws  of 

*  the  Land,  and  the  Adminiftration  of  them,  might 
4  appear  to  be  continued. 

4  They  are  very  fenfible  of  the  Excellency  and 
4  Equality  of  the  Laws  of  England  being  duly  exe- 

*  cuted ;  of  their  great  Antiquity,  even  from  be- 
4  fore  the  Time  of  the  Norman  Slavery  forced  up- 
4  on  us  ;  of  the  Liberty  and  Property,  and  Peace 

*  of  the  Subject,  fo  fully  preferved  by  them  j  and 
'  (which  falls  out  happily,  and  as  an  Increafe  of 
4  God's  Mercy  to  us)  of  the  clear  Confiftency  of 
4  them  with  the  prefent  Government  of  a  Republic, 
4  upon  fome  eafy  Alterations  of  Form  only,  leaving 
4  intire  the  Subftance  ;  the  Name  of  King  being 
4  ufed  in  them  for  Form  only,  but  no  Power  of 

*  perfonal  Adminiftration  or  Judgment  allowed  to 
4  him  in  the  fmalleft  Matter  contended  for. 

4  They  know  their  own  Authority  to  be  by  the 
4  Law,  to  which  the  People  have  affented  ;  and 
4  befides  their  particular  Interefts,  which  are  not 
4  inconfiderable,  they  more  intend  the  common 
4  Intereft  of  thofe  whom  they  ferve,  and  clearly 
4  underftand  the  fame,  not  poflible  to  be  preferved 
4  without  the. Laws  and  Government  of  the  Na- 
4  tion  ;  and  that  if  thofe  fhould  be  taken  away,  all 

*  Induftry   muft  ceafe  j   all  Mifery,  Blood,  and 


Jnter-regnum. 
1648. 


March. 


80      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  Confufion  would  follow  ;  and  greater  Calamities, 
'  it"  poflible,  than  fell  upon  us  by  the  late  King's 
4  Mifgovernment,  would  certainly  involve  all  Per- 
'  fons,  under  which  they  muft  inevitably  perifh. 

4  Thefe  Arguments  are  fufficient  to  perfuade  all 
4  Men  to  be  well  contented  to  fubmit  theirLives  and 
4  P'ortunes  to  thofe  juft  and  long- approved  Rules 
4  of  Law,  with  which  they  are  already  fo  fully 
4  acquainted  ;  and  not  to  believe  that  the  Parlia- 
'  ment  intends  the  Abrogation  of  them,  but  to 
4  continue  and  maintain  the  Laws  and  Government 
4  of  the  Nation,  with  the  prefent  Alterations,  and 
4  with  fuch  further  Alterations  as  the  Parliament 
'  fhall  judge  fit  to  be  made,  for  the  due  Reforma- 

*  tion  thereof;  for  the  taking  away  of  Corruptions 
'  and    Abufes,    Delays,    Vexations,    unneceffary 

*  Travel  and  Expences,  and  whatfoever  fhall   be 
4  found  really  burthenfome  and   grievous  to  the 
«  People. 

'  The  Sum  of  all  the  Parliament's  Defign  and 
4  Endeavour  in  the  prefent  Change  of  Govern- 
4  ment,  from  Tyranny  to  a  free  State,  and  which 
4  they  intend  not  only  to  declare  in  Words,  but 
4  really  and  fpeedily  endeavour  to  bring  to  efFedt, 
4  is  this : 

4  To  prevent  a  new  War,  and  further  Expence 

*  and  EfFufion  of  the  Treafure  and  Blood  of  Eng- 

*  land,  and  to  eftablifh  a  firm  and  fafe  Peace,  and 
4  an  Oblivion  of  all  Rancor  and  Ill-will  occafioned 
4  by  the  late  Troubles  ;  to  provide  for  the  due 
4  Worfhip  of  God,  according  to   his  Word,  the 
4  Advancement  of  the  true  Proteftant  Religion, 
4  and  for  the  liberal  and  certain  Maintenance  of 
4  godly  Minifters  ;  to  procure  a  juft  Liberty  for 
4  theConfciences,  Perfons,  and  Eftates,  of  all  Men, 
4  conformable   to  God's  Glory  and    their    own 
4  Peace  ;  to  endeavour  vigoroufly  the  Punifhment 
4  of  the  cruel  Murderers  in  Ireland,  and  the  re- 
4  ftoring  of  the  honeft  Proteftants,  and  this  Com- 
4  monwealth,  to  their  Rights  there,  and  the  full 
4  Satisfaction  of  all  Engagements  for  this  Work  ; 
4  to  provide  for  the  Settling  and  juft  obferving  of 

4  Treaties 


Of    ENGLAND.        8i 

f  Treaties  and  Alliances  with  foreign  Princes  and 
'States,  for  the  Encouragement  of  Manufactures, 

*  for  the  Increafe  and  Flourishing  of  Trades   at 

*  home,  and  the  Maintenance  of  the  Poor  in  all       March* 

*  Places   of  the  Land ;  to  take  Care  for  the  due 
4  Reformation  and  Adminiftration  of  the  Law  and 
'  public  Jufticej  that  the  Evil  may  be  puniihed, 
'  and  the  Good  rewarded  j  to  order  the  Revenue 

*  in  fuch  a  Way,  that  the  public  Charges  may  be 
'  defrayed,  the  Soldiers  Pay  juftly  and  duly  fettled, 
e  that  Free-  quarter  may  be  wholly  taken  away,  the 
'  People  be  eafed  in  their  Burdens  and  Taxes,  and 

*  the  Debts  of  the  Commonwealth  be  juftly  fatif- 

*  fied  ;  to  remove  all  Grievances  and  Oppreffions 
'  of  the  People,  and  to  eftablifh  Peace  and  Righte- 
4  oufnefs  in  the  Land. 

4  Thefe  being  their  only  Ends,  they   cannot 
c  doubt  of,    and  humbly  pray  to  the  Almighty 

*  Power  for,  his  Afiiftance  and  Bleffing  upon  their 

*  mean  Endeavours ;    wherein  as  they  have  not 

*  envied  or  intermedled,  nor  do  intend  at  all  to  in- 

*  termeddle,  with  the  Affairs  or  Government  of 

*  any  other  Kingdom  or  State,  or  to  give  any  Of- 

*  fence  or  juft  Provocation  to  their  Neighbours^ 
4  with  whom  they  defire  intirely  to  preferve  all 

*  fair  Correfpondence  and  Amity,  if  they  pleafe  ; 

*  and  confine  themfelves  to  the  proper  Work,  the 

*  managing  of  the  Affairs,  and  ordering  the  Go- 

*  vernment  of  this  Commonwealth,  and  Matters 
'  in  order  thereunto,  with  which  they  are  intruft- 

*  ed  and  authorized  by  the  Confent  of  all  the  People 
4  thereof,  whofe  Reprefentatives,  by  Election,  they 
4  are :  So  they  do  prefume  upon  the  like  fair  and 

*  equal  Dealing  from  abroad  j  and  that  they,  who 

*  are  not  concerned,  will  not  interpofe  in  the  Af- 

*  fairs  of  England^  who  doth  not  interpofe  in  theirs: 
4  And  in  cafe  of  any  Injury,  they  doubt  notbut* 

*  by  the  Courage  and  Power  of  the  Englijh  Nation, 

*  and  the  good  Bleffing  of  God,  (who  hath  hither- 

*  to  miraculoufly  owned  the  Juftnefs  of  their  Caufe, 

*  and,  they  hope,  will  continue  to  do  the  fame) 

VOL.  XIX  F  *  they 


82      The  Parliament ary  HISTORY 

Xnter-regnum.  t  they  {hall  be  fufficiently  enabled  to  make  their 
l6*^*  '  full  Defence,  and  to  maintain  their  own  Rights. 
'  And  they  do  expect  from  all  true-hearted 
'  Englishmen,  not  only  a  Forbearance  of  any  pub- 
'  lie  or  fecret  Plots  or  Endeavours,  in  Oppofition 
'  to  the  preient  Settlement,  and  thereby  to  kindle 
'  new  Flames  of  War  and  Mifery  amongft  us, 
'  whereof  themfelves  muft  have  a  Share  ;  but  a 
'  ch earful  Concurrence  and  acling  for  the  Efta- 
1  blifhment  of  the  great  Work  now  in  Hand,  in 
'  fuch  a  Way,  that  the  Name  of  God  may  be 
4  honoured,  the  true  Proteftant  Religion  advanced, 
«  and  the  People  of  this  Land  enjoy  the  Bleflings  of 
'  Peace,  Freedom,  and  Juftice  to  them  and  their 
«  Pofterities.' 

They  order  the  March  23.  The  Day  after  publifhing  the  fore- 
rftKte^fn", g°'mS  Declaration,  the  Commons,  in  order  to  efta- 
the  Queen,  and '  blifh  their  new  Commonwealth  the  more  effectu- 
Prince,  to  be ap- ally,  refolved  upon  the  Difpofal  of  the  Perfonal 
praifed  and  fold,  Eftates  of  the  jate  K;ng)  Queen>  anj  prmce  . 

which  they,  this  Day  f,  made  an  Order  to  have  in- 
ventoried, appraifed,  and  fold,  except  fuch  Parcels 
of  them  as  fnould  be  thought  fit  to  bei^jerved  for 
the  Ufe  of  the  State ;  but  with  this  rrovifo,  to 
avoid  the  Imputation  of  private  Intereft,  That  no 
Member  of  the  Houfe  fhould  have  any  Concern 
therein.  In  this  Appraifement  and  Sale  were  in- 
cluded, heu  Dolor!  all  the  noble  Collection  of  Pic- 
tures, antique  Statues,  and  Buftos,  which  the  late 
King,  at  infinite  Expence  and  Trouble,  had  pro- 
cured from  Rome  and  all  Parts  of  Italy.  A  Cata- 
logue of  thefe  moft  valuable  Curiofities,  (many  of 
which  now  adorn  the  Palaces  of  the  Louvre  and 
the  Ejcurial,  as  well  as  thofe  of  other  foreign 
Princes)  with  their  Appraifement  and  Sale,  was  in 
the  Hands  of  the  late  John  Anflis,  fen.  Efq;  Garter 
King  at  Arms,  from  which  the  following  Abftract 
is  taken. 

PIC- 

f  The  Aft  for  the  Difpofal  of  thefe  Pcrfonal  Eflates  was  no: 
ptfled  till  J*ly  following. 


<y    ENGLAND.  83 

PICTURES  belonging  to  King  C  H  AR  L  E  s  I.  at  his  feve- 
ral  Palaces,  appraifed,  and  moft  of  them  fold,  by  the  Council  of 

State.  , 

I.       s.      d. 


mbletonm&Green'ivich'PiOimes,^.  143,  7 
appraifed  at  5      '    * 

Pictures    out  of  the  Bear  Gallery,  and  fome"J 

of  the  privy  Lodgings  at  Whitehall^  N°.  61,  >  2291   10     O 
appraifed  at  J 

Among  ft  thefe  the  capital  Pitfures  were, 

1.  Peace  and  Plenty,  with  many  Figures,  as  big 
as  the  Life,  by  Rubens,  appraifed  at,  and  fold 
for,  100  1. 

2.  Pope  Alexander  and  Cesfar  Borgia,  done  by 
Titian,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,   ioo/. 

3.  The  Burial  of  Chrifi,  by  Titian,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,  i2O/. 

4.  The  Triumphs  of  Vefpaftan  and  his  Son  Ti- 
tus, by  Julio  Romano,  appraifed  at,  and  fold 
for,   1507. 

5.  A  great  Piece  of  the  Nativity,  by  the  fame 
Hand,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  500  /. 

6.  The  Cartoons  of  Raphael,  being  the  Acts  of 
the  Apoftles,  appraifed  at  300  /. 

Oat  land  Pictures,  N°.  81,  appraifed  at  733  i8  o 

Nonfuch-Houfe  Pictures,  N°.  33,  appraifed  at  282  o  O 
Pictures  in  Somerfet-Houfe,  with  thofe  which"*j 

came   from   Whitehall  and    St.   James's,  >I0052  II     O 

N°.  447,  appraifed  at  J 

Capital  Piftures  in  thefe  Co/legions. 
t.  Mary,  Chrijl,  and  an  Angel,  done  by  An- 

drea  del  Sarto,  appraifed  at  200  /.  and  fold 

for  2307. 
i.  Mary,  Chrift,  St.  Katherine,  St.  John,  Eli- 

zabeth, and  Jofeph,  by  Molanefo,  appraifed  at 

ioo/.  and  fold  for  I20/. 


Carried  over  15069  1 8     o 
Mary 


84  ^kc  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

/.      s.     d. 

Brought  over  15069  18     o 

3.  Mary,   Cbrijl,    and  Jofepb,  by  Andrea  del 
Sarto,  appraifed  at  1507.  and  Ibid  for  iy4/. 

4.  Venus,  lying  along,  playing  on  an  Organ, 
by  Titian,  appraifed  at  I5O/.  fold  for  1657. 

5.  Mary,  Chrijf,    St.   Mark,    and    a   Genius, 
kneeling,  by  Titian,  appraifed  at  1507.  and 
fold  for  165  /. 

6.  Mary,  Cbrijt,  St.  Katberine,  and  Jofepb,  by 
Giorgioni,  appraifed  at   ioo/.  fold  for  U4/. 

7.  The  three  Jewellers,  by  Titian,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,  ioo  /. 

8.  A  fleeping  Venus,  by  Corregio,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,   iooo/. 

9.  A  Madona,  by  Raphael,  appraifed  at,  and 
fold  for,  2OOO/. 

10.  Mary,  the  Child,  and  St.  Jerome,  by  Par- 
tinenfts,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  i^ol. 

11.  Mary,  the  Child,  and  St.  Sebajlian,  by  Pal- 
ma,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  ioo/. 

12.  The  King,  Queen,  Prince,  and  Princefs, 
by  Vandyke,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  ifo/. 

13.  The  great  Venus  de  Pardo,  by  Titian,  ap- 
praifed at  500 /.  and  fold  for  600 /. 

14.  The  Marquis  de  Gajlo  making  an  Oration 
to  his  Soldiers,  by  Titian,  appraifed  at,  and 
fold  for,  250/. 

15.  Nymphs  at  the  Birth  of  Hercules,  by  Julio 
Romano,  appraifed  at  ioo/.  and  fold  for  114.7. 

1 6.  Titian's  Miftrefs,  by  himfelf,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,   ioo/. 

17.  King  Charles  on  Horfeback,  by  Vandyke, 
appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  200 /. 

1 8.  Venus  fitting  to  be  drefled   by  the   three 
Graces,   by   Guido    Bullioni,    appraifed    at, 
and  fold  for,  200 /. 

19.  St.  Margaret  afraid  of  a  Monfter,  by  Titian, 
appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,   ioo/. 

20.  Solomon  offering  to  Idols,  by  Poedmore,  ap- 
praifed at  ijo/. 


Carried  over  15069  18     o 

Hampton- 


O/*   ENGLAND.  8$ 

/.       s.      d. 

Brought  over  15069  1 8     o 
Hampton-Court  Pictures,  N°.  332,  appraifed  at    4675   10     c 

Among  thefe  were, 

1.  Nine  Pieces,   being  the  Triumphs  of  Julius 
Cafar,  done  by  Andreiu  De  Montanger,  ap- 
praifed  at  iooo/. 

2.  Herod  holding  St.  John's  Head  in  a  Platter, 
by  Titian,  appraifed  at  I50/. 

\ 

In  the  Committee  Rooms  at  the  Parliament  7 
Houfe,  were  Pictures  valued  at  J 

Pi6luresatSt.J<7w^'s,N°  290,  appraifed  at         12049     4     & 

In  thefe  Collections  were, 

1.  St.  George,  by  Raphael,  appraifed  at,  and  fold 
for,  1507. 

2.  The  Burying  of  Chrift,  by  Ifaac  Oliver,  ap- 
praifed at,  and  fold  for,  ioo/. 

3.  The  Marquis  of  Mantua's  Head,  by  Ra- 
phael, appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  200  A 

4.  Albert  Durer's  Father  and  himfelf,  by  ditto, 
appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  ioo/. 

5.  Tobanus  and  Erafmus,  in  two  Pictures,  by  Hoi- 
ben,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  200 /. 

6.  Mary,  Cbriji,  and  others,  by  old  Palma,  ap- 
praifed at  200  /.  and  fold  for  225  /. 

7.  Three  Figures,  by  Titian,  appraifed  at,  and 
fold  for,  i  oo  /. 

8.  A  Man  in  Black,  by  Holben,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,  I20/. 

9.  Mount  Parnajfus,  in  a  Cafe,  by  Indehaga, 
appraifed  at  ioo  /.  and  fold  for  117  /. 

10.  Lucretia  {landing  by  herfelf,  in  an  Ebony 
Frame,   by  Titian,   appraifed  at,   and   fold 
for,  200 /. 

11.  St.  John,  by  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  appraifed 
at,  and  fold  for,  I40/. 


Carried  over  31913  12 
F  3  A  Pie 


86  27#  'Parliamentary  HISTORY 

/.      *.     d. 

Brought  over  31913  12     O 

12.  A  Piece  of  the  Mauritians,  by  Titian,  ap- 
praifed  at  1507.  and  fold  for  1747. 

13.  Charles  V.  at  Length,  by  Titian,  appraifed 
at,  and  fold  for,  1507. 

14.  St.  Jerome,  by  Julio  Romano,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,  200  7. 

15.  Twelve  Emperors,  by  Titian,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,  1200  7. 

1 6.  Eleven  Emperors,  by  Julio,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,  uco/. 

17.  A  Courtezan  holding   a   Looking- Glafs, 
by  Portinenfes,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  1507. 

18.  Titian's  Picture,  with  a  Senator,  done  by 
himfelf,  appraifed  at  ioo/.  and  fold  for  112  7. 

19.  A  Satyre  ftead,  by  Corregio,  appraifed  at, 
and  fold  for,  iooo/. 

20.  Another  of  the  fame,  appraifed  at,  and  fold 
for,  iooo/. 

21.  Three  Pieces    of  St.   Seba/lian,  by  Lucas 
Van  Ley  den,  appraifed  at  ioo/.  and  fold  for 
101  /. 

22.  The  Converfion  of  St.  Paul,  by  Palma^ 
appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  ico/. 

23.  David  meeting  Saul,  with  Goliah's  Head, 
by  Palma,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  ioc/. 

24.  Dorcas  lying  dead,  by  Michael  Angela  Ca- 
ravagio,  appraifed  at  1507.  and  fold  for  i/o7, 

25.  The  Family  of  the  Queen  of  Bohemia,  ap- 
praifed at,  and  fold  for,  ioo 7. 

26.  The  Hiftory  of  Queen  EJIher,  by  Tintoretto, 
appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  120  7. 

27.  A  Family,  with  divers  Figures,  by  Pordt- 
noni,  appraifed  at,  and  fold  for,  ioo 7. 

28.  The  King  on  Horfeback,  appraifed  at,  and 
fold  for,    1507. 

29.  Hercules  and  Cacus,  by  Bolonefe,  appraifed 
at,  and  fold  for,  400 /. 


Carried  over  31913  12     o 
STA- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.  87 

/.     s.     d. 

Brought  over  31913   12     O 
STATUES  in  Somerfet-Houfe,  belonging  to 

King  C  HAR  L  E  s  I.  appraifed  and  fold  by  the 

Council  of  State. 

In  the  Gallery,  N°.  120,  appraifed  at  2387     3     O 

In  the  Garden,  N°.  20,  appraifed  at  1165   14     o 

Statues  at  Greenwich,  N°  230,  appraifed  at         13780  13     6 
Statues  in  the  Armory  at  St.  James's,  N°.  2Q,  1      /•    /• 

appraifed  at  J      656     °     ° 


Total    49903      2      6 


This  curious  and  valuable  Catalogue  fully  jufti- 
fies  one  Part  of  the  Character  given  of  King 
Cbarks  I.  by  a  modern  Hiftorian*,  '  He  had  a 
good  Tafte  of  Learning,  and  a  more  than  ordi- 
nary Skill  in  the  Liberal  Arts,  efpecially  Painting, 
Sculpture,  Architecture,  and  Medals;  and,  being 
a  generous  Benefactor  to  the  moft  celebrated  Ma- 
ilers in  thofe  Arts,  he  acquired  the  nobleft  Col- 
lection of  any  Prince  in  his  Time,  and  more  than 
all  the  Kings  of  England  had  done  before  him.' 

To  the  foregoing  Account  of  the  Sale  of  the 
Royal  Furniture,  we  (hall  add  Lord  Clarendon's  * 
Account  of  the  principal  Purchafers  thereof: 

'  Cardinal  Mazarin^  who,  in  the  Infancy  of  the 
French  King,  managed  that  Scepter,  had  long  a- 
dored  the  Conduct  of  Cromwell^  and  fought  his 
Friendlhip  by  a  lower  and  viler  Application  than 
was  fuitable  to  the  Purple  of  a  Cardinal,  fent  now 
to  be  admitted  as  a  Merchant  to  traffick.  in  the  Pur- 
chafe  of  the  rich  Goods  and  Jewels  of  the  rifled 
Crown,  of  which  he  purchafed  the  rich  Beds, 
Hangings,  and  Carpets,  which  furnifhed  his  Palace 
at  Paris. 

'  The  King  of  Spain  had,  from  the  Beginning 
of  the  Rebellion,  kept  Don  Alonzo  de  Cardinal, 
who  had  been  his  Ambaflador  to  the  King,  reft- 
ding  ftill  at  London;  and  he  had,  upon  feveral  Oc- 

cafions, 
*  Wdwift  Mimsiri,  p,  Sx,  a  HiJItry*  Vol.  V.  p.  163* 


88      Tfo  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  cafions,  many  Audiences  from  the  Parliament,  and 
*_ 4—        feveral  Treaties  on  foot ;  and  as  foon  as  this  dif- 
*~^fa^TJ    mal  Murder  was  over,  that  Ambaflador,  who  had 
always  a  great  Malignity  to  wards  the  King  bj  bought 
as  many  Pictures,  and  other  precious  Goods  ap- 
pertaining to  the  Crown,  as,  beina;  fent  in  Ships  to 
the  Corunna  in  Spain,  were  carried  from  thence  to 
Madrid  upon  eighteen  Mules. 

'  Chri/iina,  Queen  of  Sweden,  purchafed  the 
Choice  of  all  the  Medals  and  Jewels,  and  fomc 
Pic-tures  of  a  great  Price,  and  received  the  Parlia- 
ment's Agent  with  great  Joy  and  Pomp,  and  made 
an  Alliance  with  them. 

'  The  Arch-Duke  Leopold,  who  was  Governor 
of  Flanders,  dilburfed  a  great  Sum  of  Money  for 
many  of  the  beft  Pictures,  which  adorned  the  fe- 
veral  Palaces  of  the  King  ;  which  were  all  brought 
to  him  to  BruJJeh  c ,  and  from  thence  carried  by 
him  into  Germany.'' 

His  Lordfhip  adds,  e  That  not  one  of  all  thefe 
Princes  ever  reftored  any  of  their  unlawful  Pur- 
chafes  to  the  King  after  his  Reftoration.' 

And  lay  a  Land-          To  return  to  the  Journals. • 

per*Menfem°up-  March  24..  The  Commons  having,  on  the  8th 
ontheKingdom,of  this  Month,  rcfolved  that  the  Sum  of  1 20,000 /. 
for  fix  Months.  pgr 

b  This  Account  of  the  Difpofition  of  the  Court  of  Spain  towards 
King  Charles  1.  (which  was  probably  owing  to  an  old  Difguft  about 
the  propofed  Match  with  the  Jnfar.ta)  correfponds  with  what  Mr. 
Ludloiv  writes  upon  this  Subject :  «  The  Spanijb  Ambaflador 
was  the  firft  that  made  Application,  from  any  foreign  State,  to  the 
Parliament :  But  they,  not  being  fatisficd  with  the  Addrefs  of  his 
Credentials,  refufed  to  receive  them  till  it  fhould  be  diredlsd  To  the 
Parliament  of  the  Common-wealth  of  England ;  declaring,  that  tho* 
they  did  not  «ffecl  any  flattering  Titles,  yet  they  rcfolved  to  have 
their  Authority  owned  by  all  thofe  who  made  their  Addrefles  to 
them.  With  which  the  Court  of  Spain  beinp  made  acquainted,  tin: 
Ambaflador  received  Inftrudlions  from  the  King  his  Mafter  to  that 
End,  and  framed  the  Direction  according  to  our  Defires.' 

Memoirs,  Vol.  I.   p..  292, 

c  Amongft  the  Furniture  bought  by  the  Arch-Duke  was  a  Set 
of  Tapeftry,  the  Property  of  King  Charles  I.  when  Prince  of  JFaltt, 
and  which  had  his  Arms  work'd  in  them.  Thefe,  as  we  have  been 
credibly  informed,  were  purchafed  at  BruJJels,  fome  few  Years  fince, 
for  the  Sum  of  3000 /.  by  his  late  Royal  Highnefs  Freda  irk,  Prince 
of  Wtlet  j  and  are  perhaps  all  that  ever  came  back  to  England. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.         89 

per  Menfem  be  provided  for  fix  Months  for  main-  Interregnu 
tainina;  the  Forces  in  England  and  Ireland,  to  the         l649- 
end  Free-quarter  might  be  taken  off}  and  that,    **"TTV  . 
towards  railing  this  Sum,  a  Tax  of  QCjOOO/.  per 
Menfeni)  for  fix  Months,  be  levied  upon  Lands 
and  Goods  ;  and  having  appointed  a  Committee 
to  confider  of  an  equal  Rule  for  laying  fuch  AflefT- 
ment,  a  Report  was  this  Day  made,  from  the 
Committee  for  the  Army,  of  the  Rates  and  Pro- 
portions for  each  County  as  agreed  on  by  them  ; 
which,  after  fome  Debate  and  a  Divifion  there- 
upon, was  referred  to  a  Committee  of  the  whole 
Houfe,  and  the  next  Month  parted  into  an  A£h 

This  being  the  firft  Inftance  of  a  Tax  laid  upon 
the  Subjects  of  England  by  Authority  of  the  Houfe 
of  Commons  only  ;  in  order  to  make  it  more  paf- 
fable  with  the  People,  the  Speaker  was  ordered  to 
write  a  circular  Letter  to  the  Commifiioners  ap- 

C'nted  in  every  County  for  raifing  the  fame.    The 
tter  itfelf  is  not  entered  in  the  'Journals^  but 
was  printed  about  this  Time  in  bcec  Verba  :  d 


GENTLEMEN,    Weflmnfa  April  vj,  1649. 

e  r  |->HE  Parliament  have  lately  patted  an  Act,  The  Speaker's 
'  herewith  fent  you,  for  the  raifing  of  the  circular  Letter  t» 

<  monthly  Aflertment  of  90,000  /.  for  the  Mainte- 
«  nance  of  the  Forces  in  England  and  Ireland^  for  Of. 
'  fix  Months,  from  the  25th  of  March  laft  paft,  to 

*  the  29th  of  September  next  enfuing  : 

'  I  am  commanded,  by  the  Houfe,  to  recom- 

*  mend  unto  you  the  fpeedy  putting  the  fame  in 

*  Execution  ;  that  the  Monies,  thereby  appointed, 
'  may  be  timely  artefled,  collected,  and  paid,  ac- 
'  cording  to  the  Engagement  of  the  Parliament  ; 
«  which  all  good  Men,  who  wifh  well  to  the  Ho- 

*  nour  and  Prefervation  of  the  Commonwealth, 

«  and 

<J  In  a  Diary,  intituled,  P  erf  eEr  Occurrences  of  every  Day1  s  Jour- 
nal in  Parliament  ;  Proceedings  of  the  Council  of  State  ;  and  ether 
moderate  Intelligence  frtm  his  Excellency  the  Lord-General  Fairfax'* 
Army,  and  other  Parts.  Printed  for  John  Ckwes  and  Revert  Ibbit* 
fen,  and  licenced  by  Tbeidare  Jennings,  N°  jzz. 


go       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  and,  in  particular,  to  their  own  Good  and  Safctv » 
c  will  he  careful  to  effect;  it  being  the  molt  effec- 

*  tual  Means  to  take  off,  or  prevent,  the  intole- 
'  rable  Burden  of  Free-quarter,  which  otherwife 
'  will  inevitably  fall  upon  them. 

*  In  all  which  you  are  chiefly  concerned,  whom 
'  the  Parliament  have  efpecially  intruded,  for  the 
'  more  fpeedy  and  effectual  carrying  on  of  this 
'  Work ;  which,  being  faithfully  performed  by 
'  you,  will  procure  Quiet  and  Contentment  to  the 

*  People,  and  be  efteemed  a  moft  acceptable  Ser- 
'  vice  to  the  Parliament ;  it  being  a  great  Part  of 
4  their  Care,  to  prevent  the  fad  Inconveniences  of 

*  Free- quarter. 

'  I  fhall  not  prefs  you  with  many  Arguments  to 

*  quicken  you  to  this  Work,  wherein  the  Public 

*  Peace,  and  Safety  of  the  Commonwealth,  is  Co 
'  highly  concerned :  Your  Care  and  utmoft  Endea- 
'  vours  in  promoting  this  Service  is  expected  by  the 
4  Houfe  -y  whereof  not  doubting,  I  reft 

Tour  very  loving  Friend^ 

W.  LENTHALL,  Speaker. 

The  Cartle  of  March  2"j .  A  Letter  was  received  from  Major- 
Pontefraft  fur-  General  Lambert ,  dated  from  Knotting!^.  March 
render'd  to  the  the  2id,  1648,  with  the  Articles  of  Agreement 
Parliament.  ^  tfae  Rendition  of  pontefrafj  Caftle ;  ttfich ,  be- 
ing  read,  were  approved  of  by  the  Houfe.  Alfo  a 
Petition  from  the  Mayor,  Aldermen,  and  all  the 
well-affected  Inhabitants  of  the  Town  of  Ponte- 
fraft,  was  read  ;  after  which  it  was  refclved^ 
That  the  Caftle  of  PontefraEt  fhould  be  totally 
and  forthwith  demolished  :  That  it  be  referred  to 
the  Committee  of  the  Weft-Riding  of  the  County 
of  Tork,  to  take  Care  to  fee  this  Caftle  demolifh'd, 
and  levell'd  with  the  Ground.  The  Sale  of  the 
Materials  of  which  to  go  firft  to  pay  for  the  Charges 
of  Demolition  ;  and  the  Value  of  1000  /.  of  the 
Remainder  to  be  allotted  to  the  Town  of  Ponte- 
y  towards  the  repairing  their  Place  of  public 

Wor- 


Of    E  N  G  L  AN  D.        91 

Worfhip,  and  the  re-edifying  an  Habitation  for  a  Inter- regnum. 
Minifter. 

Thus  fell  this  noble,  princely  Palace,  the  antient 
Seat  and  Demefnes  of  the  Earls  and  Dukes  of  Lan- 
cajhr:  It  was  fo  prodigioufly  ftrong,  by  Nature  and 
Art,  as,  in  earlier  Times  than  thefe,  when  Gun- 
powder was  not  known,  to  have  been  thought  im- 
pregnable ;  and  at  this  Time  ftood  a  Siege  of  fome 
Months  againft  the  Power  of  the  Parliament'sArmy 
aflifted  by  Gunnery;  and  was  the  laft  Fortrefs  in 
England  that  held  out  againft  them  for  the  King  a. 

The  Houfe  ordered  300  /.  a-year,  clear  Rent, 
to  be  fettled  upon  Major-General  Lambert^  and 
his  Heirs  for  ever,  out  of  the  Demefnes  of  the  Ho- 
nour of  Pontefratt^  for  this  and  the  many  other 
eminent  Services  done  by  him  to  the  Parliament. 

The  Commons  being  informed  of  a  Pamphlet  A  Pamphlet, 
lately  printed,  call'd  The  Second  Part  of  England'.?  highly  reflecting 
new  Chains  discovered -,  and  the  fame  being  read,  ?» their  Proceed- 

.  r  .       , '        ^,,    '     .  .    ,  ,  . °    .  .     '  ings,  voted  to  be 

they  refolved,    '  l  hat   it  contain  d  much  falfe,  fajfe,  feditious, 
fcandalous,  and  reproachful  Matter;  was  highly  &<=.  and  the  AU- 
feditious;  and  deftruaive  to  the  prefent  Govern- * 
ment,  as  now  declar'd  and  fettled  by  Parliament ;  tors. 
that  it  tended  to  Divifion  and  Mutiny  in  the  Army ; 
to  the  railing  of  a  new  War  in  the  Commonwealth ; 
to  the  hindering  the  prefent  Relief  of- Ireland;  and 
to  the  continuing  of  Free-quarter.'  The  Houfe  alfb 
declared,    l  That  the  Authors,   Contrivers,  and 
Framers  of  the  faid  Paper  were  guilty  of  High 
Treafon,  and  mould  be  proceeded  againft  as  Trai- 
tors :  That  all  Perfons  whatfoever,  who  fhould 
join  with,  or  adhere  unto,  and  hereafter  voluntarily 
aid  or  affift,  the  Authors,  Framers,  and  Contri- 
vers of  the  aforefaid  Paper,  in  the  Profecution 
thereof,  mould  be  efteem'd  Traitors  to  the  Com- 
monwealth ; 

a  This  Garrifon,  confiding  but  of  a  few  Royalifts,  held  out  very 
near  two  Months  after  the  late  King's  Death ;  they  had  the  Courage 
not  only  to  proclaim  King  Cbarlet  the  Second  in  it,  but  to  ftrike 
Coin  in  his  Name ;  on  the  Reverfe  of  which  was  this  Infcription, 
POST  MORTEM  PATRJS  PRO  FILIO:  Some  of  thefe  Coins  are 
ftill  in  the  Collections  of  the  Curious. 


92      'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

monwealth ;  and  be  proceeded  againft  accordingly.' 
And  this  Declaration  was  ordered  to  be  forthwith 
printed,  publimed,  and  proclaim'd  under  the  Di- 
rection of  the  Council  of  State  ;  to  whom  it  was 
referr'd  to  find  out  and  examine  who  were  the 
Authors,  Contrivers  and  Framers,  Printers  and 
Publifhers  of  the  faid  Pamphlet,  and  to  proceed 
therein  as  they  fliould  think  juft  and  necefTary,  for 
preventing  Tumults,  and  for  prefcrving  the  Peace 
of  the  Commonwealth. 

A  fhort  View  of  this  Pamphlet,  which  gave  fo 
great  an  Alarm  to  the  new  Republick,  as  to 
occafion  the  foregoing  moft  extraordinary  Votes  of 
Refentment,  cannot  be  improper  in  this  Place.  It 
lets  forth,  in  the  higheft  Colours,  *  The  Hypocrify 
and  Perfidioufnefs  of  the  Council  of  the  Army  and 
the  Grandees,  in  cheating  all  Intercfts ;  King,  Par- 
liament, People,  Soldiers,  City,  Agitators,  Level- 
lers,^.' It  affirms  '  That  the  Grandees  walk  by 
no  Principles  of  Honefty  or  Confcience ;  but,  as 
meer  Politicians,  are  govern'd  altogether  by  Occa- 
fion, as  they  fee  a  Poflibility  of  making  a  Progrefs 
in  their  Defigns;  which  Courfe  of  theirs  they  ever 
term'd  A  waiting  upon  Providence,  that,  under  Co- 
lour of  Religion,  they  might  deceive  more  fecurely : 
That  their  Intent  is  to  garrifon  all  great  Towns, 
and  to  break  the  Spirits  of  the  People  with  Oppref- 
fion  and  Poverty.'  It  farther  declares,  '  That 
thefe  Grandees  judge  themfelves  loofe,  when  other 
Men  are  bound  ;  that  all  Obligations  are  to  them 


to  comply  with 
the  Agreement  of  the  People ,  but  only  to  amufe  that 
Party,  whilft  they  haftily  fet  up  a  Council  of  State 
to  evrablifh  their  own  Tyranny  :  That,  to  prepare 
the  Way  to  this,  they  broke  the  Houfe  of  Com- 
mons, took  away  the  Houfe  of  Lords,  removed 
the  King  by  an  extrajudicial  Way  of  Proceeding, 
and  erected  fuch  a  Court  of  Juftice  as  had  no 
Place  in  the  Englijh  Government :  That  the  Re- 
mainder 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.         93 

mainder   of  the  Houfe  of  Commons  is  now  be-  inter-regnum. 
come  a  meer  Channel,  thro'  which  are  convey'd        l649- 
all  the  Decrees  and  Determinations  of  a  private    V""7TVT""'' 
Council  of  fome  few  Officers  :  That  all  thefe,  and 
the  Votes,  That  the  Supreme  Power  is  in  the  People^ 
and  the  Supreme  Authority  in  the  Commons^  their  Re- 
prefentative^  were  only  in  order  to  their  own  Inte- 
refts  of  Will  and  Power :  That  they  place  their  Se- 
curity in  the  Divifions  of  the  People  :  And  that  if 
the  prefent  Houfe  of  Commons  fhould  never  fo 
little  crofs  the  Ambition  of  thefe  Grandees,  they 
would  mew  no  more  Modefty  to  them  than  they 
had  done  to  the  excluded  Members.'     It  protefts 
againft  *  their  breaking  the  Faith  of  the  Army 
with  all  Parties ;  their  diffolving  the  Council  of 
Agitators,  and  ufurping  a  Power  of  giving  forth  the 
Se'nfe  of  the  Army  againft  the  Parliament  and 
People  ;  againft  their  mooting  to  Death  the  Soldier 
XiWare-i  in  Nov.  1647,  and  their  Cruelties  exercifed 
on  other  Perfons,  to  the  debafing  their  Spirits,  and 
thereby  new-moulding  the  Army  to  their  Defigns  ; 
againft  their  playing  faft  and  loofe  with  the  King 
and  his  Party,  till  they  had  brought  a  new  and 
dangerous  War  upon  this  Nation ;  againft  their 
diffembled  Repentances  ;  againft  their  late  extra- 
ordinary Proceedings  in  bringing  the  Army  upon 
the  City,  to  the  Ruin  of  Trade ;  their  breaking 
the  Houfe  of  Commons  in  Pieces  without  char- 
ging the  Members  particularly ;  and  then  judging 
and  taking  away  Men's  Lives  in  an  extraordinary 
Way,  as  done  for  no  other  End  but  to  make  Way 
for  their  own  abfolute  Domination.'     It  alfo  pro- 
tefts '  againft  the  Erection  and  Eftablifhment  of 
the  High  Court  of  Juftice,  as  unjuft  in  itfelf,  and 
of  dangerous  Precedent  in  Time  to  come  :    As 
likewife  againft  the  Council  of  State,  and  putting 
fome  of  themfelves  therein,  contrary  to  their  own 
Agreement?     It  affirms,  '  That  this  Council  was 
no  fooner  erected,  but  it  devoured  half  the  Parlia- 
ment of  England ;    and   now    is  adorning   itfelf 
with  Regal   Magnificence,   and  the   Majefty  of 
courtly  Attendants,   like   the  thirty  Tyrants  of 

Athens, 


94       The  Parti ame?rtary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Athens,  to  head  itfelf  over  the  People  :  That  the 
1649.        Members  thereof,  by  their  Machiaviiian  Pretences, 

V"^7VT"1>'  and  wicked  Practices,  are  become  Matters  and 
Ufurpers  of  the  Name  of  the  Army,  and  of  the 
Name  of  the  Parliament,  under  which  Vifors  they 
had  levelled  and  deftroyed  all  the  Authority  of  this 
Nation  ;  for  that  the  Parliament,  in  Deed  and  in 
Truth,  was  no  Parliament,  but  a  Reprefentative 
Glafs  of  the  Council  of  War ;  and  the  Council  of 
War  but  a  Reprefentative  of  Cromwell,  Ireton,  and 
Harrifon ;  and  that  thefe  are  the  All  in  All  of  the 
Nation,  under  the  Guife  and  Name  of  Parliament, 
General  Council  of  the  Army,  High  Court  of 
Juftice,  and  Council  of  State :  That  the  Con- 
clave of  Officers  have  fuck'd  in  the  Venom  of  all 
former  corrupt  Courts  and  Interefts ;  for  that  the 
High  CommhTion,  Star-Chamber,  the  Houfe  of , 
Lords,  the  King  and  his  Privy  Council,  are  all 
alive  in  that  Court  call'd  the  General  Council  of 
the  Army  :  That  the  Nation  was  formerly  ruled 
by  King,  Lords,  and  Commons  ;  but  now  by  a 
General  Court-Martial  and  Houfe  of  Commons ; 
yet  with  this  Difference,  that  the  Lords  were  not 
Members  both  of  the  Houfe  of  Peers  and  of  the 
Houfe  of  Commons ;  but  that  the  Officers,  their 
now  Martial  Lords,  were  Members  both  of  the 
Council  of  Officers,  and  of  the  Houfe  of  Com- 
mons too  :  That  the  Nation  had  not  the  Change 
of  a  Kingdom  into  a  Commonwealth ;  but  were 
only  under  the  old  Cheat  of  a  Tranfmutation 
of  Names,  with  the  Addition  of  new  Tyran- 
nies :  That  for  cafting  out  one  unclean  Spirit 
they  had  brought  with  them  in  his  Stead  feven 
other  unclean  Spirits  more  wicked  than  the  for- 
mer, who  had  enter'd  in  and  dwelt  there  ;  and  that 
the  laft  State  of  this  Commonwealth  was  worfe 
than  the  firft.' 

March  28.   Great  Part  of  this  Day  the  Houfe 
was  taken  up  with  reading  feveral  I/etters  from  Ire- 
landt  but  none  of  them  are  inferted  in  their  Jour- 
nals* 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       95 

»<7/j,  as  they  ufed  to  be  at  Length  in  thofc  of  the  inter-rcgnum. 
Lords.     All  we  can  learn  of  them,  is,  that  they         l649- 
brought  an  Account  of  the  Marquis  of  Ormond's    '—  ~~ *~ — ' 
making  Peace  with  and  joining  the  Rebels  in  that 
Kingdom ;  and  of  Col.  Jones's  refufmg  to  come  in  The  Marquis  of 
to  him :   For  which  the  Houfe  voted  the  Marquis  °rnw>nd  voted 
guilty  of  High  Treafon,  and  approved  of  the  Co-^on°,fo?± 
loncl's  Conduct  in  the  Affair.  king  Peace  with 

the  Irirti  Rebels. 

It  is  to  be  remembered  that,  while  the  King's 
Trial  was  depending  before  the  High  Court  of  Juf- 
tice,  the  Prefbyterian  Minifters  of  many  Parifhcs 
in  London  and  the  adjacent  Counties,  to  the  Num- 
ber of  above  fixty,  published  a  Proteftation,  '  de- 
claring themfelves  wholly  unfatisfied  with  the  Pro- 
ceedings fince  the  Exclunon  and  Imprifonment  of 
the  Members  of  the  Houfe  of  Commons ;  that 
they  held  themfelves  bound  in  Duty  to  God,  Re- 
ligion, the  King,  Parliament,  and  Kingdom,  to 
profefs  before  God,  Angels,  and  Men,  That  they  -phe  clergy  pro 
verily  believ'd  the  taking  away  the  Life  of  the  King,  hibited  meddling 
in  the  Way  of  Trial,  was  not  only  not  agreeable  with  Affairs  of 
to  the  Word  of  God,  the  Principles  of  the  Pro-  p^its?  ' 
teftant  Religion,  (never  yet  ftained  with  the  leaft 
Drop  of  the  Blood  of  a  King)  or  the  Fundamental 
Conltitution  of  the  Kingdom ;  but  contrary  to 
them,  as  alfo  to  the  Oath  of  Allegiance,  the  Pro~ 
teftation  of  May  4,  1641,  and  the  Solemn  League 
and  Covenant.'  And  many  of  them,  after  the 
King  was  beheaded,  prayed  publickly  for  the  Prince 
of  JrUrs,  as  King,  by  the  Name  of  Charles  the 
Second  ;  particularly  one  Mr.  Cawton,  who  had 
the  Courage  to  do  fo  before  the  Lord  Mayor,  for 
which  he  was  ordered  to  be  profecuted  in  the  Up- 
per Bench,  by  the  Recorder  of  London,  and  the 
Solicitor- General  of  the  Commonv/ealth,  for  High 
Treafon.  The  Commons,  in  order  to  prevent 
fuch  a  Defiance  of  their  Authority  for  the  fu- 
ture, this  Day  appointed  a  Committee  to  bring 
in  an  A6t,  forbidding  Minifters  in  London^  or  any 
Part  of  England  or  Wales,  in  their  Pulpits,  in 

Preach- 


9  6       *Thc  Parliamentary  Hi  s  T OR  v 

Preaching  or  Praying,  to  meddle  with  Matters 
of  Government,  or  the  Tranfactions  of  State;  and 
Jikewife  prohibiting  to  hold  Correfpondence  or  In- 
telligence with  foreign  States,  under  a  Penalty;  and 
only  to  apply  themlelves  to  their  Duty  in  preach- 
ing Jefus  Chriji  and  his  Gofpel,  to  the  edifying  of 

their  Congregations. This  Act  appears,  by  the 

Journals,  to  have  been  form'd  upon  the  Plan  of 
an  Order  of  the  States  General^  concerning  their 
Clergy. 

March  30.  Affairs  in  Ireland  growing  ftill  worfe 
againft  the  Government  here,  the  Council  of  State 
thought  fit  to  nominate  Lieutenant-General  Crom- 
well to  go  Commander  in  Chief  into  that  Kingdom, 
which  the  Houfe  agreed  to.  Commifiary-General 
Ireton,  his  Son-in-Law,  was  alfo  appointed  next 
in  Command  under  him  :  But  at  the  fame  Time, 
as  a  Compliment  to  Lord  Fairfax*  they  refolv'd 
to  continue  his  Lordfhip  General  of  all  the  Forces 
of  the  Parliament,  both  in  England  and  Ireland. 
TheLordMayor  Complaint  having  been  made  to  the  Commons, 
of  London  ha-  That  the  Lord  Mayor  of  London  had  not  proclaim- 

*^mUtheAaed  the  late  Aft  for  aboliflling  the  Kingly  Office, 
f<>r abdifhing  according  to  Direction  from  the  Houfe,  he  was 
Monarchy,  ordered  to  be  fummoned  to  appear  at  the  Bar,  on 
Monday,  April  2,  to  anfwer  his  Contempt  there- 
in. On  which  Day  the  Houfe,  after  making 
fome  additional  Rules  for  Compofitions  on  De- 
linquents Eftates,  was  inform'd,  That  the  Lord 
Mayor  of  London  did  attend  their  Pleafure  accord- 
ing to  Order :  Who  being  called  in,  and  fet  to  the 
Bar,  the  Speaker  told  him,  The  Houfe  had  here- 
tofore fent  an  Order  to  him,  and  a  Writ,  to  pro- 
claim an  A£t  for  abolifhing  the  Kingly  Office  in 
England  and  Ireland,  and  the  Dominions  there- 
unto belonging ;  2nd  he  was  now  fent  for  to  an- 
fwer his  Contempt  in  not  doing  it.  The  Lord 
Mayor  anfwered,  He  did  receive  fuch  an  Order, 
but  that  his  Confcience  being  charged,  as  it  was, 
•with  feveral  Oaths  at  and  before  his  Mayoralty,  he 

could 


Of    ENGLAND.        97 

could  not  difpenfe  with  it  in  proclaiming  that  Acl>  Inter-«gnum, 
and  therefore  had  not  done  it.  Being  ordered  to 
withdraw,  and  the  Houfe  having  confidered  of  his  **" "A^^I 
Sentence,  he  was  call'd  in  again,  when  the  Speaker 
told  him,  That  it  was  their  Judgment  he  be  dif- 
charged  from  the  Office  of  Lord  Mayor,  and  be 
difabled  from  bearing  that  Office;  fined  2000 /. 
to  be  paid  prefently ;  and  that  he  be  committed 
Prifoner  to  the  Tower  for  a  Month.  The  City 
was  alfo  ordered  to  proceed  forthwith  to  another 
Election. 

The  Name  of  this  confcientious  Lord  Mayor  He  is  committed, 
was  Abraham  Reynoldfon ;  and  it  is  remarkable  thatfin*d>  ?"dQ^ri" 
the  very  next  Day,  April  3,  when  the  Houfe  was 
inform'd  another  Lord  Mayor  was  elected,  they 
thought  fit  to  alter  the  Form  of  the  Oath  of  this 
Officer,  from  fwearing  to  be  true  and  faithful  to 
the  King,  to  be  fo  to  the  Commonwealth,  &?r. 
And,  the  fame  Day,  Alderman  Thomas  Andrews* 
being  prefented  to  the  Houfe  as  the  new  Lord 
Mayor  Elect,  was  confirmed  in  that  Office,  and 
ordered  to  have  the  above  Oath  adminiftered  to 
him,  by  one  of  the  Barons  of  the  Exchequer. 

Next  the  Houfe  proceeded  to  reform  the  Bench 
of  Aldermen  in  the  City,  and  voted,  That  Sir  John 
Gayer,  Thomas  Adams,  John  Langbam,  "James 
Bunce,  Names  of  Eminence,  mentioned  before  in 
this  Hiftoryc,  with  Abraham  Reynold/on,  Aldermen, 
mould  be  difabled  and  difcharged  from  bearing  that 
Office;  and  that  the  City  do  proceed  to  elecl: 
others  in  their  Stead. 

For  feveral  Days  after  the  Houfe  did  nothing 
material,  but  making  fome  Orders  for  tranfporting 
frefh  Forces  into  Ireland,  and  for  Payment  of  all 
Forces  defigned  for  that  Service,  under  the  Com- 
mand of  Lieutenant-General  Cromwell:  For  which 
they  were  obliged  to  borrow  120,000 /.  of  the 
City,  on  the  Security  of  the  two  laft  Months  Af- 
feflment  of  the  90,0007.  per  Menfem  A&;  and  of 
that  for  the  Sale  of  Fee-Farm  Rents. 

VOL.  XIX  G  April 

c  In  our  Sixteenth  a0d  Seventeenth  Volumes. 


98      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

April  14.  The  Houfc  proceeded  to  regulate  fome 
Affairs  relating  to  their  own  Members.     It  was 
"TV7"""'  '    ordered^  '  That  upon  any  Suit  commenced  before 
the  Lords  Commiflioners  of  the  Great  Seal,  or  in 


The  Privilege  an7  °^  tne  C°urts  °f  Weftmlnfter^  againft  any  Mem- 
of  Members  of  bers  of  Parliament,  the  faid  Lords  Commiflioners, 
Parliament,  as  to  judges,  and  Barons  of  the  feveral  Courts  refpec- 
dyifr,  or  any  one  of  them,  fhall,  by  Writing  tm- 
der  his  or  their  Hands  and  Seals,  give  Notice 
thereof  to  every  filch  Member;  whereupon  the 
Member  is  enjoined  to  give  Appearance,  and  pro- 
ceed as  other  Defendants,  in  cafe  of  like  Suit  or 
Action  ought  to  do  ;  or,  in  Default  thereof,  both 
their  Eftates  and  Perfons  fhall  be  liable  to  any  Pro- 
ceedings, in  Law  or  Equity,  as  other  Members  of 
this  Commonwealth. 

April  1  8.  The  Houfe  voted  the  Sum  of  20,000  /. 
per  Annum.)  to  be  paid  out  of  the  Revenue  of 
Deans  and  Chapters  Lands,  and  the  Tenths,  fcrV. 
for  the  Maintenance  of  Minifters,  Scholars,  and 
the  Increafe  of  the  Maintenance  of  Mafterfhips 
of  Colleges  in  both  the  Univerfities  of  this  Na- 
tion. 

The  Council  of  State  having  got  fome  Intimation 
of  the  Authors,  Printers,  &c.  of  a  Pamphlet,  lately 
mention'd,  call'd  England's  Second  Chains,  &c.  had 
imprifoned  in  the  Tower  for  it,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lilbourne->  Mr'  William  Walwyn,  Mr.  Thomas 

and  Mr.  Richard  Overt  on.      And 
Tower,  for  wri-     This   Day  a  Petition,  fubfcribed   by    10,000 
ting  a  Pamphlet  Hands,  was  prefented  to  the  Houfe,  intitled,  The 
humble  Petition  of  divers  well-a/efod  Perfons  in 
the  Cities  of  London  fl«^/Weftminfter,  the  Borough 
of  Soufhwark,  Hamlets  ,  and  Parts  adjacent  ,  in  be- 
half of  the  aforefaid  Prifoners. 

This  Petition,  which  carries  more  of  the  Air  of 
an  Impeachment,  is  not  entered  in  the  Journals. 
Mr.  Whitlocke  has  indeed  left  an  Abftra6i  of  it 
in  a  few  Lines  only  ;  but  this  Piece  is  of  fo  ex- 
traordinary a  Nature,  and  was  productive  of  fo 
many  remarkable  Confequences,  that  we  fhall 

make 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        99 

make  no  Scruple  of  giving  it  at  large,  as  printed  Jn 

in  one  of  the  Diaries  of  thefe  Times  g.     It  runs        l649< 

thus :  V"TV7"""' 

April. 

*  f  |"1HE  more  we  confider  the  State  and  Condi-  A  Petition  in 
'  tion  of  our  four  Friends,  the  more  we  are  !-hei,r  F*voar> 

,       ""•  i  ,    .  <-.-.,  i  •   ,     T?  r  .  lign  d  by  i<J,ocO 

*  perplexed  m  our  Thoughts  with  rear  of  great Peifons. 
'  Danger  intended  towards  them :  For  though  no- 

*  thing  hath  been  pretended  to  be  done  by  them 
'  contrary  to  any  Law  made  before  the  Fact  where- 

*  of  they  are  fufpecled,  nor  any  Thing  done  by 
'  them  after  you  had  publifhed  your  Declaration 

*  concerning  the  fame ;  yet  your  Votes  and  Decla- 
4  ration,   the  hoftile  Seizure  of  them  by  the  Coun- 

*  cil  of  State,  and  their  Examinations  apart  upon 

*  Queftions  againft  themfelves,  no  Accufer  appear- 
'  ing  Face  to  Face,  no  Friends  allowed  to  be  pre- 
4  fent,  and  thereupon  committed  Prifoners  to  the 
'  Tower^   do  all,  in  a  great  Meafure,   forejudge 
'  them  as  really  guilty  of  High  Treafon.h 

4  All  which  Proceedings  being  directly  contrary 

c  to  Magna  Cbarta^  the  Petition  of  Right ,  and  to 

4  your  own  Declarations  of  the  8th  of  February 

4  and  i  yth  of  March  laft,  wherein  you  refolve  to 

G  2  4  pre- 

g  The  Moderate ;  impartially  communicating  Martial  'Affairs 
to  the  Kingdom  ef  England,  N°.  41.  This  Diary,  which  was 
printed  without  the  Name  of  any  Publisher,  not  only  contains 
a  very  exa«ft  Account  of  the  Proceedings  of  Parliament,  but  icems 
to  have  been  publifhed  with  a  Defign  to  expofe  their  arbitrary  and 
tyrannical  Proceedings.  The  Author  of  it,  at  the  fame  Time,  ap- 
pears, by  his  Style,  to  have  been  as  determined  an  Enemy  to  the 
R.oyalifts,  as  to  the  Army  and  the  Houfe  j  and  was  probably  him- 
lelf  one  of  the  Levellers,  who  now  began  to  be  fo  formidable  to 
the  Parliament. 

h  To  confirm  all  thefe  Allegations  in  this  Petition,  there  was 
publifhed,  at  this  Time,  a  Pamphlet,  intituled,  The  PiSure  of  tbt 
Council  of  State,  btld  forth  to  the  free  People  ^England  by  Lieut. 
Col.  John  Lilbourne,  Mr.  Thomas  Prince,  and  Mr.  Richard  Over- 
ton,  now  Prifoners  in  the  Tower  of  London  :  Or,  a  full  Narrative 
of  the  late  extrajudicial  and  military  Proceedings  againft  them,  la- 
get  her  -with  the  Subftance  of  their  feveral  Examinations,  j4.nfioerst 
andDeportrnenti  before  them  at  Derby-Houfe,  upon  the  z8f£  ofMarch 
laft. — JJy  this  Narrative,  fign'd  by  the  Prifoners  themfelves,  it  ap- 
pears that  they  behaved  with  aftonifhing  Refolution  before  the 
Council  of  State,  and  gave  them  their  own  to  their  Fates  witk 
amazing  Intrepidity, 


ioo     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.  <  preferve  inviolable  thofe  Fundamental  Laws  and 
*649^   J    '  Liberties,    concerning  the  Prefervation  of  the 

*  Lives,  Properties,  and  Liberties  of  the  People, 
4  with  all  Things  incident  thereunto ;  we  are  in- 
'  forced  to  believe  (what  this  Houfe  hath  formerly 
'  found)  that  Ibme  eminent  Perfons,  whoie  parti- 

*  cular  Interefts  our  faid  Friends  may  haveoppofed, 
'  have  furprized  this  Honourable  Houfe ;  and  tranf- 

*  ported  you  into  fome  caufelefs  Fears  of  Danger 
'  from  thofe  our  Friends,  whole  conftant  Care  and 
'  Watchfulnefs  for  'the  Settlement  of  this  long- 

*  wafted  Commonwealth,  and  Prevention  of  Mi- 
'  fery  and  Bloodfhed,  hath  been  fo  evident  by  their 

*  frequent  Motions  and  Petitions  to  thofe  juft  Ends^ 
'  efpecially  by  that  which  was  burnt  by  the  com- 
'  mon  Hangman,  that  of  September  1 1,  1648,  and 
'  their  Agreement  of  the  Peo$le'l\  wherein  are  com- 

*  prized  fuch  clear  Fundamentals  of  juft  Govern  - 

*  ment,  Redrefs  of  Grievances,  and  Conducements 

*  to  general  Peace  and  Reconcilement,  as,  had  their 

*  Advice  in  any  reafonable  Time  been  taken,  we 

*  are  verily  perfuaded,  much  of  that  Rancour,  Bit- 
4  ternefs,  and  Bloodfhed  which  hath  befallen,  had 

*  been  prevented.     And  which,  in  our  Apprehen- 
e  fions,  are  fufficient  Evidences  againft  all  Sufpi- 

*  cions  of  treafonable  Practices,  or  Intentions  in 

*  them  j  and  may  alfo  acquit  them  of  that  Afper- 

*  fion  of  Unfettlednefs  caft  upon  them ;  and  which 

*  we  wonder  did  not  invite  a  more  refpe&ful  Car- 
'  riage  towards  them,  than  to  fetch  them  out  of 

*  their  Beds  and  Houfes  by  fo  formidable  Parties  of 
«  Horfe  and  Foot. 

'  And  truly,  if  we  may  have  Leave  to  fpeak  our 
'  Hearts  in  behalf  of  thefe  our  Friends,  who  for 
'  many  Years  have  neither  fpared  their  Eftates  nor 
e  Time,  but  frequently  hazarded  their  Lives  in 
'  our  Behalf,  and  for  the  Safety  and  Freedom  of 
c  Parliament  and  People ;  we  are  perfuaded  in  our 
'  Confciences  the  greateft  Crime,  or  rather  Caufe, 

*  for  which  they  are  thus  molefted,  is,  That  they 

<  have 
*  In  our  Seventeenth  Volume,  p.  451. 


•Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       101 

*  have  incefTantly  endeavoured  to  induce  the  Army  Jnter-regnum. 

*  to  the  real  Performance  of  thofe  many  good         l649« 

e  Things  they  engaged  for,  and  largely  promifed    *"" ""XT"""' 

*  to  this  Nation,  in  their  many  Declarations,  &c. 
4  when  firft  they  difputed  and  oppofed  the  Orders 

*  of  Parliament :  And  for  that  they  have  endea- 
'  voured  to  confine  the  Intereft  of  the  Army  to 
'  the  juft  Intereft  of  the  People,  and  to  reduce  the 
'  Military  Power  to  a  real  Subordination  to  the 

*  Civil  Authority. 

*  For  which  their  Endeavours,  we  verily  believe, 

*  they  are  hated  by  fome  eminent  Perfons  of  the 
'  Army;  whofe  frequent  diftincT:  Actings  according 

*  to  their  own  immediate  Wills,  towards  this  Ho- 
'  nourable  Houfe,  in  carting  out  Members  without 

*  any  Charge  brought  againft  them,  leaving  or-ta- 
'  king  in  only  whom  they  pleafed,  and  fo  in  the 

*  Army ;  and  by  their  Prevalency  againft  fome  par- 
'  ticular  Perfons,  hath  made  them  prefume,  and, 
'  we  fear,  refolve,  to  facrifice  the  Blood  and  Lives 
6  of  thefe  our  dear  Friends,  for  Handing  betwixt 

*  their  abfolute  Domination  and  the  Freedom  of 
c  the  People. 

'  And  that  this  may  not  appear  to  be  a  ground - 

*  lefe  Suppofition,  'be  pleafed  to  take  Notice  that 

*  our  faid  Friends  have  been  long  afperfed  by  them, 

*  as  Levellers,  Atheifts,  Jefuits,  &e.  upon  what 

*  Ground  and  to  what  End  we  know  not,  except 
1  to  prepare  them  to  Deftruction ;   threatening, 
'  That,  if  once  they  caught  hold  of  them,  they  Jhould 

*  not  efcape  out  of  their  Hands,  as  they  had  done  out 

*  of  the  Hands  of  Holies  and  Stapylton  j  that  they 
'  have  deferred  more  to  be  fought  again/I  than  the 
'  moft  defperate  Enemy :  Plotting  and  contriving, 
(  in  their  General  Council  of  Officers,  to  get  a 

*  Law  To  have  Power  to  hang,  or  otherwife  put  to 

*  Death,  as  they  faw  Caufe  ;  and  that  becaufe  the 

*  Civil  Magijtrate  could  not   difpatch  them  fajl 

*  enough. 

'  In  all  which  their  Threats  and  Contrivances, 

*  there  are  many  Circumftances  to  prove  that  they 
'  principally  aimed  at  thofe  our  Friends  :  And  fo, 

G  3  *  when 


102     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.  *  when  neither  byThreats  or'Promifes  they  could 

*  prevail  with  them  to  defift  from  preferving  the 
'  Freedom  of  the  Nation,  and  Difcovery  of  their 

*  Defigns,  (as  was  done  in  their  Serious  jfpprel.<cn- 
*•  fans,  preferred  to  this  Houfe  the  26th  of  February 

*  laft)  having  abfolute  Power  in  the  Houfe,  where, 
'  contrary  to  the  Self-denying  Ordinance,  they  take 
'  up  many  Places,  which,  with  an  Army  at  Com- 
'  mand,  is  more  than  all  the  reft ;  and  having  got 
'  enew  of  themfelves  into  their  Council  of  State, 
'  (contrary  to  their  own  pofitive  Confent  in  the 
'  Agreement  of  the  People)  they  catch  at  an  Oppor- 

*  tunity,  and  fall  upon  our  Friends  with  fuch  a 

*  Face  of  Force  and  Terror  as  would  have  made  the 

*  World  believe,  whatever  Cruelty  had  fucceeded, 

*  there  had  been  a  Caufe  anfwerable  to  that  Force. 

'  The  like  having  not  been  known,  that  Per- 

*  fons  fo  vifible  and  refponfible  fhould  (to  the  Ter- 
(  ror  of  their  Wives,    Children,   Families,    and 
'  Neighbours)  in  the  Break  of  the  Day,  be  fetch'd 
'  out  of  their  Beds,  forced  out  of  their  Houfes,  and 

*  carried  away  as  Prifoners  of  War ;  and,  after  a 

*  Day's  Reftraint  in  the  Garrifon  at  Whitehall* 

*  carried  before  the  Council  of  State ;  and  there, 
'  after  Examination  of  them  againft  themfelves  (no 

*  Accufers  appearing  Face  to  Face,  or  Friends  al- 
'  lowed  to  be  prefent)  were,  about  Twelve  o'Clock 
'  at  Night,  committed  Prifoners  to  the  Tower,  up- 

*  on  Sufpicion  of  High  Treafon.     In  the  Debates 

*  whereupon,  as  we  are  credibly  informed,  Lieu- 
f  tenant-General  Cromwell  declared  in  the  Coun- 
'  cil,  That  they  mujl  break  this  Party  in  Pieces, 
'  (meaning  our  Friends)  or  they  would  break  them: 

*  That,  if  they  did  not  do  it,  they  would  render  them- 
(  f elves  the  mo  ft  filly,  low-fpirited  Men  in  the  If^orld^ 

*  to  be  rr.uted  by  fo  contemptible  and  def pi  cable  a 
'  Generation  nf  Men. 

'  And  immediately  after  was  publiflied  your  De- 

*  claration,  which,  reflecting  upon  them  as  Perfons 

*  feditious,  deftrnftive  to  the  prefent  Government, 

*  Mutineers,  Hinderers  of  the  Relief  of  Ireland, 
<  and  Conitnuers  of  Free -quarter,  hath  (with  the 

reft 


Of    ENGLAND.       103 

'  reft  before-mention'd)  To  fore-fpoken  them,  that,  Inter-regnum. 
4  wherefoever  they  come  to  Trial,  they  are  likely        l649- 
4  to  fall  under  Abundance  of  Prejudice 3    befides    ^"^ ^C"""* 
4  the  Influence  thofe  eminent  Perfons  (who  now          *n 
6  vifibly  appear  their  particular  Adverfaries)  have 
4  upon  all  Perfons  in  Office,  and  upon  the  prefent 

*  Forces    in   being.      Infomuch   as,    all   Things 

*  duly  weighed,  they  are,  in  Truth,  really  fore- 
4  judged  and  condemned;  for  what  Judge  and  Jury 

*  may  not,  unawares,  be  captivated  by  fo  many 
'  Pre-occupations  and  Pr£-pofieffions,  or  not  be 

*  terrified  to  do  what  fo  forcible  and  powerful  In- 
4  fluences  fo  ftrongly  incline,  if  not  inforce  them 

*  unto? 

*  Befides,  your  Order  for  their  Trial  requires 
'  the  Attorney- General f  to  take  fpeedy  Courfe  for 
'  Profecution  of  them ;  which  is  a  Difadvantage 

*  we  hoped  thefe Times  would  have  been  free  from, 
4  as  holding  too  much  Refemblance  with  thofc 
'  foregone ;  that  fought,  by  Craft  and  Sophiftry, 
4  to  entrap  and  enflave  plain  Men  in  their  Trials 

*  for  Life,   Eftate,   or  Liberty,  to  the  Wills  of 
'  Princes :  The  faid  Attorney  being  a  Member  of 
'  your  Houfe,  and  confequently  a  Judge  of  the 
'  Judge  before  whom  he  pleads ;  and,  in  Oppofition 

*  to  our  Friends,  reprefenteth  no  lefs  than  the  Su- 
4  preme  Authority  j  a  mod  unequal  Profecutor, 
4  and  againft  whom  they  have  no  Plea  or  Relief, 
4  as,  by  Law,  they  have  againft  others. 

'  Upon  all  which  Confiderations,  we  cannot 
c  difcern  it  to  be  equal  in  itfelf,  or  £afe  for  them, 
c  that  they  fhould,  through  fo  many  Prejudices  and 

*  Pre-occupations,  be  by  you  put  upon  their  Trial 
4  in  the  Upper  Bench :  So  that  however  plaufible 

*  it  may  feem  in  itfelf  for  you  to  put  them  upon 

*  this  Kind  of  Trial,  yet,  all  Things  confidered, 

*  nothing  more  evidently  tendeth  to  their  Deftruc- 
'  tion :  Nor  can  we  difcern  how  it  can  be  juft  to 

'try 

f  Edmund  Prideaux,  Efq;  (Member  for  Lyme  Regis)  who  was 
appointed  Attorney-General  to  the  Commonwealth  a  few  Days  be- 
fore. He  was  firft  made  Sollicitor  upon  Mr.  St.  Jobrfs  accepting 
the  Office  of  Chief  Juftice  of  the  Common  Pleas,  in  Qtfohcr,  16$* 


IO4     7fo   Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum,      try  Men  upon  a  Declaration  made  after  the  Fact 

1649.  pretended;  nor  can  we  judge  it  reafonable  thatfo 

*•— "v— — '    '  many  Members  of  the  Army,  their  profefs'd  Ad- 

Ap   '        *  verfaries, fhould,  contraryto  the  Self-denying Or- 

'  dinance  and  common  Equity  itfelf,  fit  as  Judges 

'  in  this  Honourable  Houfe,  or  in  the  Council  of 

*  State,  whilft  this  Caufe  is  debated  ;  they  having 
'  in  effect  been  charged  by  thofe  our  Friends,  in 
'  their  Serious  Apprtktnfions  to  this  Houfe ;  and 
'  this  Proceeding  towards  them  appearing  but  as  a 

*  revengeful  Recrimination.     And  therefore  if,  af- 

*  ter  mature  Confideration  of  the  Premifles,  you 
'  fhall  judge  them  worthy  of  further  Profecution,  as 

*  for  our  Parts  we  verily  believe  there  is  no  Caufe, 
'  we  earneftly   intreat   that   you  will  firft  make 

*  ftrict  Inquiry  into  the  Caufe  of  that  Terror  and 
'  Force  of  Soldiers  ufed  towards  them,  contrary  to 
'  Law  j  repair  their  Credit ;  give  them  the  Bene- 

*  fit  of  Law  againft  whomsoever  mall  appear  to 
<  have  been  Authors  or  Actors  therein ;  and  en- 
e  large  them  from  their  prefent  Imprifonment  in 
'  the  Tower. 

'  And  then,  if  any  Perfon  hath  wherewith  to 
«  accufe  them,  that  they  be  proceeded  againft,  as 
'  by  Law  they  ought,  by  Warrants  from  a  Juftice 

*  of  the  Peace  of  the  Neighbourhood,  where  the 
'  Fact  in  Queftionwas  pretended  to  be  committed; 

*  not  granted  without  Oath   made   of  a  Crime 

*  againft  fome  Law  in  being  before  the  Fact ;  and 

*  to  be  ferved  by  Conftables,  not  Soldiers,  and  that 

*  upon  Appearance  of  the  Accufers  and  Accufed 
«  Face  to  Face,  as  by  Law  is  due  ;  and  if  the  Fact 

*  be  bailable,  then  to  be  allowed  Bail ;  if  not,  to 
'  be  fecured  in  that  legal  Prifon  appointed  for  that 

*  Place  and  Fact,  untill  the  next  Seffions,  not  in  a 

*  Prerogative  Prifon  as'the70w*r  is;  and  then, 
'  in  an  ordinary  Way,  exempt  from  all  fuch  Pre- 

*  occupations  and  Fore-judgings,  to  have  the  Be- 
'  nefit  of  a  Trial  by  a  Jury  of  twelve  fworn  Men 

*  in  the  Neighbourhood,  not  over-aw'd  by  Soldiers, 
'  nor  difturbed  by  Policy  or  Sophiftry.     A  Trial 
'  which,  we  conceive,  cannot  in  Juftice,  in  any 

<Cir- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       105 

4  Circumftance,  be  denied  to  the  worft  of  Thieves,  inter-regnum, 
'  Murderers  and  Traitors ;    and  which  was  our 
'  real  Intentions  in  our  late  Petition  prefented  to 

*  you  concerning  them.     And  we  are  confident 
'  our  Friends,  upon  fuch  a  Trial,  will  prove  them- 
'  felves  to  be  no  fuch  Perfons,  but  faithful  Friends 

*  to  their  Country's  Liberties. 

'  We  alfo  intreat  that,  for  the  future,  no  Perfon 

*  may  be  cenfured,  condemned,  or  molefted,  con- 
£  cerning  Life,  Limb,  Liberty,  or  Eftate,  but  for 

*  the  Breach  of  fome  Law  firft  made  and  publifh- 
4  ed  ;  and  that  this  Honourable  Houfe  would  be  a 

*  Pattern  to  all  future  Parliaments,  in  leaving  the 
'  Trial  of  all   fuch  Caufes  to  fubordinate  Magi- 

*  ftrates,  and  ordinary  proper  Courts  of  Juftice. 

*  That  the  Execution  of  Civil  Affairs  may  be 
e  wholly  freed  from  the  Interpofition  of  the  Sword ; 

*  and  that  Martial  Law,  during;  the  Time  of  Peace, 

*  where  all  Courts  are  open,  may  not  be  exercifed 
c  upon  the  Perfons  of  any  whomfoevcr.    All  which 
'  are  not  more  evidently  juft  in'themfelves,  than 

*  they  are  confonant  to  Magna  Charts  and  the  Pe- 
e  tition  of  Right ;  the  Benefit  whereof,  we  truft, 

*  you  will  never  be  induced  to  take  from  us. 

«  That  Captain  Bray,  now  clofe  Prifoner  in 
c  Wmdfor  Caftle%  may  immediately  be  enlarged, 
c  or  otherwife  be  put  upon  a  legal  Trial,  as  is  be- 
'  fore  defired  in  behalf  of  our  other  Friends. 

4  Laftly,  We  intreat  that  there  may  be  fome  ge- 

*  neral  Encouragement  from  you,  to  proceed  to  a 

*  fpeedy  Settlement,  by  way  of  an  Agreement  of 

*  the  People^  upon  the  Grounds  of  an  equal  and 
1  juft  Government;  that  fo  all  Difcord,  Enmity  and 

*  DifTatisfadtion  amongft  former  Friends,  may  fi- 
4  nally  receive  a  fpeedy  End,  by  and  with  this  Par- 

*  liament;  and  that  the  End  of  this  may  be  the 

*  Beginning  of  a  new  and  equal  Reprefentative.' 

The  foregoing  Petition,  being  read,  gave  fo  high 
Offence  to  the  Houfe,  that  they  refolved,  That 

the 

c  He  was  committed  for  publifhing  a  Pamphlet  againft  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  Lord  Fairfax  and  his  Council  of  War. 


io6     T&e  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

.  the  Petitioners  fhould  have  a  very  fharp  Reprchen- 
1649.        fion  for  it.     A  Committee  was  alfo  appointed  to 
*— """^  ~~~"^  withdraw  immediately,  and  prepare  an  Ani'wer  to 
be  given  to  the  Petitioners  by  the  Speaker  j  which, 
upon  their  being  called  in,  he  delivered  to  them  in 
the  following  Terms  : 

Gentlemen, 

For  which  they'  fTTlHE  Houfe  hath  read  your  Petition;  and, 
receive  a  feverc  .«  •  }eft  \  fhould  miftake  as  you  have  done, 
111'  h»th  commanded  me  to  give  you  this  Anfwer  : 

*  That  the  four  Perlbns  in  your  Petition  princi- 
'  pally  concern'd  are,  upon  juft  and  mature  Con- 
«  iideration,  appointed  to  be  brought  unto  a  legal 

*  Trial  for  Crimes  againft  Law  preceding  the  Fad}, 
'  and  not  after,  as  fuggeited  ;  at  which  Trial  they 

*  will  have  free  Liberty  to  offer  whatfoever  they 
'  {hall  have  to  fay  in  their  own  Defence  :  And  to 

*  fuch  Proceedings  the  Parliament  do  expect  that 
4  all  Perfons  in  England  fhould  fubmit,  and  in  the 

*  Judgment  of  Parliament  acquiefce. 

'  That  the  Contrivers  of  this  Petition  have 
1  therein  taken  a  Liberty  of  fcandalous  and  fedi- 

*  tious  Suggeftions,  not  allowable  nor  juftifiable  in 

*  any  Perfons  whatfoever,  under  Pretence  of  Peti- 
'  tioning ;  and  do  fo  far  countenance  the  imprifoned 

*  Perfons,  in  the  Offences  for  which  they  are  que- 
'  ftioned,  as  might  render  them  juftly  fufpected  of 
c  the  like  Crimes.     But  the  Parliament  will  yet 
'  exercife  Patience  towards  you,   conceiving  that 
*•  divers  well-meaning  Men  may,  by  falfe  yet  fpe- 
'  cious  Pretences,  be  deluded  into  this  Mifcarriage  ; 
'  and  hoping  that,  by  this  Forbearance,  fuch  may 

*  come  to  fee  their  own  Errors.' 

This  Anfwer  was  ordered  to  be  printed  and  pub- 
lifti'd  ;  but  it  was  of  very  little  Ufe,  for  when  the 
Men  durft  not  any  more  petition  in  Behalf  of  £//- 
bourne  and  his  Aflbciates,  the  Women  took  it 
up;  and  prefented  one  to  the  Houfe  in  Terms,  as 
Mr.  Whitlocke  writes,  almoft  fcolding.  To  which 
they  ordered  the  following  Anfwer  to  be  given  them 

by 


Of    ENGLAND,        107 

by  their  Serjeant  at  Arms :  c  That  the  Matter  they  Inter-regnum, 
'  petitioned  about  was  of  an  higher  Concernment        l649- 

*  than  they  underfrood  ;  that  the  Houfe  had  given    ^^^^ 

*  an  Anfwer  to  their  Hufbands ;  and  therefore  de- 

*  fired  them  to  go  home  and  look  after  their  own 
'  Bufmefs,  and  meddle  with  their  Houfewifery.' 

April  20.  The  Houfe  fell  upon  their  ufual  Me- 
thod of  feeking  God,  by  Fafting  and  Prayer;  they 
had  a  Faft  the  Day  before  this,  on  which  they  had 
no  lefs  than  three  Sermons  preached  to  them,  in 
Margaret's  Church,  Wejlminfier,  as  it  was  then 
called  :  And  another  Fait  was  ordered  for  the  3d 
of  May  next,  all  which  were  to  implore  God's 
Bleffing  upon  the  Forces  of  the  Parliament  already 
in  Ireland,  and  thofe  that  were  to  be  fent  thither. 
Lieutcnant-General  Cromwell,  Commifiary-Ge- 
neral  Ireton,  and  Mr.  Corbet,  were  ordered  to  pre- 
pare Preachers  for  that  Exercife. 

The  Earl  of  Pembroke,  having  fo  far  waved  his 
Peerage  as  to  be  chofen  and  return'd  Knight  of  the     • 
Shire  for  the  County  of  Berks,  took  his  Seat  in  the  Three  Peers  e- 
Houfe  ;  and  was  this  Day  apoointed  by  them  one  lerafd  ^emrbe" 

t-     i      V>  •  rr  c     L      XT  a  r       of  the  Houfe  of 

of  the  Commiiiioners  of  the  Navy.     Soon  after  commons, 
the  Lord  Howard  of  EJkricke  got  himfelf  return'd 
for  the  City  of  Carlijle,  and  was  admitted  to  fit  as 
a  Commoner  in  the  Houfe.     William  Earl  of  Sa- 
lijbury  did  the  fame  for  -Lynn,  in  Norfolk,  to  the 

freat  Difgrace  of  that  Noble  Family;  which  had 
een  raifed,  by  Royal  Bounty,  in  the  three  laft 
Reigns,  to  the  great  Honours  and  Wealth  they 
were  then  poffeffed  of.  Thefe  three  Lords  were 
all  of  the  whole  Peerage  that,  fo  far,  bowed  their 
Knees  to  this  Commonwealth .  And  the  Commons, 
to  compliment  their  coming  amongft  them,  voted, 
That  they  fhould  fit  in  all  the  Committees  of 
which  they  were  Members  at  the  Time  when  the 
Houfe  of  Lords  was  diffolved. 

April  23.  The  Commons  next  proceeded  to  no- 
minate Commiffioners  of  the  Excife  and  of  the 

Cuftoms, 


io8       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Cuftoms,  with  all  their  Under-Officers,  and  to 
1649.        make  large  Regulations  for  the  fame. 

April  25.  This  Day  the  Houfe  heard  a  Report 
from  the  Council  of  State,    concerning  a  Let- 
ter received   from  the  Earl  of  Northumberland, 
Who  vote  3000!.  about  fome  Maintenance  for  the  late  King's  Chil- 
per  Ann.  for    dren.    At  the  fame  Time  the  Houfe  read  a  Petition 
Maintenance  of  from  fucn  Servants  as  were  appointed  by  Parliament 

two  of  the  late  ,    ,     c   f~,,  ••,  ,  c       \    .     A       *  ,_._,.      .. 

King's  Children,  to  attend  thofe  Children,  for  their  Arrears.  Thefe 
were  ordered  to  be  referred  to  the  Committee  for 
the  Revenue,  and  they  were  required  to  pay  to  the 
Earl  of  Northumberland  fuch  Monies  as  were  due 
to  him,  according  to  feveral  Orders  and  Ordi- 
nances of  Parliament,  for  Maintenance  of  the 
Duke  of  Gloucefter  and  the  Lady  Elizabeth,  his 
Sifter,  unto  that  Day  :  Likewife  all  the  Arrears 
due  to  the  Servants  for  Wages  and  Diet. 

At  the  fame  Time  two  Letters  were  read,  from 
the  Princefs  Elizabeth ;  one  of  them,  dated  Ja- 
nuary 22,  1648,  no  doubt,  was  for  impjoring 
Mercy  for  her  Father's  Life ;  the  latter,  dated 
April  2,  1649,  we  are  told,  was  to  defire  Leave 
to  go  beyond  Sea  ;  which  la,ft  Requeft,  being  put 
to  the  Queftion,  was  carried  in  the  Negative,  by  29 
againft  24.  So  3000 /.  per  Annum  was  ordered  to 
be  fettled  upon  the  Duke  of  Gloucefter  and  the  La- 
dy Elizabeth  ;  and  the  Care  and  Tuition  of  them, 
with  the  Management  of  this  Allowance,  was  at 
that  Time  committed  to  Sir  Edward  Harrington, 
not  a  Member,  but  he  afterwards  defired  to  be  ex- 
cufed  from  the  Office. 

And  order  Mo-  Another  Report  was  made  to  the  Houfe  from 
E£l£2w  *•  Council  of  State>  concerning  the  Form  and  In- 
*he  Common,  fcriptions  of  the  new  Coin ;  when  it  was  refolved 
wealth.  to  have  the  Infcription  in  the  Englijh  Tongue,  and 

to  be,  on  that  Side  where  the  Englijh  Arms  do 
iland  alone,  THE  COMMONWEALTH  OF  ENG- 
LAND ;  on  the  other  Side,  which  bears  the  Arms 
of  England  and  Ireland,  GOD  WITH  us.  Thefe 
Coins  are  yet  very  common  in  the  Cabinets  of 
Colleftors. 

The 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       109 

The  laft  Matter  done  this  Day  by  the  Houfe,  inter-regnum. 
•was  to  vote  that  an  Aft  of  Oblivion  (hould  be        j649- 

brought  in ;  and  the  Queftion  being  put,  That  the    ' ^"""-J 

Time  to  be  fet  in  that  Aft,  from  which  no  Aftion        Apnl> 
or  Suit  {hall  be  commenced  or  profecuted  for  a"y  An  Aft  of  Obli- 
Thingfaid  or  done  in  the  Time  of  the  War,  and  invion  ordered  in, 
Profecution  thereof,  fhall  be  before  the  firft  Day  of 
this  Term:  The  Houfe  divided,  when  it  was  car- 
ried in  the  Affirmative,  25  againft  22  j  and  an 
Aft  was  ordered  in  accordingly. 

Nothing  further  occurs  in  this  Month  worth 
our  Notice,  except  an  Aft  of  fatal  Confequence 
to  the  Hierarchy,  the  Preamble  to  which  runs  thus :  Another  for  the 

*  The  Commons  of  Engla  nd^  in  Parliament  aflem- Sale  of  Deans  and 
c  bled,   having  ferioufly  weighed  the  Neceffity  ofchaPtersLands> 
'  raifmg  a  prefent  Supply  of  Monies  for  the  pre- 

'  fent  Safety  of  this  Commonwealth  ;  and  finding 
'  that  their  other  Securities  are  not  fatisfaftory  to 
'  Lenders,  nor  fufficient  to  raife  fo  confiderable  a 
'  Sum  as  will  be  neceflary  for  the  faid  Service,  are 
'  neceffitated  to  fell  the  Lands  of  the  Deans  and 

*  Chapters,  for  paying  of  the  Public  Debts  :  And 
'  for  the  raiftng  of  300,000  /.  for  the  prefent  Sup- 
4  ply  of  the  prefling  Neceffities  of  this  Common- 
'  wealth,  they  do  enaft,  ordain,  and  declare,  cffr.' 

By  this  A6t  the  Name  and  Funftion  of  Deans, 
Deans  and  Chapters,  Canons,  Prebendaries,  and  all 
other  Offices  and  Places  belonging  to  any  Cathedral 
or  Collegiate  Church  or  Chapel,  in  England  or 
Wales ^  were  abolifh'dj  and  all  their  Manors,  Lands, 
Impropriations,  Tythes,  Rights  of  Patronage  and 
Prefentation,  and  all  other  Pofleffions  whatfoever ; 
together  with  all  Charters,  Deeds,  Writings,  and 
Evidences,  concerning  the  fame,  were  veiled  in 
Truftees  for  the  Ufe  of  the  Commonwealth  :  But 
all  Lands,  &c.  appointed  for  the  Maintenance  of 
Grammar  Schools,  Alms-houfes,  or  other  chari- 
table Ufes ;  as  alfo  for  repairing  of  Highways  and 
Bridges,  were  excepted  :  Nor  did  this  Aft  extend 
to  the  Revenues  of  any  College,  Foundation  or 

Houfe 


no     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Houfe  of  Learning,  in  cither  of  the  Univerfities, 
1649-  nor  to  the  Schools,  of  IVfjbninJter^  Winchejler, 
*"" v~— '  or  Eaton.  Thefe  Lands  of  Deans  and  Chapters 
were  not  to  be  fold  under  twelve  Years  Purchafe, 
nor  a  Reverfion  thereof  upon  a  Leafe  for  one  Life, 
under  fix  Years  ;  for  two  Lives,  three  Years  and 
a  half;  and  for  three  Lives  two  Years  and  a  half's 
Purchafe;  and  fo  in  proportion.  Their  Parfon- 
ages  and  Tithes  appropriate,  and  Rents  illuing 
therefrom,  as  alfo  their  Rights  of  Patronage  and 
Prefentation,  were  excepted  from  Sale,  in  order  to 
be  applied  to  the  better  Maintenance  of  Parochial 
Minifters.  Thus  much  may  be  fufficient  to  give 
the  Reader  an  Idea  of  this  extraordinary  Act. 

For  fettling  the  May  I.  This  Day  Sir  Arthur  Hejlerigge  brought 
Commonwealth,  jn  an  Aft  touching' the  Settlement  of  the  Com- 
monwealth ;  which  was  read  a  firft  and  fecond 
Time,  and  afterwards  referred  to  a  Committee  of 
fuch  Members  as  were  of  the  Council  of  State  > 
but  all  that  came  were  to  have  Voices. 

And  declaring         The  fame  Gentleman  alfo  brought  in  another 
T** °ffencf;  Aft,  declaring  what  Offences  {hall  be  adjudged 

Aall  be  deem  d   _     '  ,.  ,9  ,  .,•'.& 

Tseafcn.  .  Treafon  ;  which  was  read  and  committed  in  the 
fame  Manner. 

The  Houfe  likewife  appointed  a  Day  for  taking 
into  Confideration  the  Bufmefs  touching  undue 
Elections  and  unequal  Reprefentatives. 

This  laft  Refolution  was  probably  owing  to  the 
great  Alarm  fpread  throughout  the  Kingdom  on 
account  of  the  Imprifonment  of  Col.  Li/bourne, 
Wahvyn^  Prince,  and  Overton;  who,  as  already  ob- 
ferved,  not  only  h'ad  the  Courage  to  print  a  Narra- 
tive of  all  that  pafs'd  between  the  Council  of  State 
and  themfelves,  but  alfo  this  Day  publifhed,  with 
an  Introduction  by  way  of  Appeal  to  the  People, 
their  new  Model  of  Government,  intitled,  An 
Agreement  of  the  Free  People  of  England,  tendered 
.  as  a  Peace-Offering  to  this  diftrefs'd  Nation,  fub- 
fcribed  with  their  own  Names,  and  dated,  From  our 
caufelefs  Captivity  in  the  Tower  of  London,  May  i, 

1649. 


Of   ENGLAND       m 

1649.  This  Project,  which  aim'd  at  the  imme- 
diate  Difiblution  of  the  Parliament  and  the  Coun- 
cil  of  State,  took  fo  much  with  the  Public,  that 
not  only  the  Printer  thereof  had  the  Refolution  to 
put  his  Name  to  it,  but  even  the  Licenfer  of  the 
Prefs  o-ave  it  his  Imprimatur:  He  was  foon  after 
removed  from  that  Office  ;  and  it  is  highly  pro- 
bable his  licenfmg  of  this  Pamphlet  contributed 
not  a  little  to  his  Difmiffion.  As  it  is  ftricrly  Par- 
liamentary, we  flaall  give  the  Heads  thereof  from 
the  original  Edition  ', 

L  '  That  the  Supreme  Authority  of  England,  Heads  of  a  new 
*  and  the  Territories  therewith  incorporate,  mall  plan  of  Goyem- 
'  refide  henceforward  in  a  Reprefentative  of  tfotowiSe.AyrJ 
'  People,  confifting  of  400  Perfons,  but  no  more;  An  Agreement  of 


n 


tiie  Choice  of  whom,  according  to  natural  thi  P 


'  Right,  all  Men  of  the  Age  of  twenty-one  Years 

*  and  upwards  (not  being  Servants,  or  receiving 
c  Alms,  or  having  ferved  the  late  King  in  Arms  or 

*  voluntary  Contributions)  fhall  have  their  Voices, 

*  and  be  capable  of  being  elected  to  that  Supreme 
'  Truft,  thofe  who  ferved  the  King  being  difabled 

*  for  ten  Years  onry.     All  Things  concerning  the 
4  Diftribution  of  the  faid  Members  proportionable 
'  to  the  refpe£tive  Parts  of  the  Nation,  the  Places 

*  for  Election,  the  Manner  of  giving  and  taking 
'  Voices,  with  all  Circumftances  of  like  Nature, 
'  as  alfo  their  Salary,  to  be  fettled  by  this  prefent 
'  Parliament,  in  fuch  Sort  as  the  next  Reprefenta- 

*  tive  may  be  in  a  certain  Capacity  to  meet  with 
4  Safety  at  the  Time  herein  exprefled  :  And  fuch 
'  Circumftances  to  be  made  more  perfect  by  future 
4  Reprefentatives. 

II.  *  That  200  Members,  and  not  lefs,  fhall  be 
c  efteemed  a  competent  Reprefentative  ;  and  the 

*  Major  Voices  prefent  mail  be  conclufive.     The 

*  Place  of  Seffion  and  Choice  of  a  Speaker,  with 

*  other  Circumftances  of  that  Nature,  are  referred 

*  to  the  Care  of  this  and  future  Reprefentatives. 

III. 

t  London,  printed  for  Gyles  Calvert,  at  the  black  fpread  Eagle, 
at  the  Weft  End  of  Parts,  and  li«enfed  by  Gilbert  Mattel,  April  30, 
1649, 


H2      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intrr-rcgnum.  HI.  «  And  to  the  end  all  public  Officers  may  be 
1649.  t  certainJy  accountable,  and  no  Factions  made  to 

C"TJ>/7"""')  *  maintain  corrupt  Interefts,  no  Officer  of  any  Sa- 
«  lary,  Forces  in  Army  or  Garrifon,  nor  any  Re- 
'  ceiver  of  public  Money,  (hall  (while  fuch)  be 

*  elected  a  Member ;  and  if  any  Lawyer  fhall  be 
'  chofen,  he  fliall  be  incapable  of  Practice  as  a 

*  Lawyer,  during  the  whole  Time  of  that  Truft. 

IV.  '  That  no  Member  of  the  prefent  Parlia- 

*  mcnt  be  capable  of  being  elected  of  the  next  Re- 

*  prefentative,  nor  any  Member  of  any  future  for 

*  the  Reprefentative  immediately  fucceeding;  but 

*  are  free  to  be  chofen,  one  Reprefentative  having 
'  intervened  :    Nor  any  Member  be  made  either 
c  Receiver,  Treafurer,  or  other  Officer  during  that 
6  Employment. 

V.  *  That,  for  avoiding  the  many  Dangers  ap- 
'  parently  arifmg  from  the  long  Continuance  of  the 

*  lame  Perfons  in  Authority,  this  prefent  Parlia- 
'  ment  (hall  end  the  firft  Wednefday  in  Augujl  next, 

*  1649  ;  and,  in  the  mean  Time,  fhall  order  the 
'  Election  of  a  new  and  equal  Reprefentative,  to 
'  meet  and  fit  in  Power  and  Authority  as  fuch  up- 
'  on  the  Day  following. 

VI.  '  If  the  prefent  Parliament  fhall  omit  to 
4  order  fuch  Election  of  a  new  Reprefentative,  the 
'  People  to  proceed  in  electing  thereof  as  formerly 
'  accuflomed  in  the  Choice  of  Knights  and  Bur- 
'  gefies  ;    obferving  only  the  Exceptions  of  fuch 
'  Perfons  being  Eledtor^  or  Ele.6led,  as  are  men- 
'  tioned  before  in  the  firft,  third,  and  fourth  Heads 
'  of  this  Agreement:  It  being  moft  unreafonable 
'  that  the  People  fliould  either  be  kept  from  new, 
'  frequent,  and  fuc'ceffive  Reprefentatives ;  or  that 

*  the  Supreme  Authority  fhould  fall  into  the  Hands 
'  of  fuch  as  have  manifefted  Difafteclion  to  the 
'  common  Freedom,  and  endeavour'd  the  Bondage 
«  of  the  Nation. 

VII.  '  And,  for  preferving  the  Supreme  Autho- 
4  rity  from  falling  into  the  Hands  of  any  whom  the 
'  People  fhall  not  chufe,  that  a  new  Reprefentative 

*  fhall  be  held  upon  the  firft  Tburfday  in  Augujl  next 

«•  *  afore- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      113 

e  fatd;  the  ordering  of  themfelves,  as  to  the  Choice  Inter-regnum. 

*  of  a  Speaker,  and  the  like  Circumftances,  is  to 

*  be  left  to  their  Difcretion ;  but,  in  the  Extent    ^^^^J 

*  and  Exercife  of  Power,  to  follow  the  Rules  of 
c  this  Agreement;    and,    according  to  their  beft 
'  Judgments^  to  fet  Rules  for  future  equal  Diftri- 

*  bution,  and  Election  of  Members  as  is  herein  ex- 

*  peered  to  be  done  by  the  prefent  Parliament. 

VIII.  «  And,  for  the  Prefervation  of  the  Su- 
c  preme  Authority,  in  all  Times,  entirely  in  the 

*  Hands  of  fuch  Perfons  only  as  (hall  be  chofen 

*  thereunto,  that  the  next,  and  all  future  Repre- 

*  fentatives,  fhall  continue  in  full  Power  for  the 

*  Space  of  one  whole  Year ;  and  that  the  People 
'  mail  of  Courfe  chufe  a  Parliament  once  every 

*  Year,  fo  as  all  the  Members  thereof  may  be  in  a 

*  Capacity  to  meet  and  take  place  of  the  foregoing 

*  Reprefentative,  the  firft  Tburfday  in  every  Auguft^ 
4  for  ever :   Alfo  that  the  next  or  any  future  Re- 
«  prefentative,  being  met,  mail  continue  their  Sef- 
'  lion,   Day  by  Day,   without  Intermiflion,   for 
«  four  .Months  ;  and  after  that  mail  be  at  Liberty 
'  to  adjourn  from  two  Months  to  two  Months,  as 
'  they  mall  fee  Caufe,  untill  their  Year  be  expired  ; 

*  but  mail  fit  no  longer  than  a  Year,  upon  Pain  of 
f  Treafon  to  every  Member  that  (hall  exceed  that 

*  Time;  and,  in  Times  of  Adjournment,  fhall  not 

*  erect  a  Council  of  State,  but  refer  the  Managing 
<  of  Affairs,  in  the  Intervals,  to  a  Committee  of 
'  their  own  Members,    giving  fuch  Inftruftions, 

*  and  publishing  them,    as  fhall  in  no  Meafure 

*  contradict  this  Agreement. 

IX.  *  And,  that  none  henceforth  may  be  igno- 
4  rant  or  doubtful  concerning  the  Power  of  the  Su- 
'  preme  Authority,  and  of  the  Affairs  about  which 

*  the  fame  is  to  be  converfant  and  exercifed,  that 

*  the  Power  of  Reprefentatives  fhall  extend,  with- 

*  out  the  Confent  or  Concurrence  of  any  other 
4  Perfon, 

i/?,  *  To  the  Confervation  of  Peace  and  Com- 
'  merce  with  foreign  Nations. 
VOL.  XIX,  H  2, 


H4     jfik  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum.       2(Hyy  '  To  the  Prefervation  of  thofe  S^jjfguarcls 

1649.        <  and  Securities  of  our  Lives,  Limbs,  K>erties, 

*-— v— J    <  Properties,  and  Eftates,  contained  in  the  Petition 

Jay<        4  of  Right,  made  and  enaded  in  the  third  Year  of 

*  the  late  King. 

3<#y,  '  To  the  raifing  of  Monies,  and  generally 
'to  all  Things  as  mall  be  evidently  conducive  to 
4  thofe  Ends,  or  to  the  Enlargement  of  our  Free- 
4  dom,  Redrefs  of  Grievances,  and  Profperity  of 
4  the  Commonwealth. 

4  For  Security  whereof,  having,  by  woeful  Expe- 
4  rience,  found  the  Prevalence  of  corrupt  Interefts 

*  powerfully  inclining  moft  Men,  once  intruded 

*  with  Authority,  to  pervert  the  fame  to  their  own 
4  Domination,  and  to  the  Prejudice  of  our  Peace 
'  and  Liberties,  that  it  be  further  agreed, 

X.  '  That  the  faid  Reprefentatives  be  not  im- 
4  powered  to  continue  in  Force,  or  to  make  any 
'  Laws,  Oaths,  or  Covenants,  whereby  to  com- 

*  pel,  by  Penalties  or  otherwife,  any  Perfon  to  any 

*  Thing  in  or  about  Matters  of  Faith,  Religion, 
c  or  God's  Worfliip ;  or  to  reftrain  any  Perfon 
'  from  the  Profeflion  of  his  Faith,  or  Exercife  of 
4  Religion  according  to  his  Confcience ;  nothing 
4  having  caufed  more  Diftraflions  and  Heart-burn* 
6  ings  in  all  Ages,  than  Perfecution  for  Matters  of 
'  Confcience  in  and  about  Religion. 

XI.  4  That  the  faid  Reprefentatives  be  not  im- 

*  powered  to  imprefs  or  conftrain  any  Perfon  to 
4  ferve  in  War,  by  Sea  or  Land,  every  Man's 
4  Confcience  being  to  be  fatisfied  in  the  Juftnefs  of 
4  that  Caufe  wherein  he  hazards  his  own  Life  or 

*  may  deftroy  another's. 

4  And,  for  abolifhing  all  Enmity  and  Rancour 

*  as  much  as  now  poflible,  that  it  be  agreed, 

XII.  '  That,  after  the  End  of  this  prefent  Par- 

*  fiament,  no  Perfon  mall  be  queftioned  for  any 
x  Thinp  liaH  or  done  in  reference  to  the  late  Wars, 

*  or  public  Differences,  otherwife  than  in  purfit- 

*  ance  of  the  Determinations  of  the  prefent  Par- 
c  liament  againft  fueh  as  have  adhered  to  the  King 

4  againft 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        115 

e  againft  the  Liberties  of  the  People ;  and  favin£ 

*  that  Accountants  for  public  Money  received  fliafi 
'  remain  accountable  for  the  fame. 

XIII. '  That  all  Exemptions  of  anyPerfons  from 
c  the  ordinary  Courfe  of  legal  Proceedings,  by  Vir- 
'  tue  of  any  Tenure,  Grant,  Charter,  Patent,  De- 
'  gree,  or  Birth  ;  or  of  any  Place  of  Refidence, 

*  Refuge,   or  Privilege   of  Parliament,    (hall   be 
'  henceforth  void  ;  and  the  like  not  to  be  reviv'd 
'  again. 

XIV.  *  That  the  Reprefentatives  be  not  im- 
c  power'd   to  give  Judgment  upon  any  one's  Per- 

*  fon  or  Eftate,  where  no  Law  hath  before  been 

*  provided  ;  nor  to  give  Power  to  any  other  Court 

*  fo  to  do  ;  for  where  there  is  no  Law  there  is  no 
'  Tranfgreflion  for  Magiftrates  to  take  Cognizance 

*  of:  Neither  to  be  impower'd  to  intermeddle  with 
'  the  Execution  of  any  Law  whatfoever. 

'  And,    in   order  to   remove  all  long   fettled 

i  Grievances,  and  take  away  all  Caufe  of  Com- 

<r  plaints,  that  the  People  may  no  longer  depend 

'  upon  the  uncertain  Inclination  of  Parliaments  to 

*  remove  them, 

XV.  <  That  it  fhall  not  be  in  the  Power  of  any 
'  Reprefentative  to  punifh,  or  caufe  to  be  punifh'd, 
'  any  Perfon  for  refufing  to  anfwer  Queftions  againft 

*  himfelf  in  criminal  Cafes. 

XVI.  «  That  it  fhall  not  be  in  their  Power, 
'  after  the  End  of  the  next  Reprefentative,  to  con- 

*  tinue  or  conftitute  any  Proceedings  in  Law  long- 
« er  than  fix  Months  to  the  final  Determination  of 
'  any  Caufe,  and  to  be  then  paft  all  Appeal. 

XVII.  c  That  the  Laws  and  the  Proceedings 
'  therein  fhall  be  in  no  other  Language  than  Eng- 
'  lijh ;  nor  fhall  any  Perfon  be  hindered  from  plead- 
'  ing  his  own  Caufe,  or  of  making  Ufe  of  whom 
'  he  pleafes  to  plead  for  him. 

*  The  reducing  of  thefe,  and  other  the  like  Pro- 

*  vifions  of  this  Nature,  in  this  Agreement  provi- 

*  ded,  and  which  cannot  now,  in  all  Particulars, 
'  be  perfected,  is  intended  to  be  the  proper  Work 

*  of  faithful  Reprefentatives. 

H  2  XVIII, 


n6     TTtf  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intsr-regmim.       XVIII.  «  That  it  (hall  not  be  in  their  Power  to 
1649.        <  continue  or  make  any  Laws  to  hinder  any  Per- 
^•— v-  *J    c  fon  from  trading  into  any  Place  beyond  the  Seas, 
y<         '  where  any  of  this  Nation  are  free  to  trade. 

XIX.  «  That  it  fhall  not  be  in  their  Power  to 
c  continue  Excife  or  Cuftoms  upon  any  Sort  of 

*  Food,  or  any  Wares  or  Commodities,  longer  than 
'  four  Months  after  the  Beginning  of  the  nextRe- 

*  prefentative  ;  being  both  of  them  extreme  bur- 

*  denfome  and  oppreflive  to  Trade,  and  fo  expen- 

*  five  in  the  Receipt,  as  the  Money  expended  there- 
'  in,  if  collected  as  Subfidies  have  been,  would  ex- 
'  tend  very  far  towards  defrayingthePublicCharges: 
4  Nor  (hall  they  raife  Money  by  any  other  Ways, 
c  after  the  aforefaid  Time,  but  only  by  an  equal 
c  Rate  in  the  Pound  upon  every  Real  arid  Perfonal 
4  Eftate  in  the  Nation. 

XX.  '  That  it  fhall  not  be  in-  their  Power  to 
'  make  or  continue  any  Law,  whereby  Men's  Real 
4  or  Perfonal  Eftates,  or  any  Part  thereof,  fhall  be 
e  exempted  from  Payment  of  their  Debts ;  or  to 

*  imprifon  any  Perfon  for  Debt  of  any  Nature,  it 
'  being  both  unchriftian  in  itfelf,  and  no  Advantage 
4  to  the  Creditors,  and  both  a  Reproach  and  Preju- 
c  dice  to  the  Commonwealth. 

XXI.  «  That  it  mail  not  be  in  their  Power  to 
c  make  or  continue  any  Law,  for  taking  away  any 
4  Man's  Life,  except  for  Murder,  or  other  like 

*  heinous  Offences  deftructive  to  human  Society, 

*  or   for  endeavouring  by  Force  to  dcftroy  this 
4  Agreement :  But  fhall  ufe  their  utmoft  Endea- 

*  vour  to  appoint  Punifhments  equal  to  Offences  ; 

*  nor  fhall  the  Eftate  of  any  capital  Offender  be 
'  confifcatc,  but  in  Cafes  of  Treafon  only ;  and, 
c  in  all  other  capital  Offences,  Recompence  fhall 

*  be  made  to  the  Parties  damnified,  as  well  out  of 
4  the  Eftate  of  the  Malefaaor,  as  by  Lofs  of  Life, 
c  according  to  the  Conlcience  of  his  Jury. 

XXII.  *  That  it  fhall  not  be  in  their  Power  to 

*  continue  or  make  any  Law,  to  deprive  any  Per- 
e  fon,  in  cafe  of  Trials  for  Life,  Limb,  Liberty, 
'  or  Eftate,  from  the  Benefit  of  Witneffes  in  his 

*  Behalf  ; 


Of    ENGLAND.       117 

<  Behalf;  nor  to  deprive  any  Perfon  of  thofe  Pri-  Inter-regnum* 

*  vileges  contain'd  in  the  Petition  of  Right.  l649- 

XXIII.  *  That  it  fhalJ  not  be  in  their  Power  to    ' *-— ' 

*  continue  the  Grievance  of  Tythes  longer  than 

*  the  End  of  the  next  Representative ;  in  which 
'  Time  they  fhall  provide  to  give  reafonable  Satif- 
'  faction  to  all  Impropriators :  Neither  {hall  they 
'  force,  by  Penalties  or  otherwife,  any  Perfon  to 

*  pay  towards  the  Maintenance  of  any  Miniftera, 
'  who,  out  of  Conference,  cannot  fubmit  there- 
'  unto. 

XXIV.  «  That  it  fhall  not  be  in  their  Power  to 

*  impofe  Miniflers  upon  any  Parifh  ;  but  fhaH  s;ive 
'  free  Liberty  to  the  Parifhioners  of  every  Parifh  to 
'  chufe  fuch  as  themfelves  fhall  approve ;  and  upon 
'  fuch  Terms,  and  for  fuch  Reward  as  themfelves 
'  fhall  be  willing  to  contribute,  or  contract  for. 
'  Provided  none  be  Chufers  but  fuch  as  are  capable 
'  of  electing  Reprefentatives. 

XXV.  c  That  it  fhall  not  be  in  their  Power  to 
6  continue  or  make  a  Law  for  any  other  Way  of 

*  Judgments,  or  Conviction  of  Life,  Limb,  Liberty, 

*  or  Eftate,  bat  only  by  twelve  fworn  Men  of  the 
'  Neighbourhood,  to  be  chofen  in  fome  free  Way 

*  by  the  People,  to  be  directed  before  the  End  of 

*  the  next  Reprefentative,  and  not  pick'd  Men. 

XXVI.  «  They  fhall   not  difable  any  Perfon 
6  from  bearing  any  Office  in  the  Commonwealth, 
4  for  any  Opinion  or  Practice  in  Religion,  except- 
'  ing  fuch  as  maintain  the  Pope's  (or  other  foreign) 

*  Supremacy. 

XXVII.  <  That  it  fhall  not  be  in  their  Power 
c  to  impofe  any  public  Officer  upon  any  Counties, 
'  Hundreds,  Cities,  Towns,  or  Boroughs  ;  but  the 
'  People  capable  of  chufing  Reprefentatives,  fhall 
'  chufe  all  their  public  Officers  that  are  in  any 
c  Kind  to  adminifter  the  Law  for  their  refpective 
'  Places,  for  one  whole  Year,  and  no  longer;  and 

*  fo  from  Year  to  Year. 

'  And,  that  no  Perfon  may  have  juft  Caufe  to 

4  complain,  by  reafon  of  taking  away  the  Excife 

4  and  Cuftoms,  that  it;  be  agreed, 

H  3 


1 1 8      ¥he  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

jRter-regnum.       XXVIII.  <  That  the  next,  and  all  future,  Re- 

1649.        t  prefentatives  (hall  exactly  keep  the  Public  Faith, 

V"""T^~~<"^    '  and  give  full  Satisfaction,  for  ail  Securities,  Debts, 

'  Arrears,  or  Damages,  juftly  chargeable  out  of 

*  the  public  Trealury ;  and  {hall  confirm  all  juft 
'  public  Purchafes  and  Contracts  that  have  been, 

*  or  {hall  be  made  ;  fave  that  the  next  Reprefen- 

*  tative  may  confirm  or  make  null,  in  part  or  in. 
'  whole,  all  Gifts  of  Lands,  Money,  Offices,  or 
«•  otherwife,  made  by  the  prefent  Parliament,  to 

*  any  Member  of  the  Houfe  of  Commons,  or  to 

*  any  of  the  Lords,  or  to  any  of  the  Attendants  of 
'  either  of  them. 

'  And  forafmuch  as  nothing  threateneth  greater 
c  Danger  to  the  Commonwealth,  than  that  the 
'  Military  Power  ftiould  by  any  Means  come  to 

*  be  fuperior  to  the  Civil  Authority,  that  it  be 

*  agreed, 

XXIX.  «  That  no  Forces  fliall  be  raifed  but  by 
'  the  Reprefentatives  for  the  Time  being  ;  and,  in 
'  raifing  thereof,  that  they  exactly  obferve  thefe 

*  Rules,  namely,  That  they  allot  to  each  County, 
c  City,  Town,  and  Borough,  the  raifing  and  pay- 
'  ing  of  a  due  Proportion,  according  to  the  whole 
'  Number  to  be  levied  ;  and  fliall,  to  the  Electors 
'  of  Reprefentatives  in  each  refpeclive  Place,  give 

*  free  Liberty  to  appoint  all  Officers  appertaining 
'  to  Regiments,  Troops,  and  Companies,  and  to 

*  remove  them  as  they  fhall  fee  Caufe ;  referving 
'  to  the  Reprefentative  the  appointing  only  of  the 

*  General,  and  all  General  Officers,  and  the  com- 

*  manding  of  them  all  upon  what  Service  fhall 
'  feem  to  them  neceffary  for  the  Safety,  Peace,  and 

*  Freedom  of  the  Commonwealth. 

f  And  as  it  has  been  found  by  fad  Experience, 

*  that  generally  Men  make  little  Scruple  of  exceed- 

*  ing  their  Time  and  Power  in  Places  of  Truft,  to 
8  introduce  an   arbitrary    and   tyrannical  Power, 
'  where  there  are  no  Penalties  impofed  for  fuch  de- 

*  ftru&ive  Offences,  that  it  be  agreed, 

XXX.  «  That  it  (hall  not  be  in  the  Power  of 
(  any  Reprefentative  in  anywife  to  render  up  ot 

«  take 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        119 

c  take  away  any  Part  of  this  Agreement,  nor  level  Inter-regnum. 

*  Men's   Eftates,  deftroy  Property,  or  make  all        :649- 

*  Things  common:  And  if  any  Reprefentative  (hall  V~"7)/""""'""/ 
4  endeavour,  as  a  Reprefentative,  to  deftroy  this 

'  Agreement,  every  Member  prefent  in  the  Houfe, 
4  not  entering  or  immediately  publifhing  his  Dif- 
4  Tent,  ihall  incur  the  Pains  due  for  High  Treafon, 
£  and  be  proceeded  againft  accordingly :  And  if  any 

*  Perfon  mail,  by  Force,  endeavour  or  contrive  the 
'  Detraction  thereof,  each  Perfon  fo  doing  fhall 
4  likewife  be  dealt  with  as  in  Cafes  of  High  Trea- 

*  fon  :  And  if  any  Perfon  mail,  by  Force  of  Arms, 
'  difturb  Elections  of  Reprefentatives,  he  fhall  in- 
4  cur  the  Penalty  of  a  Riot :  And  if  any  Perfon, 

*  not  capable  of  being  an  Elector  or  Elected,  fhall 

*  intrude  himfelf  among  thofe  that  are,  or  any  Per- 

*  fon  fhall  behave  himfelf  diforderly,  fuch  Perfon 

*  fhall  be  liable  to  a  Prefentment  by  a  Grand  In- 

*  queft,  and  of  an  Indictment  upon  Mifdemeanor, 
4  and  be  fined,   or  otherwife  punifhed,    accord- 

*  ing  to   the   Difcretion  and  Verdict  of  a  Jury. 
'  And  all  Laws  made,  or  that  fhall  be  made,  con- 

*  trary  to  any  Part  of  this  Agreement,  declared 
4  null  and  void.' 

To  give  the  greater  Countenance  to  the  forego- 
ing Agreement,  the  Day  after  its  Publication, 
May  2,  two  Petitions  were  prefented  to  the  Houfe 
in  favour  of  the  Authors  of  it ;  the  one  from  di- 
vers Citizens  of  London^  and  the  other  from  the 
County  of  EJJex  ;  but  no  Anfwer  was  given  to  ei- 
ther of  them. 

May  3.  This  Day,  according  to  Appointment,  A  Fail  obfcrvcd- 
was  obferved  as  a  Day  of  public  Humiliation,  to for  the  Succefs  of 
beg  God's  Bleffing  upon  Cromwell  and  his  Army, 
then  going  for  Ireland ;  when  the  Houfe  heard 
three  Sermons  as  before.  The  Ordinance  for 
keeping  a  Monthly  Faft,  which  had  fubfifted  all 
the  Time  of  the  War  till  now,  was  repealed,  and 
occafional  ones  fubftituted  in  their  Stead ;  for  which 
this  Reafon  is  affigned  in  the  Aft,  That  fuch  fet 

Times 


120      *The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Times  for  extraordinary  Duties  of  Worftiip  are 
1649-        apt  to  degenerate  into  meer  Formality  and  cuftom- 
*— TV"""""'    ary  Obfervances  ;  and  that  it  is  more  agreeable  to 
the  Nature  of  fuch  extraordinary  Worfhip,  and  to 
the  approved  and  fuccefsful  Examples  of  the  People 
of  God  in  Scripture,  to  fet  a-part  fpecial  Times 
for  fuch  folemn  Duties,  according  to  the  particu- 
lar Occafions,  to  the  end  the  fame  might  be  ob- 
ferved  with  greater  Care  and  Attention. 

After  the  foregoing  Ac^  of  Humiliation  the 
Houfe  did  nothing  material  for  feveral  Days  toge- 
ther ;  for,  having  fwallowed  up  the  Kingly  Office, 
and  afiumed  to  themfelves  the  Legiflative  Power 
of  the  Lords,  much  private  Bufmefs  came  before 
them,  which  had  no  Reference  to  the  Public.  Yet 
was  not  this  Remnant  of  a  Parliament,  with  their 
Council  of  State,  free  from  Fears  ;  many  Parties 
were  now  raifed  againft  them,  wherein  the  Royal- 
ifts  had  no  Share,  of  which  that  of  Col.  John  Lil- 
bourne^  and  his  AfTociates  before-mentioned,  was 
the  moft  formidable.  The  Reader  may  recoiled! 
a  Petition  offered  to  the  Houfc  in  their  Favour  on 
the  1 8th  of  laft  Month,  in  which  the  newly-affu- 
med  Power  of  the  Commons  was  attack'd  in  fo  fpi- 
rited  a  Manner,  as  would  have  been  more  fevercly 
punifh'd  than  by  a  Reprimand  from  the  Speaker, 
had  they  durft  have  done  fo :  But  their  Apprehen- 
iions  of  raifmg  a  Tumult,  which  might  have  end- 
,  ed  in  their  own  Deftru&ion,  prevented  them  at 

this  Time. 

The  Houfe  under  As  an  Inftance  of  their  Fears  and  Jealoufies,  out 
great  Apprehen-of  their  own  Records :  The  Houfe  having  beea 
*«  informed  that  divers  Perfons  were  then  in  Arms, 
and  committed  Hoftilities  againft  the  Parliament ; 
on  the  nth  of  this  Month  they  ordered  a  Letter, 
fign'd  by  the  Speaker,  to  be  fent  to  the  General 
to  acquaint  him  with  it,  and  to  defire  he  would 
take  efpecial  Care  therein. 

Ordered  alfo  that  Major-General  Skippon  do 
take  Care,  that  the  Forces  in  the  City  of  London . 
and  Suburbs,  under  his  Command,  be  in  Readi- 
nefs  for  Service,  for  the  Prefervation  of  the  Peace 

and 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       121 

and  Safety  of  the  Parliament  and  City,  according  inter- reg 
to  the  Power  already  given  him,  and  according  to  1049- 
fuch  Directions  as  he  ihall,  from  Time  to  Time,  ^^f 
receive  from  the  Parliament  and  Council  of  State  ;  aj* 

That  the  Committee  of  the  Militia  of  London  and 
IVeftminfter  do  ac"t  accordingly;  and  that  the 
Council  of  State  do  take  Care  that  all  the  Forces 
of  the  Parliament  in  and  about  London,  &c.  do  join 
for  the  Prefervation  of  their  Peace  and  Safety. 

This  may  be  look'd  upon  as  a  fufficient  Alarm 
of  approaching  Danger,  and  yet  no  particular  Par- 
ty or  Perfon  is  named  for  it,  except  one  William 
Thompfon ;  againft  whom,  and  againft  all  that  fhould 
join  him,  a  Proclamation  was  ordered  to  be  iflued, 
declaring  them  Rebels  and  Traitors,  and  to  be 
proceeded  againft  accordingly.  But  Mr.  Whitlocke 
writes  that  they  were  a  ftrong  Body  of  the  Army, 
of  the  new  levelling  Principles,  who  had  mutinied 
on  their  being  ordered  for  Ireland.  And 

May  12.  The  Matter  appears  plainer  who  were 
the  Parties  concern'd  in  thefe  Infurre£r.ions,  by  an 
Order  from  the  Houfe  for  a  drifter  Confinement 
of  their  Principals  ;  for,  in  a  Debate  this  Day,  a 
Queftion  being  put  That  Col.  Lilbourne,  Mr.  fVil- 
liam  Walwyn,  Mr.  Thomas  Prince,  and  Mr.  Over-? 
ton,  be  made  clofe  Prifoners  in  the  Tower,  and 
kept  from  one  another  in  feparate  Lodgings,  it 
palled  in  the  Affirmative  without  a  Divifion.  And 
another  Queftion  being  put,  That  the  faid  Prifoners 
(hould  have  Maintenance  allowed  them  during  their 
clofe  Confinement,  the  Houfe  divided  upon  it,  when 
the  Noes  were  found  to  be  26,  and  the  Yeas  195 
fo  it  paired  in  the  Negative. 

Upon  thefe  fevere  Refolutions  of  the  Houfe,  the 
Author  of  one  of  the  Diaries  of  thefe  Times 
makes  this  pertinent  Remark r :  '  This  Treatment 
is  worfe  than  ever  was  exercifed  by  the  late  King, 
or  any  of  his  Predeceflbrs,  who  always  allowed 
Prifoners,  tho'  committed  for  High  Treafon,  in 
the  Tower,  a  weekly  Maintenance  according  to 
t  The  Mtdcrate  N°.  44. 


122      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

their  Quality. Not  only  to  commit  Men  clofc 

Priioiu-rs,  that  neither  Man,  Woman  or  Child  can 
come  to,  or  fpeak  with  them,  (for  that  is  clofe  Im- 
prilbnment)  whereby  they  arc  made  incapable  of 
procuring  Money,  Cloaths,  or  Victuals,  from 
Friends  or  Kindred,  other  in. .11  what  their  mer- 
cild's  Keepers  will  pieafe  to  afford  them  ;  but  to 
give  them  no  Allowance  at  all  to  maintain  them  ! 
What  it  Tome  of  them  have  noEltates,  their  Friends 
cannot  be  admitted  to  relieve  them  ;  their  Keepers 
have  nor  wher-ewiihall ;  mult  they  not  confequently 
perifh  and  Itarve  in  Prifon  ?  Could  it  ever  be  con- 
ceived that  Human  Nature  fhould  produce  fuch 
Things  ?  Are  thefe  Principles  fuitable  with  Grace 
in  thole  that  would  be  thought  godly  j" 

This  Appeal  to  the  Public,  which  it  is  highly 
probable  was  followed  by  more  of  the  fame  Im- 
port, had  fuch  Effect,  that,  three  Days  after,  the 
Lieutenant  of  the  Tower  was  ordered  to  take  Care 
,  that  Lilbcurne  and  his  Fellow-Prifoners  fhould  have 
necefiary  Provifions. 

An  Act  had  been  brought  into  the  Houfe  fome 

Time  fmce  byCommifiary-General  Ireton,  intitled, 

An  Aft  parted     jln  Aft  for  the  more  conjlant  and.  certain  Supply  of 

F«cP<S!rtwg  tf)C  S°ti*ers  w'lt^  Pa'J->  and  tfje  preventing  of  any 
further  Opprejjlor.  and  Damage  to  the  People,  bv  free 
^htarter  and  Billet ,  which  was  read  a  third  Time 
this  Day,  palled,  and  ordered  to  be  printed  and 
publiftied  forthwith. 

May  14.  This  Day  another  Adi  was  read   a 

third  Time  and  pafTed,  An  Att  declaring  what  Of- 

Another  deda-  fences  foall  be  judged  Treafon  ;   and  that  the  Time 

ring  what  Of-    for  profecutiiig  Pcrfons  for  the  fame  Jhall  be  with- 

fences  /hall  be     jn  one  Year  after  the  Offence  committed.     Ordered 

lfon>  that  this  A&  be  forthwith  printed  and  publifhed. 

Hereby  it  was  enacled,  '  That  if  any  Perfon 
fhall  malicioufly  publifli,  by  writing,  printing,  or 
openly  declaring,  that  the  Government  of  the 
People,  by  its  own  Reprefentatives  or  National 
Meetings  in  Council,  is  tyrannical,  ufurped,  or 

unlawful  i 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        123 

.unlawful ;  or  that  the  Commons  in  Parliament  af-  Inter-regnunv 
fembled  arc  not  the  Supreme  Authority  of  this  Na-  l649- 
tion ;  or  plot,  contrive,  or  endeavour  to  raife  Force  '— T^""^1-^ 
againft  the  prefent  Government,  or  Subverfion  or 
Alteration  of  the  fame,  and  fhall  declare  the  fame 
by  any  open  Deed  :  That  if  any  Perfon  {hall,  ma- 
licioufly  and  advifedly,  plot  and  contrive,  or  en- 
deavour, the  Subverfion  of  the  Keepers  of  the  Li- 
berty of  England,  or  Council  of  State ;  or  move 
any  Perfon  for  doing  thereof,  or  ftir  up  the 
People  to  rife  againft  them,  or  either  of  them,  or 
their  Authorities  :  And  that  if  any  Perfon,  not  be- 
ing an  Officer,  Soldier,  or  Member  of  the  Army, 
fhall  plot,  contrive,  or  endeavour  to  ftir  up  Mu- 
tiny in  the  Army  under  the  Command  of  Thomas 
Lord  Fairfax  ;  or  withdraw  any  Soldiers  or  Offi- 
cers from  their  Obedience  to  their  fuperior  Offi- 
cers, or  from  the  prefent  Government;  or  fhall 
procure  or  alfift  any  Foreigners  or  Strangers  to  in- 
vade England  or  Ireland;  or  adhere  to  any  Forces 
raifed  by  the  Enemies  of  the  Parliament,  Com- 
monwealth, or  Keepers  of  the  Liberty  of  England', 
or  fhall  counterfeit  the  Great  Seal  of  England,  for 
the  Time  being,  ufed  and  appointed  by  the  Au- 
thority of  Parliament ;  every  fuch  Offence  fhall  be 
deem'd  High  Treafon.' 

On  the  2d  of  this  Month  Dr.  Doriflam,  an  Dr.  Doriflaus, 
Agent  for  the  Parliament  In  Holland,  having;  been  the  Parliament's 
affaffinated  thereby  fome  defperate  Royalffts,  fo Agent, aflkffini- 

T«  L.       f  •  j     c       1.   •    v       >AT       ii     tet*  at  the  Hague. 

Revenge,  as  they  faid,  for  their  King  s  Murder,  he 
having  acled  as  Counfel  againft  his  Majefty  at  his 
Trial :  This  Day  Sir  Henry  Vane  reported  to  the 
Houfe,  from  the  Council  of  State,  the  Examina- 
tions of  the  three  Perfons,  Servants  to  Dr.  Dorif- 
laus, who  were  prefent  at  his  Death,  and  likewife 
a  Letter  from  Mr.  Walter  Strickland,  dated  from 
the  Hague,  May  ^T,  about  the  fame.  Thefe  being 
read,  (which  are  not  entered  in  the  Journals)  to- 
gether with  the  Opinions  of  the  Council  of  State, 
touching  the  Difpofal  of  Dr.  DoriJIaus's  Body,  his 
Children  and  Servants,  the  Houfe  ordered,  That 

200 /. 


124      ytje  PfirKawtKtery  HISTORY 
Inter- repnum.  200 /.  per  Ann.  be  fettled  as  a  Penfion  for  Life  on 
l(i49-        his  Son;   5OO/,  a-piece  to  be  given  to  each  of 
<*"""^"""~";    his  Daughters,  and  250  /.  for  his  Interment,  to  be 
charged  upon  the  Revenue.     And  that  a  Declara- 
tion fhould  be  drawn,  on  Occafion  of  the  Murder 
of  Dr.  DoriJlauS)  in  order  to  be  printed  and  pub- 
lifhed,  which  was  done  accordingly  in  bac  Verba  : 

ASC£"*i°n     '  "\7£7'^ereaS  Vaac  Dorijlmes^    Doclor  of  the 
"'  4    VV     Laws,  and  one  of  the  Judges  of  the 
«  High  Court  of  Admiralty  of  this  Commonwealth, 
'  was  lately  employ'd  from  the  faid  Commonwealth 

*  as  their  public  Minifler,  to  be  refident  together 
'  with  Walter  Strickland,  Efq;  a  Member  of  Par- 
'  liament,  Refident  there,  with  the  High  and  Mish- 
'  ty  Lords  the  States  General  of  the  United  Pro- 
'  vinces,  to  whom  he  had  Credentials  and  Inftruc- 

*  tions  for  maintaining  a  right  Underftanding  and 

*  good  Correfpondency  between  the  Nations,  ac- 
'  cording  to  the  antient  Alliances  and  Treaties;  and 

*  was,  within  a  few  Days  after  his  Arrival  there, 

*  notwithftanding  his  faid  Public  Character,  barba- 
'  roufly  and  execrably  murdered  by  armed  Men, 
'  violently  rufhing  into  his  Lodging  :  * 

The 

g  Mr.  Wbitlaclc  writes,  That  Dcrijlaus  was  murdered  by  twelve 
f.f^i'jh  Cavaliers,  in  Difguife,  who  ftabbed  him  in  feveral  Places, 
and  cut  his  Throat  j  and  that  one  of  them  faid,  Thus  din  one  of  the 
Kir.gs  Judges.  Memorials,  p.  386. 

Lord  Clarendon,  who  was  then  at  the  Hague,  gives  a  more  pir- 
tlcular  Account  of  this  Matter:  His  Lordfhip  informs  us,  '  That 
Dr.  Dcrijlaxs  having  taken  up  his  Lodging  at  a  Houfe  where  Stran- 
gers ufed  to  repair  till  they  could  provide  better  f«r  their  own  Ac- 
commodation ;  whilft  he 'was  at  Supper,  in  Company  with  many 
o'lii'r .  who  ufcd  to  cat  theve,  half  a  Dozen  Gentlemen  emer'd  the 
Room  with  their  Swords  drawn,  and  required  thole  who  were  at 
Table  vat  to  ftir  ;  for  there  ivas  ao  Harm  intended  to  any  but  the 
^gtr.t  tubo  came  from  :be  Rc/xli  in  England,  iuho  lad  neiply  rr.ur- 
der  d  their  Kir g:  And  one  of  them,  who  knew  Dcrijlaus,  pull'd 
him  from  the  Table,  and  kkll'd  him  at  his  Feet ;  and  thereupon 
ti>ey  all  put  up  their  Swords,  and  waJk'd  leilnrely  out  of  the  Houfc, 
Jeaving  thofe  who  were  in  the  Room  in  much  Amazement  and  Con- 
flernation.  Tho'  all  who  were  engaged  in  the  Enterprize  went 
fluietly  away,  and  fo  out  of  the  Town,  infomuch  as  no  one  of  them 
\vas  ever  apprehended,  or  Cdll'd  in  Qu_eftion,  yet  they  kept  not  their 
OVR  Co;in(el  fo  \vcll  (believing  they  had  done  a  very  heroic  Ac\) 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       125 

*  The  Parliament  of  England  have  thought  fit  to   Inter-regnum, 
1  declare,  That  they  have  a  very  tender  Senfe  and 

*  Refentment  of  the  faid  barbarous  Murder  of  the    **^^~~^ 
4  laid  Dr.  Doriflaus^  their  Refident,  and  of  the 

*  Affront  and  Dishonour  that  is  thereby  done  to 
c  this  Commonwealth  :  And  altho'  the  particular 

*  Inftrumente  and  Actors  of  this  execrable  Wick- 

*  ednefs  are  not  yet  clearly  known,  which  the  faid 
c  Parliament  doubt  not  but  the  Divine  Juftice  will 
'  in  Time  difcover  and  bring  to  a  juft  and  a  due 

*  Punifhment;  yet  it  is  iufficiently  manifeft,  by  their 

*  previous  Threatenings,  to  have  proceeded  from 
'  that  Party  from  whom  all  the  Troubles  of  this 
'  Nation  have  formerly  fprung;  who,  being  Slaves 
c  to  that  Tyranny  from  which  this  Commonwealth 

*  hath  happily  (through  the  Bleffing  of  God)  vin- 
'  dicated  themfelves,    ceafe   not  to  profecute  all 
'  thofe  Counfels  that  Hell  can  fuggeft  for  the  Re- 
(  eftablifhment  of  it ;  wbofe  Ways  of  Force  the 

*  Parliament  doubts  not  but  God  will  enable  them 
c  to  refift,  if  that  Enemy  fhall  again,  after  a  double 
'  Conqueft,  attempt  upon  the  Peace  and  Liberty 
c  of  this  Commonwealth.     And  the  better  to  deter 
'  them  from  thefe  abominable  Villainies  of  Mur- 

*  der  and  Aflaffination,  they  do  hereby  declare, 
'  That  they  {hall  not  fuffer  an  Aft  of  fuch  Inhu- 
'  manity  and  hateful  Impiety  to  pafs  without  a  fig- 

*  nalMark  of  their  juft  Refentment  5  but  fhall  there - 
'  fore  efteem  themfelves  called  upon  hereby  to 
£  bring  to  due  Punifhment  thofe  of  the  Enemy's 

*  Party,  not  being  admitted  to  compound,  whofe 
'  Crimes  and  Treafons  have  long  iince  forfeited 
€  their  Lives  to  the  Juftice  of  the  Laws,  whom  the 

*  Parliament  might  otherwife  have  been  induced  to 

*  give  Pardon  unto,  had  they  not  feen  that  Party, 
'  fo  Savage-like,  thirfting  after  Blood. 

'And 

but  that  it  was  generally  known  they  were  all  Scotfmen,  and  moft  of 
them  Servants  or  Dependents  of  the  Marquis  of  Montrofe.' 

*#«•;•,  Vol.  V.  p.  293. 

The  States  General  offered  a  Reward  of  1000  Guilders  for  ap- 
prehending the  Aflaflins,  declaring  it  to  be  Death  for  any  to  har- 
bour them. 


126      'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

4  And  the  faid  Parliament  do  further  declare, 
4  That  if  the  Enemy  fhall  go  on  to  perpetrate,  or 
'  endeavour,  any  fuch  horrible  execrable  Villanies, 

*  whereby  either  Life  or  Member  of  any  Perfon 
'  faithful  to  the  Intereft  of  the  Commonwealth  fhall 
'  be  endangered,  that  they  will,  by  the  Execution 

*  of  Juftice  upon  fuch  Members  of  that  Party,  as, 
'  not  being  admitted  to  compound,  are  at  their 
'  Mercy,    and  might  otherwife  have  enjoyed  it, 

*  make  them  find  that  Courfe  to  be  of  Diladvan- 

*  tage  to  them.' 

In  our  Account  of  the  Tranfaclions  of  March 
laft,  we  took  Notice  of  the  Proceedings  of  the 
High  Court  of  Juftice  againft  the  Duke  of  Hamil- 
Lord  Goring,  and  ton^  tne  £arl  of  Holland,  Lord  Capel,  Lord  Go- 
bers,pardon'dv.^  and  Sir  John  Owen.  The  three  firft  foon 
after  loft  their  Heads  on  the  Scaffold.  The  two 
laft  were  reprieved ;  and,  on  the  yth  of  this  Month, 
upon  a  Petition  from  them  to  the  Houfe,  it  was 
ordered  That  they  {hould  be  pardoned  as  to  their 
Lives,  and  be  forthwith  fet  at  Liberty  j  as  were 
alfo  Major-General  Langbarne  and  Col.  Powell^ 
who  had  been  condemned  by  a  Court-Martial. — 
Very  luckily  for  thefe  Gentlemen,  this  Vote  of 
Mercy  was  pafs'd  before  the  Parliament  received 
Advice  of  Dorijlaus's  Aflaffination ;  otherwife  it  is 
highly  probable,  from  the  Tenor  of  the  foregoing 
Declaration,  that  their  Lives  would  have  been 
offered  up  as  a  Sacrifice  to  his  Manes. 

May  15.  This  Day  the  Houfe,  according  to  for- 
mer Order,  was  refolved  into  a  grand  Commit- 
tee, Serjeant  Thorpe  in  the  Chair,  to  debate  on  the 
putting  a  Period  to  the  fitting  of  the  prefent  Par- 
liament. We  may  fuppofe  that  this  Debate  took 
up  the  whole  Day,  for  no  ether  Bufinefs  elfe 
is  entered  to  be  done  on  it  b.  After  the  Houfe 
was  refumed,  it  was  refolved,  That,  in  order 
to  the  declaring  a  certain  Time  for  putting  a  Pe- 
riod 

b  IFbitlickt  fays  it  lafted  divers  Hours. 


Of    ENGLAND.       127 

riod  to  the  Sitting  of  this  Parliament,  the  Houte  Inter-regnum. 
was  of  Opinion,  That,  in  the  firft  Place,  Confi-         l649- 
deration  be  had  of  the  ftating  of  the  Succeflion     '    M^f!"""""' 
of  future  Parliaments,   and   of  the  regulating  of 
their  Elections  j  and  a  Committee  was  ordered  ac- 
cordingly. 

For  feveral  Days  after  the  laft  the  Houfe  did  An  Aft  parted 
nothing  extraordinary.     On  the   igth  they  read^6^1^ 
and  pafs'd  an  Act,  declaring  and  conftituting  theweauh. 
People  of  England  to  be  a  Commonwealth,  and 
a  Free  State  ;   to  be  henceforth  govern'd  as  fuch  by 
the  Supreme  Authority  of  the  Nation,  the  Repre- 
fentatives  of  the  People  in  Parliament,  and  by  fuch 
Officers  as  they  {hall  appoint,  without  any  King 
or  Houfe  of  Lords ;  and  ordered  it  to  be  forthwith 
printed  and  publifned. 

The  Houfe  having  alfo  received  Advice  that  the 
late  Infurgents,  now  diftinguimed  by  the  Name 
of  Levellers,  were  routed,  their  Leader,  William 
Thompfon,  flam,  and  many  of  them  in  Prifon  at 
Oxford  and  Northampton  ;  they  ordered  Commif- 
fions  of  Oyer  and  Terminer  to  be  fent  down  to  thofe 
Places  to  try  them,  alfo  a  Proclamation  into 
feveral  Counties,  for  apprehending  all  thofe  who 
had  fled  from  the  Lord  General  Fairfax. 

This  Victory  was  look'd  upon  to  be  fo  confi-AThankfglvmg- 
derable,  that,  on  May  the  26th,  the  Houfe  order-  Pay  appointed 
ed  the  Speaker  to  give  hearty  Thanks  to  the  G^SfiSSSf" 
neral,  the  Lieutenant-General,  and  the  reft  of  the  the  Levellers. 
Officers  of  the  Army,  for  their  great  Service  done 
to  the  Commonwealth,  in  the  laft  Expedition  : 
And  that  the  yth  of  'June  be  fet  apart  as  a  Day  of 
Thankfgiving  to  Almighty  God  for  his  great  Mer- 
cy vouchfafed  to  this  whole  Commonwealth,  by 
the  Succefs  he  had  given  to  the  Parliament's  Forces, 
in  timely  fupprefling  the  late  Infurreclion  and  Re- 
bellion, and  delivering  the  Parliament  and  Nation     . 
from  the  dangerous  and  fad  Eft'e&s  which  the  fame 
did  threaten  :  Likewife  that  an  Act  Ihould  be  pre- 
pared, 


1 2  8     The  Parliamentary  Hi  s  T  o  R  v 
Inter-regnum.  pared,  declaring  the  Grounds  and  Reafons  for  ap- 
pointing the  faid  Day  of  public  Thanlcfgiving. 

May  31.  The  Houfe  accepted  of  an  Invitation 
from  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Citizens,  to  dine  with 
them  on  the  Thankfgiving  Day  at  Grocers-Hall, 
after  the  Sermons  were  ended. 

Cenfure  parted         This  Day  Alderman  Pennington,  a  Member  of 
upon  two  Alder-  the  Houfc  of  Commons,  made  a  Report,  from  the 

men  of  London,  T        j  A  »  IAII  ,     \     •     r» 

for  rei'ufmg  to  -Lord  iAdayor  and  Aldermen,  of  their  Proceedings 
proclaim  the  Aft  in  proclaiming  the  Act  for  abolishing  of  Kingly 
againft  Mor.ar-  Government,  which  the  late  Lord  Mayor  had  re- 
fufed  to  do.  That  the  prefent  Lord  Mayor  (An- 
drews) and  fifteen  Aldermen  had  proclaimed  it ; 
that  Sir  Thomas  Scames  and  Alderman  Chambers 
were  abfent,  and  two  others  were  out  of  Town  j 
on  which  the  Houfe  ordered  that  the  two  laft- 
named  Aldermen  mould  be  fent  for,  to  anfwer  for 
their  Offence  in  not  yielding  Obedience  to  the  Or- 
dej  of  the  Houfe.  Accordingly, 

On  the  firft  of  June^  both  the  faid  Aldermen 
appeared  at  the  Bax  of  the  Houfe,  when  Sir  Thomas 
SoameS)  being  afk'd  Whether  he  was  not  acquaint- 
ed with  the  Order  of  the  Houfe,  whereby  the  Al- 
dermen of  the  City  were  to  attend  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  Sheriffs,  at  the  proclaiming  the  abovefaid  Acl? 
he  anfwered,  That  he  had  Notice  of  it  from  the 
Lord  Mayor,  and  acknowledged  he  was  not  pre- 
fent ;  the  Reafon  of  which  was,  that  it  was  againil 
his  Conference,  becaufe  it  was  contrary  to  many 
Oaths  he  had  taken.  Alderman  Chambers  urged 
the  fame  Excufe,  by  Reafon  that  his  Heart  went 
not  along  with  the  Work:  Hereupon  the  Houfe 
refolved  to  difable  Sir  Thcmas  Soames  from  being  a 
Member  of  the  prefent  Parliament ;  .and  difchar- 
ged  both  of  them  from  being  Aldermen  of  the  Ci- 
ty of  London^  and  from  bearing  any  Oftce  of  Truft 
in  the  Commonwealth. 

The  fame  Day  the  Commons  appointed  the  fol- 
lowing Lawyers  to  be  Judges  of  the  refpecrive 

Courts 


Of    ENGLAND.      129 

Courts  in  IVeftminJler-Hall,  in  the  room  of  thofe  Inter-regnum. 
fix  mentioned  before,  who  had  refufed  t»  act  after        l649- 
the  Death  of  the  King,  viz.  Serjeant  Nicholas,  and    *— -V— ^ 
Richard  Afee,  £fq;  in  the  Upper-Bench,  Serjeant        •'unet 
Pule/ion,  and  Peter  Warburton,  Efq;  in  the  Com- 
mon-Pleas ;  Serjeant  Thorpe,  and  Alexander  Rig-  *™™J"&- 
by,  Efq;  in  the  Exchequer.    And,  in  order  to  qua- 
lify the  three  Barifters  for  their  new  Dignity,  they 
were  order'd  to  be  call'd  to  the  Degree  of  Serjeants 
at  Law,  by  the  Lords  Commiifioners  of  the  Great 
Seal. 

Nothing  occurs  for  fome  more  Days  after  theThe  Parliament 
laft,  except  that,  the  Day  before  theThankfgiving-ent«tain'd>  at 
Day,  June  6,  a  new  Mace  was  brought  into  *$£ 
Houfe,  ornamented  with  Flowers  inftead  of  the 
Crofs,  and  a  Ball  on  the  Top  ;  with  the  Arms  of 
England  and  Ireland  inftead  of  the  late  King's :  This 
was  not  only  approv'd  of  and  ordered  to  be  carried 
before  the  Speaker  for  the  future,  but  all  other 
Maces,  throughout  the  Nation,  were  required  to  be 
made  according  to  the  fame  Form  and  Pattern  f. 
The  Houfe  alfo  made  an  Order,  That  the  Lord 
Mayor  of  London,  on  his  Reception  of  the  Speaker 
andMembers  of  Parliament  atDinner,the  nextDay, 
fhould  deliver  the  Sword,  ufually  borne  before  the 
Lord  Mayor,  into  the  Hands  of  the  Speaker ;  and 
that  he  (hould,  thereupon,  re-deliver  the  Sword  to 
the  Lord  Mayor.  This  Ceremony,  never  done  be- 
fore to  any  but  the  Kings  of  England,  from  whom 
they  received  that  Sword,  was  performed  at  Grt- 
cers-Hall. 

Mr.  Wbitlocke  gives  the  following  Account  of  the 
Ceremonial  obferved  at  Dinner  g  :  '  The  Speaker 
fat  firft,  next  to  him  the  Lord  Mayor,  and  then 
the  Lord-General.  The  Earl  of  Pembroke  calling 
to  Wbitlocke  to  fit  down,  being  the  antient  Com- 
miffioner  of  the  Great  Seal,  he  defired  his  Lojd- 
fhip  would  be  pleafed  firft  to  fit  down,  and  then 

VOL.  XIX.  I  he 

f  The  Form  of  the  new  Mace,  prefer  Jbed  by  an  Order  of  the  13* 
of  April,  1 649,  is  eras'd  in  the  Journals.  The  Defcription  of  it 
here  given  is  taken  from  the  Moderate,  N°,  48* 

8  Mimorialt,  p,  392. 


130      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-regmim.  he  would  fit  by  him.  With  that  the  Earl  fpokc 
*649-  aloud,  (as  he  ufed  to  do)  that  all  near  him  might 
V-'v—""'  hear,  IPlwt,  do  you  think  that  I  will  fit  down  be- 
jnC'  fere  you  ?  I  have  given  Place  heretofore  to  Bifoop 
Williams,  to  ?ny  Lord  Coventry,  and  my  Lord  Lit- 
tleton ;  and  you  have  the  fame  Place  that  they  had  ; 
and  as  much  Honour  belongs  to  the  Place  under  a  Com- 
monwealth, as  under  a  King  j  and  you  are  a  Gen- 
tleman as  well  born  and  bred  as  any  of  them  ;  there- 
fore I  will  not  fit  down  before  you.  With  this  Ear- 
neftnefs  he  caufed  Wlntlocke  to  fit  down  before 
him,  and  fat  himfelf  the  next  to  him ;  the  Lord 
President  of  the  Council,  the  other  Commiflioner?; 
of  the  Great  Seal,  alfo  the  Earl  of  Salisbury  and 
the  Lord  Howard^  fat  next  to  the  Earl  of  Pem- 
broke ;  and,  after  them,  Lieutenant-General  Crom- 
ivell)  and  other  Members  of  Parliament,  and  of 
the  Council  of  State.' 

Upon  this  Occafion  fome  of  the  Aldermen  and 
Common  Council,  in  the  Name  of  the  City, 
prefented  to  the  Lord-General  Fairfax  a  large, 
weighty  Bafon  and  Ewer  of  beaten  Gold  ;  and 
to  Lieutenant-General  Crojnwell  a  Service  of 
Plate  of  the  Value  of  300  /.  and  200  Broad-Pieces 
of  Gold,  as  a  Teftimony  of  the  City's  good  Af- 
fections. 

How  acceptable  all  this  was  to  the  Parliament, 
appears  by  the  following  Vote  pafs'd  the  Day  af- 
ter the  Entertainment,  viz. 

Refolved,  f  That  this  Houfe  cloth  take  in  very 
good'Part  the  great  Refped  fhewn  Yefterday,  by 
the  Lord  Mayor,  Aldermen,  and  Common-Coun- 
cil, to  the  Speaker  and  Members  of  this  Houfc ; 
and  that  the  hearty  Thanks  of  the  Houfe  be  given 
to  them  for  it ;  thofe  Members  who  were  Alder- 
men were  ordered  to  do  this.  A  Committee  was 
alfo  named  to  confider  of  fome  Mark  of  Favour  and 
RefpecT:  to  be  done,  by  the  Houfe,  to  the  City  of 
London. 

June  8.  The  Houfe  pafs'd  an  Aft  for  the  better 
Maintenance  of  preaching  MiniJIen,  and  ether  pi- 


Of    ENGLAND.       131 

ous  Ufes.  The  Preamble  to  whi£h  fets  forth,  (  That  Intcr-regnnm. 
it  hath  been  found  by  long  Experience,  that  the        l649- 
Government  of  the  Church  of  England  by  Arch-    ^— ~ v— — ' 
bifhops,  Bifhops,  their  Chancellors  and  Commif-         Junc' 
faries.  Deans,  Deans  and  Chapters,  Archdeacons, 
and  other  Officers  depending  on  that  Hierarchy,  An  A&.  for  bet- 
hath  been  a  great  Impediment  to  the  perfect  Re-^r  Mjin'enance 
formation  and  Growth  of  Religion,  and  very  pre-cicrey    * 
judicial  to  the  Civil  State  and  Government  of  the 
Commonwealth ;  and  therefore  hath  been,  by  Au- 
thority of  Parliament,  abolifhed,  and  all  their  Ma- 
nors, Lands,  &c.  (excepting  all  Tythes  appropri- 
ate, Oblations,  Obventions,  Portions  of  Tythes 
appropriate,  belonging  to  the  faid  Archbifhops,  Bi- 
fhops, Deans,  Deans  and  Chapters,  and  others  of 
the  faid  Hierarchy)  appointed  to  be  fold  for  Pay- 
ment of  the  juft  Debts  of  the  Commonwealth,  and 
other  neceflary  Charges  occafioned  by  the  late  Ci- 
vil War,  promoted  mainly  by,  and  in  favour  of, 
the  faid  Hierarchy.' 

Then  it  proceeds  to  enact,  '  That  all  fuch 
Tythes  appropriate,  &c.  and  alfo  the  Firft  Fruits 
and  Tenths,  formerly  payable  to  the  Crown,  (hall 
be  vefted  in  Truftees ;  who  were  thereout  to  pay  all 
fuch  Salaries  as  had  been  before  appointed  to  preach- 
ing Minifters  or  Schoolmafters  in  England  or 
Wales)  untill  the  Parliament  ftiould  otherwife  or- 
der: 

'  That  i8,ooo/.  per  Annum,  out  of  the  faid 
Firft  Fruits  and  Tenths,  be  employed  for  the  above 
Purpofes,  untill  that  Sum  could  be  raifed  out  of 
the  Improvement  of  Tythes  belonging  to  Bifhops, 
Deans  and  Chapters,  &c,  and  alfo  that  2000 /. 
per  Annum  more  be  employed  for  the  Increafe  of 
Mafterfhips  of  Colleges  in  both  Univerfities,  where 
Maintenance  was  not  fufficient  : 

4  That  the  Receivers  of  the  Public  Revenues 
ihould  collect  the  Firft  Fruits  and  Tenths  in  their 
refpeclive  Counties,  and  pay  the  fame  into  the  Ex- 
chequer ;  and  that  if  thefe  were  not  fufficient  to 
make  up  20,000  /.  per  Annum  for  the  Purpofes 
I  2  aforefcid, 


132      'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

jatcr-regnum.  aforefaid,  that  the  Deficiency  fhould  be  made  good 

1649.        out  of  fome  other  Part  of  the  Public  Revenues  : 

^•*— v~ — '        '  That  after  the  Expiration  of  the  feveral  Leafes 

June.        Of  tke  f^  Xythes,  tjf&  fuch  Quantities  thereof 

fhould  be  given  to  the  Incumbent  of  each  Church 

or  Chapel,  as,  with   his  prefent  Tythes,  fliould 

make  up  100  /.  per  Annum  ;  and  where  the  Tythes 

fo  to  be  annexed  fhould  not  be  fufficient  for  that 

Purpofe,  fuch  Proportion  of  the  Overplus  of  other 

appropriate  Tythes,  &c.  fhould  be  applied  to  make 

good  the  Deficiency. 

'  The  Commiffioncrs  of  the  Great  Seal  were 
required  to  iflue  forth  Commiflions  into  all  the 
Counties  in  England  and  Wales^  to  fuch  Perfons 
as  fliould  be  appointed  by  Parliament ;  impower- 
ing  them,  by  all  lawful  Means,  to  find  out  the  true 
annual  Value  of  all  Ecclefiaftical  Livings,  and  to 
make  their  Return  into  the  Chancery,  with  the 
Names  of  the  Incumbents,  what  each  had  for  his 
Salary,  how  many  Chapels  belonged  to  one  Pa- 
rifh,  how  fituated,  which  of  them  fit  to  be  united, 
and  how  the  Churches  and  Chapels  were  fupplied 
with  preaching  Minifters,  in  order  to  a  better 
Provifion  for  the  Parochial  Clergy.' 

But  out  of  a  fpecial  Regard  to  their  Speaker, 
William  Lenthall^  Efq;  it  was  provided,  c  That  this 
Act  fhould  not  extend  to  the  Rectory  of  Burford, 
in  Oxford/hire,  and  Glebe  Lands  fettled  on  him 
and  his  Heirs.' 

June  i  i.  An  Adjournment  of  the  Houfe  being 
propofed  for  fome  Time,  it  was  referred  to  the 
Council  of  State  to  prepare  and  prefent  to  them 
fuch  Things  as  were  neceirary  and  fit  to  be  confi- 
dered  of,  and  pafled  there,  before  an  Adjournment; 
and  to  report  their  Opinion,  with  all  Speed,  to  the 
Houfe. 

i 

June  12.  A  Report  was  made  to  the  Houfe  of 
an  Eftimate  of  the  Charge  of  the  Summer's  and 
Winter's  Guard  at  Sea,  with  the  Number  of  Men 

employed 


€f   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        133 

employed  for  them ;  which  will  give  fome  Idea  of  Inter-regnum. 
the  different  State  of  Naval  Affairs  in  thefe  Times        *^49- 
and  our  own.  *"""TV"1 "™* 

CY          £          £  June. 

June  6,   1649. 

^ESTIMATE  of  the  whole  Charge  and  Expence  o/E{t[m^es  of  the 
the  Navy,  for  one  whole  Tear,  and  fo  from  Tear  to  annual  Charge  of 
Tear,  for  every  Tear,  fo  long  as  the  Service  Jhall^^**?' 
necejjarily  require  fo  great  Fleets  for  the  Summer 
and  Winter  Guards, 

I.      s.  d. 

FOR  6000  Men,  for  the  Sum-  )    x-c 
mer's  Guard,  for  eight  Months  \  IC 

For  3000  Men,  for  the  Winter's  \ 
Guard,  fix  Months  f    7500O  o  O 

For  the  ordinary  Charge  of  Chat-~} 
ham,     Deptford,    Woolwich,    and  i 
Portfmouth,   in  Viftuals,    Wages,  (    30000  o  o 
and  Stores,  for  ordinary  Repairs      J 

For  the  Charge  of  building  three  > 
new  Frigates  }    10000  o  o 

Total  283000  o  o 

June  9,   1649. 

An  ESTIMATE  of  the  Charge  in  fetting  forth  to 
Sea,  in  warlike  Manner,  for  fix  Months  Service, 
fo  many  of  the  State's  Ships  and  Pinnaces  as  Jhall 
be  mann'd  with  3000  Ment  for  this  enfuin? 
Winter's  Guard. 

3R  grounding,  graving,  and") 
fitting  fo  many  Ships  as  fhall  \ 
e  mann'd  with   3000  Men,    in  )>     2700  0  O 
their  Carpentry,  joined  and  painted 
Works 

For  Price  of  300  Tons  of  Cord-' 
age,  for  Rigging,  Ground-Tackle,  . 
and  Sea  Stores  for  the  faid  Ships!  \     9°°°  °  ° 
at  30 /.  per  Ton  J 

For  petty  Provifions  for  Boat-  ? 
fwain  and  Carpenters  Stores  $     20C 

Carried  over     13700  o  o 
I  3  For 


134      ffje  Parliamentary  H  i  s  T  o  R  Y" 

I.     s.  d. 

Brought  over     '13700  o  o 
Inter-rcgnum.       For  Anchors,  Boats,  and  Sails  ?      2rOO  0  o 

1649-         for  the  faid  Ships  j 

>• — v—- '         For  Preft  and  Conduct- Money^ 

unc<         for  2OOO  Men,  viz.   1200  Men  in  I 

and  about  London,  at  4;.  each,  and  )>        720  O  O 
800  Men  in  remote  Parts,  at  12  s.  j 
each,  Prefting  Charges  included     j 
For  Harbour  Victuals  for  800  l 
Men,  for  42  Days,  at  8^.  ob.  per  V      1190  o  o 
Diem  3 

For  Harbour  Wages  for  the  faid  l 
Men,  the  fame  Time,  at  25  i.  each  V      1400  o  O 
per  Menfem  3 

For  Sea  Viauals   for  the  faid  1 
Men,   for  fix  Months  Service,  at  *>   21000  o  O 
10^.  each  per  Menfem  j 

For  Sea  Wages  for  the  faid  3000  1 
Men,    for    the    aforefaid    Time,  >   22500  o  O 
at  25*.  a  Man  per  Menfem  3 

For  Land  and  Water  Carnage  ~| 
of  Provifions  from  London  to  Dept-  ( 
ford,    Chatham,     Woolwich,    and  f        -* 
Portjmouth,  per  Eftimate  J 

'  For  ordinary  and  extraordinary  )  Q 

Pilotage  in  and  out,  /w  Eftimate    J 

For  2500  Tons  of  Ballaft,  at  1  Q  Q 

!2d.perTon  ) 

For  phyfical  Drugs  and  Medica-  1 
ments  for  Surgeons  Chefts,  as  the  >        150  o  o 
State's  free  Gift  3 

For  extraordinary  Entertainment"! 
of  Admirals,  Vice-Admirals,  and  (       1022  O  o 
Rear- Admirals,    on  the  Coaft  off 
England  and  Ireland 

For  Travelling-Charges  to  fit  "I 
the  Ships  to  Sea,  and  to  make  Pay  ( 
to  the  Ships  Companies,  al  the  End  I 

of  the  Service  J 

Carried  over        66467  o  o 
For 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       135 

/.       S.  d.    Inter-  regnum, 
Brought  over     66467   o  O 
For  Conduit-Money,    in  Dif-  ~\^ 
charge  of  2000  Men  j  viz.  1200  at  >      1080  o  o 
4J.  and  800  at  IQJ.  each  j 

For  Powder,  Shot,  and  all  Sorts  T 
of  Munition  for  fitting  to  Sea  fo  V      7500  o  o 
many  Ships  as  fhall  carry  3000  Men  J  -  • 

Total    75047  o  O 


June  13.  The  Care  of  the  late  King's  Children 
had  been  committed  to  the  Countefs  of  Leicefter^ 
by  the  Houfe,  and  they  had  received  a  Letter  from  votes  for  redu- 
this  Lady,   defiring  fome  Regulations  as  to  her  cing  the  Honours 
Condua  to  them  :  On  which  the  Houfe  this  Day  ?bferv>d  t(>  the 
voted,  «  That  the  late  King's  Children  fhould  fit^n, 
with  the  Earl  and  Countefs  of  Lelcejler^  at  their 
Table,  as  Part  of  their  Family,  and  not  otherwife: 
And  that  the  faid  Earl  and  Countefs  do  take  Care 
that  no  other  Obfervance  or  Ceremony  be  ufed  to 
thofe  Children,  than  to  Noblemen's  Children  of 
this  Nation. 

'June  14.  Very  little  done  in  the  Houfe  this  Day, 
the  Speaker,  with  all  the  Members  of  the  Council 
of  State  attending  the  Funeral  of  Dr.  DorlJIaus, 
who  was  buried,  with  much  Ceremony,  at  Wejl- 

minfler. 

Whilft  the  Houfe  was  reducing  the  Eftate  of  the 
Remains  of  the  unhappy  Royal  Family,  as  before 
obferv'd,  they  took  Care  to  aggrandize  that  of  their 
Friends  and  Fellow-Labourers  in  the  great  V/"orkFor  rewarding 
of  overturning  the  Conftitution.     Serjeant  Brad-  > 

flaw,  who  fat  as  Prefident  in  the  High  Court  of 
Juftice,  at  the  Trial  of  the  King,  merited  their 
higheft  Regard  for  that  important  Service  :  Accord- 
ingly he  was  made  Lord  Prefident  a  of  the  new  Coun- 

cil 

a  A  Motion  made  on  the  I4th  of  February  laft,  for  appointing  a 
Lord  Prefident  of  the  Council  of  State,  was  then  over-ruled  5  ba» 
afterwards  agreed  to, 


136      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

cil  of  State  ;  and  this  Day,  June  19,  the  Houfe  vo- 
ted 2COO/.  per  Ann.  b  to  be  fettled  on  him  and  his 
"""*"""""'  Heirs;  and  iooo/.  to  be  forthwith  paid  him,  to-- 
wards  his  Charges  expended  in  the  Service  of  the 
State.  Soon  atter  he  was  made  Attorney-Gene- 
ral of  the  Commonwealth,  for  the  Counties  of  Che- 
Jler^  Flint,  Denbigh,  and  Montgomery,  and  Chan- 
cellor of  the  Duchy  of  Lancafter.  Large  Grants  of 
Lands  and  Sums  of  Money  were  alfo  voted  to 
Members  of  the  Houfe,  and  others,  out  of  Crown 
andDeans  and  Chapters  Lands,  forfeited  Eftates,y  f . 
many  Inftances  of  which  now  frequently  occur  in 
the  Journals. 

.1.  »  June  22-    A  Report  from  the  Council  of  State 

r or  tne  Recovery       •/       .    _^       .  i  •       i      T  T       /•       •          »  •   i 

of  Ireland,  was  this  Day  heard  m  the  Houfe;  in  which  was  in- 
cluded a  Commiflion,  conftituting  Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral  Cromwell,  Commander  in  Chief  over  the 
Forces  in  Ireland,  and  Governor-General  of  Ire- 
land. This  being  read,  in  Latin  and  Englijb,  the 
Houfe  voted,  *  That  the  Civil  and  Military  Power 
in  Ireland  {hall  be,  for  the  prefent,  conjoined  in 
one  Perfon ;  and  that  the  Time  of  the  Continu- 
ance of  this  Commiflion  fhall  be  for  three  Years. 
Inftrudlions  for  this  Commander  were  ordered  to 
be  prepared  by  the  Council  of  State,  and  reported 
to  the  Houfe  with  all  Speed. 

This  Day,  alfo,  another  Report  was  made  from 
the  Council  of  State,  of  their  Opinion  what 
Things  were  neceflary  to  be  confidered  on  before 
the  Recefs  of  Parliament.  Which  of  thefe  were 
pafs'd  into  Acts  may  be  feen  by  the  Titles  of  them 
in  ScobelPs  Collections.  The  moft  material  of  them 
we  have  already  given  Abfhac~ts  of  in  the  Proceed- 
ings of  this  Month. 

And  for  Difpofal      'July.  The  Houfe  having  before  difpofed  of  the 

Land?   ClownPerf°nal  Eftates  of  the  late  King  and  his  Family, 

went  next  upon  the  Difpofal  of  the  Caftles,  Houfes, 

Manors,  Parks,  &c.    belonging  to  the  Crown. 

Amongft, 

1>  Mr.  initiate  write?,  4000 /,  fcr  Annum  \  but  the  Jeurnalt 
ttake  it  no  more  than  2000  /, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       137 

Amongft  thefe  the  Council  of  State  referred  it  to  the  Inter-rcgnum. 
Parliament,  that  the  following  fhould  not  be  fold, 
but  kept  for  the  public  Ufe  of  the  Commonwealth,    ^^Tf""*^  • 
viz.    Whitehall -Houfe,  Weftminfter  -  Palace,    St.        J   * 
James's  Park,  St.  James's  Houfe,  Somerfet-Houfe^ 
Hampton-Court   and   the  Houfe-Park,    Theobalds 
and  the  Park,  Windfor  and  the  little  Park  next 
the  Houfe,  Greenwich-Houfe  and  Park  and  Caftle, 
and  Hyde-Park.     Alfo  that  the  new  Park  at  Rich- 
mond, in  Surrey,  be  fettled  upon  the  City  of  Lon- 
don, as  an  Act:  of  Favour  from  the  Houfe,  for  the 
Ufe  of  the  City  and  their  Succeflbrs.     This  Pro- 
pofal  from  the  Council  of  State  was  confirm'd  by 
a  Refolution  of  Parliament. 

July  2.  This  Day  a  Letter,  fubfcribed  by  the 
Lord  London,  Chancellor  and  Prefident  of  the  Par- 
liament of  Scotland,  dated  at  Edinburgh,  June  26, 
1649,  was  read.  After  which  it  was  ordered  to 
be  referred  to  the  Council  of  State,  to  confider 
how  the  Demands  formerly  made  by  the  Parlia- 
ment of  Scotland,  may  be  profecuted,  and  this  Par- 
liament, with  their  Proceedings,  vindicated  from 
the  Afperfions  in  this  Letter.  The  Council  ha- 
ving delivered  in  their  Opinion  two  Days  after,  the 
Houfe  voted,  '  That  the  faid  Letter  was  of  fuch  a 
Nature  as  laid  an  Incapacity  of  proiecuting  the  for- 
mer Demands  by  way  of  Treaty.'  And  the  Coun  - 
cil  of  State  were  ordered  to  draw  up  a  Declaration 
to  that  Purpofe,  and  prefent  it  to  the  Houfe. 

July  14.  The  faid  Declaration  being  perfected, 
was  this  Day  prefented  to  the  Houfe,  and  read 
once  ;  and  the  Queftion  being  put,  Whetuer  to 
read  it  a  fecond  Time  ?  the  Houfe  divided,  Yeas  25, 
Noes  1 3  ;  on  which  it  was  read  again,  pafled  on 
that  Reading,  and  ordered  to  be  forthwith  printed 
and  publifhed. 

This  Declaration,  which  is  very  fingular  in  its 
Kind,  and  recapitulates  the  whole  Difpute  which 
had  juft  before  happened  between  the  two  King- 
doms, not  being  printed  in  the  Journal^  or  elfe- 


July. 


1 3  8     The  Parliamentary  Hi  s  T OR  y 

Inter-regnum.  where  that  we  know  of,  we  fhall  give  from  the 
1649.  Edition  of  the  Times  a  :  And,  in  order  to  illuftrate 
the  Matter  thereof,  prefix  fome  Papers  b  that  had 
pafled  between  the  Parliaments  of  both  Kingdoms, 
which  were  purpofely  omitted  under  their  refpcC- 
tive  Dates,  as  coming  more  properly  together,  at 
one  View,  in  this  Place. 

A  Se"h-S  h°f  F-M     ^  may  be  rememt>ered  tnat  on  the  24th  °f  Ff- 
betweciTthe  Far-  bnictry  laft,  the  Scots   Commiflioners  refiding  in 
Jiaments  of  Eng-  London,    prcfented    a   Paper   to   the   Parliament, 
land   t"d  ir n0t"  wh'ch  Save  fucn  Offence,  that  they  ordered  thofe 
thelatrProcee^-Commiffioncrs  to  be  apprehended,  fcfc.  Hereupon 
ings  againii  the  the  Parliament  of  Scotland  fent  the  following  Re- 
King,  &c.          jnonftrance,  addrefs'd  thus,  To  William  Lenthall, 
Efq~,  Speaker  of  the  Commons  Houfe  at  Weftmin- 
fter,  which  was  read  on  the  I4th  of  Marcb^  and 
referred  to  the  Confideration  of  the  Council  of 
State  : ' 

SIR,  Edinburgh,  March  6,   1649. 

Aving  feen  a  Paper  of  the  24th  of  Febru- 
ary laft,  given  in  to  you  by  our  Commif- 
lioners,  with  a  printed  Paper  thereupon  of  the 
26th  of  February^  intitled,  A  Declaration  of  the 
Parliament  of  England,  declaring  the  aforefaid 
Paper,  given  in  by  our  Commiffioners,  to  con- 
tain reproachful  Matter  againft  the  Proceedings 
of  the  Parliament  of  England,  and  affuming  Power 
over' the  Laws  and  Government  of  that  Nation, 
with  a  Defign  to  raife  Sedition,  and  lay  the 
Grounds  of  a  new  War  in  that  Land  ;  and  fur- 
ther ordering  a  Meflage  to  be  fent  to  us,  to  know 
whether  we  will  own  the  fa'id  Paper  prefented  in 
our  Names  :  And  hearing  that  our  Commiffion- 
ers (being,  by  Command  from  us,  upon  their 
Return  from  that  Kingdom)  are  reftrained,  and 
a  Guard  fet  upon  them,  we  could  not  be  fo  far 
wanting  in  that  Duty  we  owe  to  this  Kingdom, 
and  the  Care  and  Regard  which,  in  Juftice  and 
Honour,  we  ought  to  have  of  the  Safety  and 

*  Free- 

a  Printed  by  Edward  Hujbands. 

h  Printed  for  MMbcio  Simians,  in  dlderfgate-Jlrect, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       139 

e  Freedom  of  thofe  employed  in  fo  public  a  Truft,  Inter-rcgnum. 
'  as  not  to  take  fpecial  Notice  of  their  Condition        l649' 
'  and  hard  Ufage  ;   and  have  therefore  refolved  and        Tv~ 
'  thought  fit  to  iignify  to  you,  that  we  do  own  that 
'  Paper  given  in  by  our  Commiffioncrs,  as  agree- 

*  able  to  the  Inftructions  which  they  had  from  us; 
'  wherein  we,  and  they  in  our  Names,  could  not 

*  but  give  a  Teftimony  againft  thofe  Things  which 
'  we  conceive  to  be  contrary  to  the  Grounds  and 

*  Bands   fo  often  declared,  and  acknowledged  by 
'  both  Kingdoms  ;  left  our  Silence  be  efteemed  a 

*  Compliance,  or  we  thought  anywife  acceflary  to 
'  thefe  great  Alterations,  and  the  dangerous  Con- 
'  fequences  which  may  enfue  thereupon. 

*  And  as  our  Proteftation,  in  the  laft  Seflion  of 

*  Parliament,  againft  the  laft  unlawful  Engage- 
'  ment ;  our  Act  of  this  Parliament,  declining  and 

*  repealing  the  fame,  and  every  Thing  done  in 
'  Purfuance  thereof;  and  our  whole  Proceedings, 
'  before  and  fince,  are  fufficientand  real  Evidences 
'  of  our  fincere  Defires  and  conftant  Refolutions 
'  to  continue  Union  and  Peace  between  the  King- 

*  doms,  according  to  the  Covenant  and  Treaties : 

*  So  it  is  very  far  from  our  Intentions  to  affumc 

*  any  Power   over   the   Laws    and  Government 
'  of  England^  or  any  way  to  raife  Sedition,  or  lay 

*  the  Grounds  of  a  new  War,  or  do  any  Thing, 
'  in  purfuance  of  the  late  unlawful  Engagement; 
'  which  can  no  way  be  inferred  from  the  laid  Paper, 

*  containing  only  our  Adherence  to  our  former 
'  Principles  acknowledged  by  both  Kingdoms,  and 
'  it  being  given  in  to  you  to  be  communicated  in 
<  the  ordinary  Way. 

«  We  are  fo  tender  of  the  Union  between  the 
'  Nations,  that  we  think  the  remonftrating  of  the 

*  Breach  of  Peace,  the  craving  of  juft  Reparations, 

*  and  ufmg  all  amicable  and  fair  Means,  fhould  be 
'  firft  eflay'd  before  any  Engagement  in  a  War  ; 
6  which  even  then  cannot  be  done  by  either  King- 
'  dom,  without  a  Breach  of  the  Large  Treaty,  un- 

*  lefs  it.be  upon  three  Months  Warning  preceed- 
'  inS  5  upon  which,  among  other  Grounds  and 

«  Rca- 


140      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

.   '  Reafbns,  we  did  proteft  and  declare  againft  the 

*  late  Engagement ;  and  do  confidently  expe6t  the 
J    *•  like  from  England,  according  to  the  Papers  given 

'  in  by  their  Commiffioners  to  the  preceeding  Sef- 
'  fion  or  Parliament :  And  however  any  prevalent 

*  Party  in  either  Kingdom  hath  infringed,  or  may 
4  break  thefe  Bonds,  yet  we  do  not  conceive  it  ei- 
'  ther  agreeable  to  God's  Will,  or  conducible  to 
'  the  Welfare  of  thefe  Nations,  to  lay  thefe  facred 
'  Ties  afide  as  diffoiv'd  and  cancell'd ;  but  rather 
'  that  they  (houid  be  prelerv'd  for  the  Good  of 
'  both  Kingdoms,  and  Benefit  of  thofe  who  have 

*  no  Acceffion  to  fuch  Breaches,  and  of  fucceedi^g 

*  Generations,  who  are  innocent  thereof,  and  may 
'  fuftain  manifold  Inconveniences  by  Diiiolution  of 
4  the  fame. 

'  Having  thus  cleared  our  Intentions  and  Refo- 
'  lutions,  we  hope  none  can  juftly  blame  this  Na- 

*  tion  for  continuing  conftant  to  their' former  En- 

*  gagement  and  Principles,  which  the  Honourable 

*  Houfes  of  the  Parliament  of  England  profefled 
'  alfo  to  be  theirs,  when  they  induced  this  King- 
e  dom  to  enter  into  Solemn  League  and  Covenant 
'  with  them  ;  far  lefs  can  it  be  any  Ground  at  all 
'  for  the  reftraining  our  Commiffioners  contrary  to 

*  the  public  Faith  and  Law  of  Nations,  by  which 
'  the  Freedom  of  AmbafFadors  and  Commiffioners 

*  is  facred  and  inviolable,  not  only  betwixt  Chri- 

*  ftians  but  even  amongft  Heathen  Kingdoms  and 
<  States ;  and  therefore  we  defire  that  our  Com- 

*  miflioners  may  be  free  from  all  Reftraint,  that 

*  they  may,  without  any  Stop  or  Moleftation,  re- 

*  turn  in  what  Way  they  think  moft  fit,  to  give  us 
'  an  Account  of  their  Proceedings.     In  Confidence 
'  whereof  we  remain 

Tour  affeftionate  Friends, 

LOU  DON,  Cancettarius, 
Pnzfes  Parliament* 

To  this  Remonftrance  the  Houfe  gave  no  An- 
fwer;  but,  in  May  following,  ordered  their  Speaker 

to 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      141 

to  write  a  Letter  to  the  Parliament  of  Scotland  > 
which  was  in  heec  V-erba  : 

Wefomnfttr,  May  23,   1649. 
My  Lords  and  Gentlemen, 

c  T  Am  commanded  by  the  Parliament  of  Eng- 
4  \_  land  to  defire  your  Lordmip  to  acquaint  the 
4  Parliament  of  Scotland,  that  they  have  many 
4  Things  of  juft  Refentment,  on  the  Behalf  of  this 
4  Nation  and  Commonwealth,  to  make  known, 
4  and  demand  Satisfaction  in,  from  the  Parliament 
4  and  People  of  Scotland,  the  Particulars  whereof 
s  they  think  not  needful  to  mention  at  this  Time, 
4  being  Things  fo  generally  known  and  frefh  in 
4  Memory  :  And  being  defirous,  in  the  firft  Place, 
4  to  endeavour  for  Satisfaction  in  a  peaceable  Way, 
4  they  do  therefore  propound,  That  CommifEoners, 
4  on  the  Behalf  of  each  Nation  refpedtively,  may, 
4  be  appointed  to  meet  in  fome  fitting  and  conve- 
4  nient  Place,  mutually  to  be  agreed  upon,  with 
4  what  convenient  Speed  may  be;  unto  which 
4  Meeting  Commiffioners  (hall  be  fent,  fully  au- 
4  thorized,  from  the  Parliament  of  England,  and 
4  on  the  Behalf  of  this  Commonwealth,  with  In- 
4  ftructions  to  make  known  the  Particulars  which 
4  they  have  to  complain  of;  wherein  if  they  fliall 
4  receive  Satisfaction,  the  Parliament  of  England 
4  are  willing,  and  their  Commiffioners  fhall  befur- 
4  ther  authorized  and  inftructed  to  treat  and  con- 
4  elude  a  firm  and  ftrict  League  of  Amity  and 
4  Friendfliip  between  the  two  Nations ;  by  Means 
4  whereof,  if  it  be  the  Will  of  God,  thefe  Nations 

*  may  be  preferved  in  a  lafting  Peace  and  happy 
4  Enjoyment  of  Religion  in  its  Purity,  together 
4  with  their  Civil  Liberties,  notwithftanding  the 
4  many  wicked  Defigns  that  are  on  Foot  againfl 
4  them,  as  well  by  fecret  as  profefled  Enemies  of 

*  both. 

4  This  is  all  I  have  in  Charge,  fave  only  to  de- 
4  fire  that  the  Parliament  of  Scotland's  Anfwer 

4  hereunto 


142     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-irgnunu  «  hereunto  may  be  returned  by  this  Bearer,  who  is 
*^49'         '  lent  Exprefs  about  the  fame  j  and  fo  refts 

Tour  bumble  Servant, 

WILLIAM    LENTHALL, 

Speaker  of  the  Parliament  of  England. 

This  Letter  produced  the  following  Anfwer,  ad- 
clrefs'd  to  the  Speaker,  as  before  ;  which  gave  Oc- 
cafion  to  the  fubfequent  Declaration  of  the  Par- 
liament of  England. 

S  I  R,  Edinburgh,  "June  26,  1649. 

'  PT^HE  Eftates  of  Parliament  of  this  Kingdom 
'  have  received  a  Letter,  dated  the  23d  of 

*  May  1649,  finned  by  you  as  Speaker  of  the  Par- 
'  liament,  and  written  in  the  Name  of  the  Com- 
'  monwealth  of  England  ;  which  Titles,  in  regard 

*  of  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  and  Trea- 
'  ties,  and  the  many  Declarations  of  the  Parlia- 
'  ments  of  both  Kingdoms,  are  fuch  as  they  may 
'  not  acknowledge. 

'  And  for  the  Matter  therein  contained  ;  the 
'  many  Things  of  juft  Refentment,  wherein  Satif- 
'  fadion  is  demanded  from  this  Kingdom,  are  on- 
'  ly  mentioned  in  the  general,  and  therefore  can- 
4  not  fo  well  receive  a  particular  Anfwer ;  but  if 
'  by  thofe  general  Expreflions,  the  late  unlawful 

*  Engagement  againft  England  be  underftood,  they 
'  defire  that  their  Proteftation  againft  the  fame  in 

*  Parliament,  and  the  Oppofition  made  thereunto 

*  by  them  afterwards  in  Arms,  (which  they  never 
'  laid  down  untill  the  Garrifons  of  Berwick  and 
'  Carlijle  were  reftored  to  the  Kingdom  of  Eng- 
<  land)   may  be  remembered,  together  with  the 

*  Letter  of  the  Houfe  of  Commons  to  the  General 

*  Aflembly  of  this  Kirk,  of  the  third  of  Auguft^ 
'  1648:  And  what  Lieutenant-General  Cromwell, 
'  authorized  from  both  Houfes  of  Parliament,  did, 
4  upon  the  5th  of  Oftcber  laft,  reprefent  to  the 

*  Committee  of  Eftates  of  this  Kingdom  of  Scot- 

«  land 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       143 

*  land  in  that  Engagement;  and  thereupon  did  de-  Inter-regmim. 

*  mand   that  they  would  give  Aflurance,   in  the 
'  Name  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  not  to  ad- 
'  mit  or  fufFer  any,  who  had  been  active  in,  or 

*  confenting  to,  that  Engagement,  to  be  employ- 
'  ed  in  any  public  Place  or  Truft  whatfoever  ; 
'  which  was  not  only  granted  and  confirmed  in 

*  Parliament,  but  all  Acts  for  Profecution  of  that 

*  Engagement  have  been  repealed,  and  allProceed- 

*  ings  tending  thereunto  publickly  difclaimed ;  and 

*  if  any  other  Wrongs  fhall  be  made  known  unto 
'  us,  we  lhall  be  ready  to  return  fuch  an  Anfwer 
'  as  may  give  juft  Satisfaction. 

*  Jf  the  Bonds  of  Religion,  Loyalty  to  the  King, 
4  and  mutual  Amity  and  Friendfhip  betwixt  the 

*  Kingdoms  be  impartially  confidered,  according 
'  to  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  and  the 
'  Profeflions  and  Declarations  of  both  Kingdoms, 
'  the  Eftates  of  Parliament  think  they  have  juft 
'  Caufe  to  complain  of  the  late  Proceedings  in  Eng~ 
'  land,  in  reference  to  Religion,  the  taking  away 
'  the  King's  Life,  and  the  Change  of  the  Funda- 

*  mental  Government  of  that  Kingdom ;  againft 
'  which  this  Kirk  and  Kingdom,  and  their  Com- 
c  miflioners,  have  protefted  and  given  Teftimony, 
'  whereunto  they  do  ftill  adhere. 

'  And  fmce  it  is  apparent  there  hath  been  of  late, 
'  in  England,  a  Backfliding  and  Departure  from 

*  the  Grounds    and  Principles  wherein  the  two 

*  Kingdoms  have  been  engaged,  the  Parliament  of 
'  this  Kingdom  doth  propound  that  the  late  Pro- 
'  ceedings  there,  againft  Covenant  and  Treaties, 
{  may  be  difclaimed  and  difavowed,  as  the  Pro- 

*  fecution  of  the  late  unlawful  Engagement  againft 
'  England  hath  been  difclaimed  and  difavoweA  here; 
'  and  that  fuch  as  have  departed  from  thefe  Prin- 

*  ciplc'j  and  their  former  Proteffions,  may  return 

*  to  the  fame  :  Upon  thefe  Grounds  they  are  con- 
'  tant  to  authorize  Commiffioners,  on  Behalf  of  this 
'  Kingdom,  to  treat  with  Commiflioners  from  both 
'  Houfes  of  the  Parliament  of  England^  fitting  in 
'  Freedom,  concerning  all  Matters  of  juft  Com- 

'  plaint 


144      T6e  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  '  plaint  which  either  Nation  may  have  againft  the 
1649.        *  other,  and  for  Redrefs  and  Reparation  thereof; 

<  ancj  to  Jo  every  Thing  that  may  furtiier  conduce 
f  to  continuing  the  happy  Peace  and  Union  be- 
4  twixt  the  Kingdoms,  which  can  never  be  fettled 
'  on  fo  fure  a  Foundation  as  the  former  Treaties, 

*  and  the  Solemn  League  and   Covenant ;    from 

*  which,  as  no  Alteration  or  Revolution  of  Affairs 
'  can  abfolve  either  Kingdom,  fo  wetruftin  God, 
c  that  no  Succefs  whatfoever,  whether  good  or  bad, 

*  (hall  be  able  to  divert  us  ;  but  as  it  hath  been 

*  our  Care  in  Times  paft,  it  (hall,  with  the  Lord's 
e  Afliftance,  ftill  be  our  real  Endeavours  for  the 
'  future  to   keep  ourfelves  from  all  Compliance 

*  with,  or  declining  to  the  Popifh,  Prelatical,  or 

*  Malignant  Party  upon  the  one  Hand,  or  to  thofe 

*  that  are  Enemies  to  the  Fundamental  Govern- 

*  ment  by  King  and  Parliament,  and  countenance 

*  and  maintain  Errors,  Herefy,  and  Schifm,  upon 
e  the  other. 

'  I  have  no  other  Thing  in  Command  from  the 
«  Parliament  of  this  Kingdom,  but  to  take  Notice, 

*  that  there  is  no  Anfwer  return'd  to  their  Letter 

<  of  the  6th  of  March  laft  j  and  fo  refts 

Your   humble   Servant^ 

LOU  DON,  Cancettarius, 
Prtsfes  Parliament!. 

DECLARATION  of  the  Parliament  ^/"ENGLAND, 
concerning  their  late  Endeavours^  in  a  peaceable 
IVay^  to  remove  all  Mifunderjlandings  and  Dif- 
ferences between  the  Commonwealth  ^/"ENGLAND, 
and  the  Kingdom  of  SCOTLAND. 

c     A   Lthough  the  Injuries  done,  and  Provoca- 

*  jf"\.  tions  offered,  unto  this  Nation  by  the  King- 
'  dom  of  Scotland,  as  well  precedent  as  fubfequent 

*  to  their  laft  Year's  Invafion,  have  been  fucb  as 

*  might,  in  Reafon,  have  fhut  the  Door  upon  all 
c  amicable  Offers  to  have  arifen,  efpecially  on  our 
'  Part ;  yet,  to  manifeft  how  unwilling  we  were 

*  to 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       145 

f  to  forget  their  former  Conjunction  with  us  in  the  Inter-regnum. 
'  affecting  and  defending  of  Religion,  and  the  pub-         l649- 

*  lie  Liberties  and  Rights  of  both  Nations,  againft    *—— V"1*^ 

*  the  common  Enemy ;  and  how  ready  we  fhould         ^u  y' 

*  ftill  be  in  profecution  of  the  fame  Caufe,  to  main- 

*  tain  a  firm  Friendfhip  with  them,  that  thereby 
'  the  Enemies  of  our  Religion  and  Liberties  might 

*  be  difappointed  of  their  wicked  and  dangerous 
'  Defigns,  long  fmce  contrived,  and  to  this  Day 

*  dextroufly  purfued,  to  the  utter  Ruining  of  both 

*  Nations,  at  lead  the  well-affected  and  confcien- 

*  tious  Party  in  both,  through  the  dividing  them, 

*  and  engaging  them  in  irreconcilable  Animofities 

*  and  Differences  among  themfelves  j  we  were  con- 

*  tent  to  propound  unto  the  Parliament  of  Scotland, 
1  by  a  Letter  of  ours  fent  unto  them,  bearing  Date 

*  the  23d  of  May  laft  paft,   that  Commiffioners 

*  might  be  refpectively  appointed,  as  well  on  the 
6  Behalf  of  this  Commonwealth,  as  in  Behalf  of 
'  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  to  meet  with  what  con- 
'  venient  Speed  might  be  j  at  which  Meeting  the 

*  Particulars  of  the  juft  Refentment,  for  which  we 
e  demanded  Satisfaction,  fhould  be  produced  j  and, 
'  if  Satisfaction  were  therein  given,  we  fliould  be 

*  further  willing  to  treat  and  conclude  a  firm  League 

*  and  Friendftiip  with  them,  for  the  Ends  expreffed 
'  in  the  faid  Letter,    unto  which  we  refer  our- 
«  felves. 

*  But  unto  this  fair  and  friendly  Overture  of  ours, 
c  no  Return  will  ferve  the  Parliament  of  that  King- 
'  dom,  but  that  which  lays  an  Incapacity  upon  us 
c  of  profecuting  our  former  Demands  in  a  Way  of 
'  Treaty,  not  only  by  the  Afperfions  which  they 

*  caft  upon  the  Honour  and  Juftice  of  our  late  Pro- 
'  ceedings,  but  by  their  public  and  profeffed  !Dif- 

*  acknowledgment  of  the  prefent  Government  of 

*  this  Nation,  eftablifhed  by  Parliament,  and  their 

*  refufing  to  treat  upon  any  other  Terms  than  our 
'  Return  back  to  Regal  Government  and  a  Houfe 

*  of  Lords,  both  which  we  have  abolifhed,  as  what 

*  was  found  by  Experience  to  be  ufelefs  and  ob- 

VOL.  XIX.  K  « 


146     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

4  ftrucYive  to  that  Freedom  and  Security  which  the 

*  People  of  England^  after  all  thefe  Labours  and 

*  Expences,  have  merited. 

'  This  unequal  Procedure  of  theirs,  in  Requital 

*  of  fuch  amicable  Addrefles  to  them,  we  could  not 
4  have  expected  from  that  Appearance  of  Wifdom 
4  and  Piety,   which  the  Actions  of  that  Nation 
'  come  ufually  cloathed  with ;  nor  do  we  know  well 
'  what  to  impute  it  to,  unlefs  it  be  either  to  fome 
'  extraordinary  Paflion  raifed  in  them  from  an  Ap- 
'  prehenfion  that  the  Change  of  Things  here  will 
'  deprive  them,  for  the  future,  of  thofe  Benefits  and 

*  Advantages  which  they  enjoyed  and  promifed 

*  themfelvcs  among  us  in  Continuance  of  Kings 
'  over  this  Nation,  which  they  cannot  fo  fuddenly 
'  digeft ;  or  whether  we  may  impute  it  to  a  politic 
'  Defign  of  ftirring  ill  Humours,  and  ftrengthening 
<  the  Hands  of  a  difcontented  Party  among  our- 
'  felves,  whom  by  no  Means  they  will  abfolve  from 
'  a  confcicntious  Obligation,  by  virtue  of  the  Co- 
'  venant,  of  adhering  to  Foreigners,  againft  the 
'  eftablimed  Government  of  this  Nation;  but,  ra- 

*  ther  than  fail,  do  furnifti  them  with  the  Example 
c  of  their  own  Practice  the  laft  Year,  when  a  Party 
'  among   themfelves  took  Arms  againft  the  Re- 

*  folutions  of  their  own  Parliament,  to  oppofe,  -as 
'  they  pretended,  the  unlawful  Engagement  againft 
'  England:  Altho'  theQueftion  was  not  fo  much, 
'  as  we  are  credibly  inform'd,  whether  England 

*  fhould  be  invaded  or  engaged  againft,  but  what 
'  Party  among  them  fhould  have  this  Truft  com- 

*  mitted  to  them. 

'  Thefe,  or  the  like  Grounds,  we  fuppofe  have 
4  moved  them  to  that  Anfwer  which  their  laft  Let- 
6  ter  fends  us,  bearing  Date  the  26th  of  June,  di- 

*  reeled  to  the  Speaker  of  the  Houfe  of  Commons, 
'  wherein  they  do  in  the  firft  Place  tell  him,  That 
'  they  neither  may  acknowledge  him  Speaker  of  the 

*  Parliament  of  England,  nor  the  Name  of  Com- 
6  monwealth  to  this  Nation ;  as  if  to  be  Speaker  of 
'  the  Parliament  of  England,  and  for  this  Nation 

4  to 


Of   ENGLAND       147 

4  to  difpole  itfclf  in  the  Way  of   a   Common-   Inter-regnum, 
e  wealth,  without  King  or  Houfe  of  Lords,  did  de- 

*  pond  upon  their  Allowance  or  Difallowance;  and 
'  as  if  we  alone,  of  all  other  Nations,  had  wanting 
*•  to  us  the  natural  Right  and  inherent  Power  to 
'  take  up  or  lay  down  what  Form  of  Government 
'  we  think  fit,  and  judge  moft  conducible  to  our 
'  owji  Prefervation,  Safety,  and  Welfare,  without 

*  afking  or  obtaining  the  Confent  of  thofe  that  are 
1  without  us,  and  foreign  to  us. 

*  And  the  Reafon  why  they  may  not  acknow- 
ledge thefe  Titles,  is,  in  regard  of  the  Solemn 
c  League  and  Covenant  and  'Treaties^  and  the  many 
'  Declarations  of  the  Parliaments  of  both  Kingdoms. 
'  An  Argument,    we  confefs,    which  hath  been 
'  often  ufed  and  alledged  by  them,  as  if,  of  courfe, 
'  it  would  ferve  the  Turn  of  bringing  in  their  Inte- 
e  reft  upon  us,  under  Pretence  of  Religion;  when- 
4  as  otherwife,  in  the  Balance  of  found  Reafon, 
4  the  little  Weight  of  it  would  appear.     But  thefe 
4  Pretences  have  fo  often  been  unmafk'd,  and  the 
6  Ungroundednefs  of  fuch  Inferences  fromCovenant 
4  and  Treaties  detected,  that  it  fhall  fuffice  us  to 
4  refer  ourfelves  to  what  already  hath  been  faid  by 
4  us  on  this  Subject  long  fince,  in  our  Declaration 
'  of  Nov.  28,  1646,  and  lately  in  another,  dated 
4  Feb.  17,  1648,  both  of  them  tranfmitted  by  us 
4  to  the  Parliament  of  Scotland.     In  which  Refpedl: 

*  we  cannot  but  wonder  how  the  Covenant,  Trea- 
'  ties,  and  Declarations  mentioned,  ftiould  come 
'  to  be  urged  and  applied  afrefh  in  this  Letter,  un- 
'  lefs  they  conceive  that  the  touching  upon  this 
4  String  is  fo  plaufible  to  fome  deluded  Minds 
'  among  us,  that  there  will  need  no  more  than  a 
'  bare  Affirmation  to  gain  Credit  thereunto  with 

*  fuch  Perfons,  for  whofe  Sake  we  have  thought 

*  good  to  make  this  further  Reply : 

*  That  it  neither  can  nor  will  be  made  appear 

*  by  any  Thing  exprefled  in  the  Covenant,  Trea- 

*  ties,  of  Declarations  that  have  pafled  the  Parlia- 
'  ment  of  England,  that  the  Parliament  hath  ex- 

K  2  *  eluded 


148     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  '  eluded  or  debarr'd  itfelf  from  the  Ufe  and  Exer- 

1649.        *  cife  of  that  Right  and  Power  which  is  infeparable 

*— ""v— -'    '  from  it,  as  the  Supreme  Legiflative  Authority  of 

July-        <  this  Nation,  to  alter,  repeal,  make  void  in  whole 

4  or  in  part,  any  Thing  whatfoever  appertaining  to 

*  the  Government  of  this  Nation,  within  itfelf,  as 
'  they  fhall  judge  requifite  and  neceflary  from  Time 
«  to  Time.     And,  certainly,  could  any  fuch  Ex- 

*  preflion  have  efcaped  them,  that  might  have  been 

*  ftrained  into  any  fuch  injurious  Senfe,  which  we 
'  are  fure  hath  not,  yet  it  is  not  to  be  imagined 

*  that  any  Covenant,  Treaty,  or  Declaration  in 

*  that  Behalf,  could  be  binding  in  Things  that  a 
'  Parliament  cannot  give  away  from  itfelf,    but 

*  would  be  deftru&ive  to  the  very  Ends  for  which 

*  Parliaments  are.     Unto  both  which  Confidera- 
«  tions  this  yet  remains  to  be  added,  That  what- 
4  ever  Force  or  Vigour  might  have  been  drawn  and 

*  urged  from  the  faid  Covenant,  Treaties,  and  De- 

*  cla-rations,  to  ferve  for  this,  or  any  other  Ufe  by 

*  the  Parliament  of  Scotland^  the  Invafion  which 
«  laft  Year  was  made  by  the  Parliament  of  that 
«  Kingdom,  (by  God's  Bleffing  fo  timely  and  hap- 
«  pily  defeated)  hath  cancell'd  and  made  invalid, 

*  as  to  any  Obligation  upon  England,  untill  we 
c  mall  think  fit  to  give  new  Life  and  Being  to  them : 

*  Wherein  we  have  Reafon  to  be  the  more  careful 

*  and  cautious,  rinding  how  dangerous  Conftruc- 
«  tions  and  Inferences  are  endeavoured  to  be  put 
'  upon  them,  upon  all  Occafions,  thereby  to  en- 
'  title  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  to  a  pretenfive 

*  Power  over  the  Laws  and  Liberties  of  England. 

'  And  as  to  that  which  we  are  defired  to  remem  * 

*  ber  concerning  what  hath  been  done  by  the  Per- 

*  Jons  that  have  prefent  Power  and  Parliamentary 

*  Authority   of    Scotland,    (when  eftated  therein 

*  thro*  the  djfiftance  of  Lieutenant-Genera!  Crom- 

*  well,  and  the  Forces  under  his  Command)  to  the 

*  dif claiming  thofe  Proceedings  again/I  England,  by 

*  that  unlawful  Engagement  j  we  anfwer,  That  the 

*  Remembrance  of  this  doth  not  at  all  expiate  and 

«  fatisfy 


0/x  E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       149 

*  fatisfy  for  the  actual  Wrong  and  Violence  perpe-  Inter-regnum, 

*  trated  upon  this  Nation  by  the  Parliament  of       l649« 

'  Scotland,  who  were  the  Authors  and  Orderers  of   *— — v— "^ 

*  that  Engagement  -,  and  have  thereby  rendered  the        July' 

*  Kingdom  of  Scotland  refponfable,  not  only  for  the 
'  Wrong  and  Injury  done,  but  to  the  Recompence 
4  of  thofe  great  Damages  which  England  hath  fu- 

*  ftained  by  the  fame ;  which  we  were  defirous, 

*  among  other  Things,  to  have  received  Satisfac- 
'  tion  for  in  a  Way  of  Treaty,  fo  haftily  declined 

*  and  rejected  by  the  prefent  Parliament  of  Scot- 
(  land,  in  their  laft  Letter,  as  if  it  were  reafonable 
«  for  the  Parliament  of  that  Kingdom  to  doWrong, 
'  but  not  reafonable  for  the  Parliament  of  England, 

*  fo  much   as   to   demand  Satisfaction  for  that 

*  Wrong,  though  in  the  faireft  and  moft  peaceable 
f  Way.     And  how  can  we  expect  Satisfaction  to 
'  be  given  to  any  other  Injuries  done  to  this  Na- 

*  tion,  when  they  fhall  by  us  be  made  known  to 
'  them,  as  they  feem  now  to  invite,  when  as  to 
'  that  which  is  fo  manifeft  and  notorious,  as  the  laft 
'  Year's  Invafion,  we  have  no  other  Redrefs  afford- 

*  ed  but  Recrimination,  which  the  latter  Part  of 
'  their  Letter  is  filled  with,  and  may  be  teduced 

*  to  thefe  two  Heads  ? 

Fir/?,  '  To  their  adhering  unto,  and  now  the 

*  fecond  Time  avowing,  thofe  Scandals  and  Re- 

*  preaches  laid  upon  the  prefent  Government  of  En- 

*  gland,  in  a  Paper  of  their  Commiflioners,  dated 

*  Feb.  24,  i64f,fubfcribed  by  the  Earl  of  Lothian* 
'  Sir  John  Chiejley,  and  Mr.  Glendinning,  in  the 
'  Name  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland;  upon  Perufal 
'  and  Confideration  whereof,  we  then  paffed  our 
'  Senfe  of  it  in  a  fhort  Declaration.     Unto  which 

*  we  mail  only  add,  That  if  the  Bonds  of  Religion 
e  and  Faithfulnefs  to  theTruft  repofed  in  both  r$r- 
'  liaments  be  impartially  confidered,  we  cannot 
'  but  think  that  the  Confideration  thereof  would 
«  have  been  a  far  better  Inducement  to  the  Parlia- 
'  ment  of  Scotland  to  have  accepted  the  Propofals 

*  made  by  us  in  our  laft  Letter,  as  a  Means  for  the 

K  3  'two 


150     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jater-regnam.  «  two  Nations  to  have  grown  up  into  a  firm  League? 

1649.         «  anci  Amity;  thereby  to  have  fecured  Religion  and 

*•- '"V"— ^    '  public  Liberty  from  the  Defigns  of  Popiih,  Pre- 

•*u>>'        *  latical,  and  Malignant  Factions,  than,  by  this 

4  their  late  Carriage  towards  us,  to  have  put  the 

*  two  Nations  at  fuch  a  pittance,  and,  at  belt,  Un-. 
4  uicfulnefs  of  each  to  other,  as  ferves  only  to  da 
4  the  Work  of  the  common  Enemv,  by  weakening 

*  us  through  our  own  Divifions  :  Wherein  we  are 
6  lure,  whatever  Charge  they  lay  upon  us,  they 

*  have  not  (hewn  themfelves  ftedfaft  and  true  to 

*  thofe  Grounds  which  were  the  Caufes  not  only 

*  of  uniting  both  Nations  in  the  fo-often-mention'd, 

*  Covenant  and  Treaties,   made  without  and  a- 
*.  gainft  Confent  of  the  late  King,  but  alfo  of  their 
4  engaging  in  a  War  againjt  him  for  the  Attain- 
4  mem  of  thofe  Ends. 

4  And  the  Improvement  of  this  Principle  in  pur- 
4  fuance  of  our  Truft,  is  not  therefore  to  be  com- 
4  plained  of,  becauie  it  juftifies  our  late  Proceed- 
4  ings,  which  have  out-gone  what  Scotland  hath 
4  concurred  in  with  us,  no  more  now  than  before, 

*  when  it  upheld  thofe  joint  Refolutions  which  car^ 
4  ried  out  them  and  us  together  in  a  War  againft 
4  the  late  King  and  his  Party,  and  in  that  Anfwer 
'  of  both  Kingdoms,  That  we  could  not  give  cur 

*  Confent  to  his  Majeftys  Return  and  Exercife  of 
4  his  Regal  Office,  till  he  had  fir  ft  given  Satisfac- 
4  tion  to  his  Kingdoms  for  the  innocent  Blood  of  his 
4  good  Subjects  that  bad  been  fpilt  in  all  his  Domi- 
4  nions,  by  his  Command  and  CommiJ/isn,  and  for 

*  the  War  in  Ireland  by  him  fomented  and  prolonged. 

*  Xo  the  fecond  Head  of  their  Recrimination, 
4  wherein  they  tell  us,  That  it  is  apparent  there 
4  hath  been  of  late,  in  England,  a  Back/tiding  and 
4  Departure  from  the  Grounds  and  Principles  ivhere- 

*  in  the  two  Kingdoms  firjl  engaged^   we  anfwer, 
4  That  before  fo  heavy  a  Charge  had  been  fo  pofi- 
4  lively  faften'd  on  us,  it  would  have  been  agree- 
4  able  to  Reafon  and  Juftice  that  a  little  Pains  had 
e  been  taken  in  briefly  reminding  us  of  thofe  Prin- 

4  ciplcs 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D,       151 

'  ciples  from  which  they  accufe  us  to  have  depart-  Inter-regnum. 

*  ed.     For  it  is  not  apparent  to  us,  after  a  very  fe-        l649- 

'  rious  Confideration  of  all  that  hath  been  offered    *""" -*v— ••J 
'  from  the  Parliament  of  Scotland,  that  there  hath        ^uly* 
4  been  a  Backfliding  from  thole  Principles  (pro- 
'  perly  fo  called)  upon  which  the  two  Nations  firft 

*  engaged ;    but,  on  the  contrary,  we  doubt  not 
4  but  to  make  it  evident  to  all,  not  prejudiced,  that 
'  we  have  been  fo  far  from  going  back,  that  we 

*  have  gone  forward  in  the  Profecution  of  them  : 
'  And  the  Diftance  between  us  and  Scotland  arifes 

*  not  from  our  backfliding  from  thofe  Principles, 
'  but  from  their  ftanding  ftill  and  not  purfuing  the 
'  common  End  which  we  propounded  to  ourfelves 

*  when  we  mutually  engaged ;  which  was  the  Se- 
1  curity  of  Religion  and  the  public  Liberties  of  the 

*  Nations  above  all  other  Things  ;  and  all  other 

*  Things,  as  they  are  confident  with,  and  fubfer- 

*  vient  unto,  them.     And  we  know  that,  in  all 

*  Things,  the  End,  before  other  Principles,  is  firft 

*  intended  ;    which  whilft  it  is  adhered  unto,   a 

*  Freedom  is  allowed  to  make  Ufe  of  all  fit  and  re- 

*  quifite  Means  to  attain  that  End  :  And  therefore 
'  the  End  of  all  Government  being  the  Good  of 

*  the  People,  in  which  Good  the  right  Knowledge 

*  and  Worfliip  of  God  is  efpecially  comprized,  the 
6  Ground  of  all  Change  muft  be,  as  it  hath  been 

*  with  us,  in  order  to  thofe  Ends  which  were  the 

*  Principles  that  the  two  Nations  did  mutually  en- 

*  gage  upon ;  and  which  will  certainly  rife  up  in 
'  Judgment  againft  them,  if  they  be  wilfully  decli- 

*  ned  and  departed  from  by  either  of  them.     We 
'  muft  be  careful,  therefore,  that  we  miftake  not 

*  Principles  for  Superstructures,  for  the  End  is  the 
'  firft  and  perfedt  Principle ;  the  Means  are  but 

*  fubordinate  and  fubjedr.  to  Change,  as  oft  as  they 
'  prove  ineffectual  to  the  End. 

'And  whereas  they  efteem  a  pofitiveConftitution 
<  of  Government  to  be  a  Principle,  and  the  Adhe- 
'  rence  to  it  to  be  of  Confcience,  altho"  changed 
s  by  the  Supreme  Authority;  upon  Examination  it 

*  will  be  found,  that  herein  they  more  eftablim  the 

«  Interefi; 


152     T^e  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

'  Intereft  of  the  Governors  than  the  Good  of  the 

*  Governed ;  and  that  wherever  the  People's  Wel- 

*  fare  is  preferred  before  the  particular  Interefts  of 

*  them  that  govern,  it  hath  not  been  unufual  in  thofe 
'  Nations  to  lay  afide  precedent  Forms  of  Govern- 
4  ment,  and  introduce  others;  although  they  allow 
'  not  us,   upon  the  fame  equitable  Ground,    to 
'  change  from  Monarchy  into  a  Commonwealth. 

'  And  becaufe  the  Parliament  of  Scotland  doth 

*  propound,  That  the  late  Proceedings  in  England, 
'  againjl  Covenants  and  Treaties,  may  be  disclaimed 
*•  and  difavowed,  as  the  Profecution  of  the  late  un- 

*  lawful  Engagement  againjl  England  was  by  them, 

*  and  that  fuch  as  have  departed  from  thofe  Prin- 

*  ciplesy  and  their  former  Profcj/ioKs,   may  return 

*  unto  the  fame :  We  conceive  that  this  Propofal 

*  might  have  been  fpared,  till  either  they  had  con- 
'  vinced  us  that  our  Proceeding's  did  deferve  fuch 
'  difclaiming,  or  at  leaft  till  we  had  been  brought  to 

*  the  fame  Straits  with  them,  when  they  difavow'd 

*  to  us  the  laft  Year's  Engagement ;  which  was 

*  not  done  by  the  vifible  Authority  of  that  Nation, 
4  till  the  Scots  Army  was  overthrown  in  England, 

*  and  that  a  confiderable  Force  of  ours  was  in  their 

*  Kingdom,  in  purfuit  of  that  Victory. 

*  They  tell  us  further,  That  no  Alteration  or  Re- 

*  volution  of  Affairs  can  abfolve  either  Nation  from 

*  the  Covenant  and  Treaties^  &c.  We  cannot  ad- 
4  mit  of  this  Do&rine,  having  fo  frefti  in  Memory 
'the  laft  Year's  open  Hoftility  of  that  Kingdom 

*  againft  England -t  and  being  not  at  all  fecured, 
'  (however  the  contrary  be  as  yet  profefled)  but 

*  that  thofe  who  are  already  fo  eafily  difpofed  to 

*  entertain  Prejudice,  and  declare  fo  unjuft  Cen- 

*  fures  upon  our  late  Proceedings,  may  in  (hort 

*  Time  be  drawn,  in  their  Zeal,  to  uphold  Mo- 
6  narchy;  and,  by  their  own  Senfe  of  the  Cove- 
«  nant,  to  join  avowedly  with  the  common  Enemy, 

*  the  Papifts,   Prelates,  and  Malignants ;  whofe 

*  Power  and  pernicious  Defigns  to  obviate  and  op- 

*  pofe,  was  the  chief  End  of  the  Covenant  and 

*  Treaties :    And  fliould  they  happen  to  fall  into 

'fuch 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       153 

*  fuch  an  Alteration  and  Revolution  as  this,  we  Inter-rcgmim. 
'  prefume  that  we  (hall  then  ftand  abfolved  in  their        l649- 

'  Judgment,  as  we  do  now  in  our  own.  **" ""X"""'""' 

'  And  we  fliall  wifh  that  fome  contrary  Necef-  y 

*  fity  do  not  incline  them  to  the  Popifh,  Prelatical, 

*  and  Malignant  Party,  as  well  as  their  Neceflity 

*  the  laft  Year  brought  them  not  only  to  comply 

*  and  join,  but  to  be  obliged  for  their  Lives  and 
'  Safeties,  to  thofe  whom  formerly  they  had  decla- 
'  red  againft,  as  much  as  now  they  do>  for  a  Sec- 
'  tarian  Army. 

*  This  Account  we  have  thought  fit  to  give  of 

*  our  late  Endeavours,  in  a  peaceable  Way,  to  pre- 

*  vent  all  Mifunderftandings  and  Differences  be- 
'  between  us  and  Scotland.     Out  of  which  Courfe, 

4  if  we  be  now  diverted,  we  can  truly  fay  the  Fault 

*  is  not  ours ;  and  fhall  not  doubt  but  that  all  in 

*  this  Commonwealth,  who  defire  Protection  from 
'  it,  and  wifh  well  to  the  Safety  and  Good  of  Eng- 

*  land)  will  be  awakened  to  difcern  the  Fallacy  and 

5  Unfoundnefs  of  thefe  Allegations  againft  us  and 

*  our  Proceedings  ;  and  be  forewarned  of  having 
'  Compliance  with  Defigns  of  whatever  Colour, 

*  that  tend  only  to  renew  and  foment  our  Divifions 
<  at  home,  and  to  promote  foreign  Advantages,  by 
'  depriving  ourfelves  of  the  Fruit  and  Benefit  of  all 
c  thofe  Labours  which  we  have  undergone,  thefe 

*  many  Years,  with  the  Expence  of  fo  much  Blood 

*  and  Treafure.' 

After  this  the  Houfe  employed  the  greateft  Part  Lieutenant-Ge- 
of  the  Month  in  making  necefiary  Preparations  for  neral  Cromwell 
the  Expedition  into  Ireland:  The  Marquis 
Ormond  had  advanced  far  in  his  Conqueft  of  that 
Kingdom,  and  had  actually  laid  Siege  to  Dublin, 
which  made  theGovernment  on  this  Side  very  anxi- 
ous about  it.  The  Forces  defign'd  to  be  employ'd 
againft  him,  under  the  Command  of  Lieutenant- 
General  Cromwell,  were  ordered  to  embark  forth- 
with; and  he  himfelf  was  to  go  with  them,  inveft- 
ed  with  all  the  Pomp  and  Regalities  of  a  Deputy- 
Lieutenant 


154      T^e  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Lieutenant  of  that  Kingdom.  The  Houfe  aHc> 
1649-  borrowed  150,0007.  more  of  the  City  of  London^ 
*— TV^—'  at  Eight  per  Cent,  and  on  the  Credit  of  the  Excife, 
for  this  Expedition  ;  and  ordered  the  nth  of  July 
to  be  kept  as  a  Day  of  public  and  folemn  Fafting 
and  Humiliation,  throughout  the  Cities  of  London 
and  Wtfhninfttr,  for  the  feeking  Almighty  God, 
for  his  efpecial  Bleiling  upon  the  Forces  now  de- 
fign'd  and  going  for  the  Relief  of  Irtiiind.  The 
lame  to  be  obfervcd  and  kept  in  all  Churches  and 
Chapels,  on  a  more  diftant  Day,  throughout  all 
England,  &c.  Arrd,  in  order  to  oblige  the  Clergy 
the  more  effectually  to  proclaim  to  their  Congre- 
gations what  the  Parliament  thought  proper  to  di- 
rect, on  the  Qth  of  this  Month  the  Boufs  pafs'd 
the  following  Refolutions  : 

Orders  for  regu-  i.  '  That  if  any  Minifter  fhould,  directly  or  in- 
hting  the  Con-dps&fa  preach,  or  publickly  pray,  againft  the 
gytlSng  ttPowe^  Authority,  or  Proceedings  of  the  Parlia- 
State.  ment,  or  the  Government  eftr.hliihed  by  Authority 

thereof: 

2.  '  Or,  'in  preaching  or  praying,  to  make  Men- 
tion of  diaries  Stuart  or  Jtirne s  Stuart,  Sons  of  the 
late   King,   (who,  by  Judgment  of  Parliament, 
were  declared  Enemies,  and  flood  excepted  from 
Pardon)   othcrwife  than  as  the  Enemies  of  this 
Commonwealth  ;  or  fhould,  under  the  Name  of 
Royal  Iflue,  or  otherwife,  promote  any  Title  or 
Intereft,  taken  away  or  declared  againft  by  this 
Parliament,  to  the  Prejudice  of  this  prefent  Go- 
vernment : 

3.  (  Or  fhould  not  obferve  the  Days  of  public 
Humiliation  or  Thankfe;iving,  appointed,  or-  to  be 
appointed,  by  Parliament;  or  not  publilh  the  Acts, 
Orders,  or  Declarations  thereof,  being  enjoined 
and  directed  thereunto  by  Authority  ot  the  fame, 
(having  due  Notice  thereof,   without  reafonable 
Caufe  to  the  contrary)  they  fhould   be  adjudged 
Delinquents ;  and  be  within  the  refpective  Orders 
and  Acts  touching  Sequeftration,  as  to  their  Eccle- 
fiafticaJ  Benefices  and  Stipends.' 


Of    ENGLAND.        255 

We  have  already  taken  Notice  of  an  Act,  for  inter- rsgnum. 
felling  the  Goods  and  Perfonal  Eilate  of  the  late        J  '- 
King,  Queen,  and  Prince:  And,  on  the   i6th  of    ' —  •;—  • 
this  Month,  another  was  pafs'd  for  the  Sale  of  the         July> 
Crown  Lands,  except  fuch  as  were  to  be  referved 
for  the  Ufe  of  the  State.     The  Preamble  to  this 
Act  fets  forth, 

'  That  the  Parliament  of  England  having  been  An  Aft  pafs'd  for 
c  neceffitated,  for  their  juft  and  lawful  Defence,  Sale  of theCrown 

*  and  preferving  of  the  Laws  and  Liberties  of  thisLands> 
'  Nation,  to  raife  and  maintain  fcveral  Armies  and 

'  Forces  j  by  Reafon  whereof  they  have  contradl- 
'  ed  very  great  Debts  ;  and  conceiving  themfelves 
'  engaged,  both  in  Honour  and  Juitice,  to  make  due 
'  Satisfaction  unto  all  Officers  and  Soldiers  for  their 
'  Arrears ;  taking  alfo  into  Confideration  the  ma- 

*  ny  great  and  faithful  Services  done  and  perform'd 
'  by  thofe  Forces,  and  more  efpecially  by  the  Ar- 
6  my  under  the  Command  of  Thomas  Lord  Fair- 
'  fax  ;  by  which,  through  the  Blefling  of  God  on 
c  their  Endeavours,   the  Parliament  is  put  into  a 
«  Capacity  of  fettling  the  People  of  this  Nation  in, 
«  and  restoring  them  unto,  their  juft  Liberties  and 

*  Freedoms*.    And    that  whereas  the  late  King, 

*  the  Queen,  and  their  eldeft  Son,  have  been  the 
<  chief  Authors  of  the  late  Wars  and  Troubles,  by 
e  whom,  in  whofe  Behalf,  and  for  whofe  Intereft 
«  principally,  the  fame  hath  been  unjuftly  raifed, 
'  fomented,  continued,  and  renewed  ;  and  there- 

*  fore,  in  all  Juflice  and  Equity,  ought  to  bear  the 
'  Burden  of  the  faid  Debts;  and  their  Eftates,  in 
«  the  firft Place,  to  be  applied  to  difcharge  the  fame; 
'  it  being  the  Duty  and  efpecial  Care  and  Endea- 
«  vour  of  the  Parliament  that  the  People  ihould 

*  not  in  any  fort  be  taxed  and  charged,  but  in  Cafe^ 
«  of  inevitable  Neceffity,  and  when  other  Ways 
'  and  Means  are  wanting  :  And  that  forafmuch 

*  as  the  Parliament,  finding  the  Office  of  a  King 
'  in  this  Nation  to  have  been  unneceflary,  burden- 
«  fome,  and  dangerous,  hath  utterly  abolifhed  the 
6  faid  Kingly  Office,' 

Then 


156     *The  Parliamentary  Hi  s  T  o  R  Y 

Then  it  proceeds  to  enact,  That,  for  the  better 
fecuring  the  Arrears  of  600,000  /.  due  to  the  Ar- 
my, and  charged  on  the  Excife,  the  fame  fhall  be 
charged  on  the  Crown  Lands,  to  be  veiled  in  Tru- 
ftees  for  that  Purpofe,  who  were  to  keep  Courts 
of  Survey,  and  to  appoint  Stewards  and  other  Of- 
ficers till  the  Time  of  Sale  :  No  Lands  to  be  fold 
under  thirteen  Years  Purchafe  j  nor  a  Leafe  grant- 
ed for  one  Life  under  fix  Years  and  a  half  ;  a  Leafe 
for  two  Lives,  under  three  Years  and  a  half  ;  and 
a  Leafe  for  three  Lives,  two  Years  and  a  half,  &c. 
by  the  Agents  or  Contractors  on  the  Part  of  the 
Parliament,  appointed  in  the  Act,  whofe  Power  and 
Inftructions  are  amply  fet  forth  therein  ;  with  Pro- 
vifo's  touching  Forefts  and  Timber  Trees  to  be  re- 
ferved  for  the  Ufe  of  the  Navy. 


For    declaring          The  nCXt  ***?>  Jttb  X7>  an  A£t  W2S  Pafs'd'  de~ 

Counterfeiting  claring  what  Offences  fhall  be  adjudg'd  HighTrea- 
of  the  Coin  to  fon.  jt  is  obfervable  that  this  Act  is  an  exact  li- 
be^High  T  i-  teral  Copy  of  another  pafs'd}  under  the  fame  Title, 

the  I4th  of  May,  1649,  with  the  Addition  of  a 
fmgle  Paragraph  only  ;  and  yet  no  Reference  is 
made  in  the  one  Act  to  the  other,  nor  any  Rea- 
fon  affign'd  for  re-enacting  into  a  Law  what  had 
received  that  Sanction  only  two  Months  before. 
The  Addition  was,  Extending  the  Penalties  of 
High  Treafon,  (except  Corruption  of  Blood  or 
Lofs  of  Dower)  to  all  fuch  who  mould  counter- 
feit, clip,  warn,  or  impair  the  current  Coin  of  the 
Commonwealth,  or  knowingly  import  falfe  Mo- 
ney, in  order  to  make  Payment  thereof. 

For  propagating     On  the  2yth  of  this  Month  the  Parliament  pafs'd 

the  Gofpel  in  an  Act,  for  promoting  and  propagating  the  Gofpel 

jaw-AyM]  of  jefus  chrift  in  New-England.     As  the  Pre- 

amble to  this  Act  exhibits  fome  Idea  of  the  State 

of  this,  then  Infant,  Colony,  we  fhall  give  it  at 

large: 

'  Whereas  the  Commons  of  England^  aflembled 
'  in  Parliament,  have  received  certain  Intelligence, 

«  by 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        157 

4  by  the  Teftimonial  of  divers  faithful  and  godly  Inter-regnum. 
4  Minifters,  and  others,  in  New-England,  that  di- 
4  vers  the  Heathen  Natives  of  that  Country,  (thro* 
4  the  Bleffing  of  God  upon  the  pious  Care  and 
*  Pains  of  fome  godly  EngliJI)  of  this  Nation,  who 
4  preach  the  Gofpel  to  them  in  their  own  Indian 
4  Language)  are  not  only  of  barbarous  become 
4  civil ;    but  many  of  them,  forfaking  their  ac- 
4  cuftomed  Charms  and  Sorceries,  and  other  Sata- 
4  nical  Delufions,  do  now  call  upon  the  Name  of 
4  the  Lord,  and  give  great  Teftimony  of  the  Power 
4  of  God  drawing  them  from  Death  and  Darknefs 
4  into  the  Life  and  Light  of  the  glorious  Gofpel  of 
4  Jefus  Chrift,  which  appeareth  by  their  diligent 
4  attending  on  the  Word  fo  preached  unto  them  j 
4  with  Tears   lamenting   their   mif-fpent   Lives ; 
4  teaching  their  Children  what  they  are  inftructed  in 
4  themfelves ;  being  careful  to  place  their  faid  Chil- 
4  dren  in  godly  Englijb  Families,  and  to  put  them 
4  to  Englijb  Schools ;  betaking  themfelves  to  one 
4  Wife,  putting  away  the  reft ;  and  by  their  con- 
4  ftant  Prayers  to  Almighty  God,  Morning  and 
4  Evening  in  their  Families,  exprefled,  in  all  Ap- 
4  pearance,  with  much  Devotion  and  Zeal  of  Heart : 
4  All  which  confidered,  we  cannot  but,  in  behalf  of 
4  the  Nation  we  reprefent,  rejoice,  and  give  Glory 
4  to  God,  for  the  Beginning  of  fo  glorious  a  Pro- 
4  pagation  of  the  Gofpel  of  Jefus  Chrift  amongft 
4  thofe  poor  Heathens,  which  cannot  be  profecu- 
4  ted  with  that  Expedition  and  further  Succefs  as 
4  is  defired,  unlefs  fit  Inftruments  be  encouraged 
4  and  maintained  to  purfue  it  j  Univerfities,  Schools, 
4  and  Nurferies  of  Literature  fettled  for  further 
4  inftrufting  and   civilizing  them  ;    Inftruments 
4  and   Materials   fit  for  Labour   and  Cloathing 
4  with  other  NecefTaries,  as  Encouragements  for 
4  the  beft-deferving  among  them,  be  provided,  and 
4  many  other  Things  neceflary  for  fo  great  a  Work ; 
4  the  furniftiing  of  all  which  will  be  a  Burden  too 
4  heavy  for  the  Englijb  there,  who  (although  wil- 
4  ling,  yet  unable)  have  in  a  great  Meafure  ex- 
*  baufted  their  Eftates  in  laying  the  Foundations  of 

4  many 


58       The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

many  hopeful  Towns  and  Colonies  in  a  defolate 
Wildernefs  :  And  therefore  conceiving  ourfelves 
of  this  Nation  bound  to  be  helpful  in  promoting 
and  advancing  of  a  Work  Ib  muc  h  tending  to  the 
Honour  of  Almighty  God  :  Be  it  therefore  en- 
acted, &fr.' 

By  this  A  (El  a  Corporation  was  eftablifbed,  con- 
fifting  of  a  Prefident,  Treafurcr,  and  fourteen  Af- 
fiftants,  with  Power  to  purchalc  Lands  in  Mort- 
main to  the  Amount  of  2000  /.  per  Annum,  to  ap- 
point a  common  Seal,  make  By-Laws,  and  re- 
ceive charitable  Contributions.  A  general  Col- 
lection was  ordered  to  be  made  throughout  Eng- 
land and  Wales  ;  and  the  Minifters  of  every  Pariih 
were  required  to  read  this  Act  in  their  feveral  Con- 
gregations, to  exhort  the  People  to  a  liberal  Con- 
tribution, and  to  go  from  Houfe  to  Houfe  for  that 
Purpofe. 


July  31.  The  Houle  pafs'd  an  Adi:  giving  fur- 
er  Powers  for  the  Sale  of  Deans  and  Chapters 
Lands.    The  Amendments  and  Alterations  where- 


And  for  the  rea- 

dier  Sale  of  Deans  ther  Powers  for  the  Sale  of  Deans  and  Chapters 
Lands.  "  Lands.  The  Amendments  and  Alterations  where- 
in make  no  fmall  Part  of  the  Journals  of  this 
Month.  Mr.  Ludlow  a  remarks,  '  That  tho'  the 
Truftees  were  authorized  to  fell  the  Lands  at  ten  b 
Years  Purchafe,  yet  fuch  was  the  good  Opinion 
the  People  had  conceiv'd  of  the  Parliament,  that 
moft  of  them  were  fold  at  the  clear  Income  of 
fifteen,  fixteen,  and  feventeen  Years  ;  one  half 
of  the  Sums  contracted  for  being  paid  down  in 
ready  Money  ;  befides  which  the  Woods  were  va- 
lued diftindtly,  and  to  be  paid  for  according  to  the 
Valuation.' 

Tlie  AiTcjTment  Auguft.  The  Commons  began  this  Month  with 
'of  90,000  1.  con-  a  Vote  for  continuing  the  AflefTment,  of  90,000  /. 
Month  sponger.  Per  Menfem  for  three  Months  longer,  viz.  from 

the  2Qth  of  September  enfuing,  to  the  fame  Day  in 

December  next. 


a  Memoirs,  Vol.  I.  p.  299. 

b  By  the  Adi  pafs'd,  dpril  30,  1649,  for  the  Sale  of  Dcrrr 
and  Chapters  Lands,  they  were  not  be  fold  under  twelve  Years 
Purchafe.  SceMl's  Collcfiions,  r>  20. 


Of    ENGLAND,        159 

.  Augujl  3.  To  (hew  in  how  high  a  Degree  of  Intcr-regnum. 
Credit  and  Honour  this  Fragment  of  a  Parliament 
was  held  abroad,  the  following  pompous  Super- 
fcription  and  Conclufion  of  a  Letter,  lent  to  them 
from  the  Burgomafters  and  Senators  of  the  City  of 
Hamburgh,  is  entered,  by  way  of  Precedent  we  fup- 
pofe,  in  their  ^Journals  : 

lllujirijjimis,  Excellentijjimis,  Nobilijjimis^  acThe.  Manner  of 
Marnificis  Dominis,  Dominis  CelfiffimeeDomusPar-1^  Parliament's 
;•  •  •  A  r  n  j-  -L  r\  •  •  a  •  mr  being  addrefled 

liamcntt  in  AnglMUraimouSi  JJommis  nojtris  Ubjer- ^     °^c  City  of 

vandijfimis  ;  and   fubfcribed  thus,   Illuftrijfimarum  Hamburgh, 
veftrarum  Generofitatum  Cff  Dominatuum  Obfervan- 
dijfimi  atque  Officiojtjfimi  Proconfules  &  Senatorcs 
Civitatis   Hamburgenfis. 

Aug.  6.  The  Houfe  proceeded  in  framing  a  De- 
claration concerning  the  Maintenance  of  the  Ali- 
niftry  and  Church  Government ;  and  the  Queftion 
being  put  that  the  Declarative  Claufe  in  the  AcT\ 
touching  the  Prefbyterian  Government,  be  Part  of 
the  Declaration,  the  Houfe  divided ;  when  the 
Numbers  were  found  to  be  equal,  23  and  23,  but 
the  Speaker's  Vote  caft  it  in  the  Negative.  Then 
it  was  ordered,  That  it  be  referred  to  a  Committee, 
upon  the  Debate  of  the  Houfe,  to  confider  of  this 
Declaration,  and  to  review  the  Book  and  Ordi- 
nances for  fettling  Prelbytery,  and  to  bring  it  in 
with  fuch  Alterations  as  they  (hall  think  fit,  with 
Lenity  to  tender  Confciences. 

Aug.  9.  Two  Bills  were  brought  into  the  Houfe 
this  Day,  one  of  them  intituled,  An  Aft  again/I 
feditious  and  fcandalous  News,  Rumours^  and  Wri- 
tings ;  the  other,  An  Aft  again/I  unlkenfed  and 
fcandalous  Books  and  Pamphlets,  and  for  the  better 
regulating  of  Printing.  They  were  both  read  a  firft 
and  fecond  Time,  and,  upon  the  Queftion,  com- 
mitted. 

The  fame  Day  the  Houfe  heard  a  Report  from 
the  Council  of  State;  and  afterwards,  upon  the 
Motion  of  Mr.  Henry  Martin^  ordered,  That  thofe 
Gentlemen  who  were  appointed  to  have  the  Cufto- 

dy 


160      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum.  <ty  of  the  Regalia*  do  deliver  them  over  to  the 

1649.        Truftees  for  Sale  of  the  Goods  of  the  late  King, 

«— v— ~ '     Queen,  and  Prince,  who  are  to  caufe  the  fame  to 

Auguft.       be  totaUy  broken ;  and  that  they  melt  down  the 

Orders  for  melt-  Gold  and  Silver  of  them,  and  fell  the  Jewels  for 

ing  down  the  Re- the  beft  Advantage  of  the  Commonwealth;  and 

&  anthed£Sa."  t0    take    the  llke  CarC   °f  th°fe    that  WerC  in    the 

tUs',ngof  the'late  Tower.     An  Order  was  alfo  made  for  taking  down 

King.  and  demolishing  the  Arms  of  the  late  King  in  all 

public  Places,  and  likewife  all  Statues  of  him,  and 

Infcriptions. So  active  were  thefe  Reformers  of 

the  State  in  obliterating  all  Marks  of  Regal  Sove- 
reignty. 

Aug.  10.  An  Affair  relating  to  Colonel,  after- 
wards the  famous  General,  Monck^  happened  in 
the  Houfe  this  Day,  which  deferves  our  Notice. 
This  Officer  had  been  long  employed  in  Ireland 
by  the  Parliament,  and  had  lately  made  an  Agree- 
ment for  a  Ceflation  of  Arms  with  the  Irijh  Rebels. 
The  Colonel  was  queftioned  for  this  by  the  new 
oi  Lord-Lieutenant  in  that  Kingdom,  and  by  him  re- 
idi  themitte^  over  mto  England,  with  his  Papers,  to  the 
/«/£Rebels,cen- Council  of  State,  who  referred  him  to  the  Parlia- 

Houfc  by  th£    ment :  And  this  Day>  beinS  called  to  the  Bar  to 
anfwer  for  his  Offence,  he  owned  the  Fact,  and 

faid  he  did  it  on  his  own  Score,  perceiving  it 
was  for  the  Prefervation  of  the  Englijh  Intereft 
there ;  and  that  they  had  reaped  fome  Fruits  there- 
of accordingly.  After  much  Debate  on  this  Bu- 
finefs,  the  Houfe  came  to  the  following  Refolution: 
'  That  this  Houfe  doth  utterly  difapprove  of  the 
Proceedings  of  Col.  Monck^  in  the  Treaty  and  Cef- 
fation  made  between  him  and  Owen  Roe  O'Neile> 
and  that  the  innocent  Blood,  which  had  been  fhed  in 
Ireland^  is  fo  frefh  in  the  Memory  of  this  Houfe, 
that  they  do  deteft  and  abhor  the  Thoughts  of 
clofmg  with  any  Party  of  Popifh  Rebels  there, 
who  have  had  their  Hands  in  fhedding  that  Blood : 
Neverthelefs,  the  Houfe  being  fatisfied  that  what 
Col.  Monck  had  done  therein,  was,  in  his  Appre- 
henfion,  neceffary  for  the  Prefervation  of  the  Par- 
liament 


Of   ENGLAND.       161 

1  lament  of  England's  Intereft  there,  theHoufe  was  Inter-regnuir., 
content  the  further  Confideration  thereof,  as  to        l649- 
him,  be  laid  afide;  and  fhould  not,  at  any  Time    <"""~V~T"-' 
hereafter,  be  call'd  in  Queftion.'   The  Colonel  be- 
ing again  call'd  in,   the  Speaker  acquainted  him 
with  this  Reiblution. 

Mr.  IVbitlocke  writes  g,  *  That  Monck  was  much 
difcon  tented  at  the  Proceedings  in  this  Bufmefs  in 
relation  to  himfelf,  efpecially  at  fome  Paflages  high- 
ly reflecting  on  his  Honour  and  Fidelity  :  That  it 
was  the  Opinion  of  divers,  either  not  to  have  que- 
flion'd  him  in  this  Bufmefs  at  all,  or,  having  once 
done  it,  never  to  employ  him  any  more  in  the  Ser- 
vice: But  that  the  major  Part  carried  it  for  beat- 
ing him  firft,  and  then  ftroaking  him  j  which  fome 
think  he  never  forgot.' 


Aug.  14.  This  Day  the  Houfe  received  Letters  A  great 
from  Ireland^   brought   by  Capt.  Otway,  giving  j^inM  .  ov"  the 
an  Account  of  a  great  Vidory  obtained  by  their  J^  /«/««£ 
Forces  there  againfl  the  Marquis  of  Ormond.    A  by  the  Parlia- 
Day  of  Thankfgiving  was  immediately  appointed  mcnt's  Force* 
to  be  held  on  the  29th  Inft.  throughout  all  £«£-  ^T>!«.  ** 
land  and  Wales^  for  this  wonderful  and  feafonable 
Vi&ory,  vouchfafed  by  the  Goodnefs  of  God  to 
the  Parliament's  Forces,  under  the  Command  of 
Lieutenant-General  Michael  Jones^  Aug.  2,  againft 
the  whole  Army  of  the  Rebels  in  Ireland^  com- 
manded by  the  Earl  of  Ormond^  then  belieging 
Dublin.     A  Declaration  was  alfo  ordered  to  be 
drawn,  of  the  Grounds  and  Reafons  of  the  fetting 
a  -part  the  faid  Day  of  public  Thankfgiving,  and 
an  A£t  for  the  due  Obfervation  thereof,  the  Care 
of  which  were  left  to  Mr.  Whitaker  and  Mr.  Scot. 
This  Declaration  and  Narrative  of  the  Battle  and 
Victory,  as  alfo  the  A&,  which  were  ordered  to 
be  printed  and  publifhed,  and  a  competent  Num- 
ber of  them  fent  to  every  Sheriff  of  England  and 
Wales,  to  be  by  them  distributed  to  all  the  Mini- 
fters  within  their  refpe&ive  Jurifdi<£tions,  are  too 
extraordinary  to  be  omitted  in  this  Work. 
VOL.  XIX.  L  A 

Memorials,  p,  403, 


1 62      The  Parliamentary  HIST o R Y 

A  DECLARATION  WNARR  ATIVE  of  the  Grounds 
and  Reafons  for  fetting  a-part  a  Day  of  public 
Tb  ank f giving,  to  be  kept  on  Wedncfday  the  ityb 
<j/Auguft,  1649.  h 

lnce  the  Time  that  the  Lord  brought  up  his 

e°^lc    fl'°m  thc  H°ufe  °f  Bondage,    bX  the 

'  Outgoings  of  his  Almighty  Power  in  Signs  and 
<  Wonders,  it  can  hardly  be  obferved  that  ever  his 
'  Almighty  Arm  was  made  more  vifibly  bare  in 
'  promoting,  or  that  he  hath,  by  more  evident  De- 

*  monftrations  declared  to  the  World,  his  Appro- 

*  bation  aid  Owning  of  any  Caufe,  than  he  hath 

*  done  that  in  which  this  Parliament  hath  been 

*  engaged,  for  Afferting  and  Recovery  of  their  juft 

*  Rights  and  Liberties,  with  the  Eftablifhment  of 

*  Truth  and  Righteoufnefs,  and  Suppreffion  and 

*  Removal  of  Tyranny,  and  all  the  Effects  of  it. 

*  And  this  hath  been  feen  more  evidently  and  abfo- 

*  lutely  fince  the  Time  that  the  Parliament  hath 

*  engaged,  moft  exprefly  and  impartially,  againft 

*  the  greatcft  and  higheft  Enemies  of  Religion  and 
«  Liberty. 

*  With  what  a  Series  of  Mercies  and  Miracles, 

*  of  Victories  and  Deliverances,  we  have  been  fol- 

*  lowed  from  the  Hand  of  our  merciful  God  fince 

*  the  Battle  of  Nafeby  till  this  prefent,  cannot,  we 

*  hope,  be  fo  far  out  of  cither  the  Senfe  or  Memory 
'  of  any  good  Patriot,  as  to  need  a  Recapitulation 

*  or  Rehearfal.     He  hath  made  us  to  triumph  over 

*  our  Enemies,  and  wherein  they  dealt  proudly  he 

*  was  above  them;  giving  them  Leave  oft-times  to 
'  fwell  their  Waves,  that  he  might  fet  them  Li- 
'  mits,  and  fay  unto  them,  Hitherto  fnall  ye  cotney 
'  and  no  further.     He  hath  made  them  feel  the 

*  Liftings-up  of  his  Hand,  which  they  would  not 

*  fee;  and  by  his  own  Almighty  Wonder- work- 

*  ing  Power  defeated  their  Strengths,  and  con- 
c  founded  them  in  thcirConfidences:  Whenheight- 

*  ened  to  Aflurances  of  undoubted  Succefs,  they 

«  have 

k  From  the  original  Edition,  printed  for  EJtvard  llu/kands,  Prin- 
ter to  the  Parliament  of  England,  Aiguft  16,  1649, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      163 

*  have  promifed  themfelves  nothing  but  Victory,  Inter-rcgnum, 
4  Spoil,  and  the  full  Harveft  of  their  Hopes,  then 

'  fudden  Deftruclion  hath  befallen  them  from  the 
'  Lord  ;  and  that  fo  fignally  and  beyond  ordinary 
'  Providences,  as  if  the  Stars  in  their  Courfes  had 

*  fought  againft  them  :  When  they  have  gone  from 
'  Mountain  to  Hill  to  feelc  for  Divinations  againft 

*  Ifrael,  and  call'd  in  Moab,  and  dmmon,  and  Ama- 

*  leek,  and  the  Inhabitants  of  Mount  Seir  againft 
'  the  Worm  Jacob,  through  the  Power  and  Pre- 
4  fence  of  our  God  no  Sorcery  hath  prevailed,  no 

*  Weapon  form'd  againft  us  hath  profpered.     The 

*  Lord  hath  declared  to  the  World,  that  he  is  a 

*  God  of  Mountains  and  of  Valleys,  and  every 
e  where  a  ftrong  Rock,  a  mighty  Defence,  for  thofe 

*  that  ferve  and  truft  in  him.     Againft  all  Perfons, 

*  and  in  all  Places,  he  hath  appeared  for  us ;   as 

*  againft  the  old  profefled  Malignants  and  Royalifts 

*  all  along  in  England,  and  againft  the  pretended 
'  Covenanters  laft  Year  from  and  in  Scotland;  fo 

*  now  of  late  moft  feafonably,  and  even  miracu- 
c  loufly,  in  Ireland,  againft  both  Scots,  renegado 

*  EngUJh,  and  Irijb  formerly  commanded  by  Taaff** 
4  Prefton,  Clanrlckard,  Inchiquin,   and  now  united 
'  and  grown  into  a  numerous  Army  under  the  Apo- 
'  ftate  Ormond ;  amounting  in  the  whole,  at  their 

*  own  Account,  to  19,000  Men.     Now  when, 

*  by  the  Revolt  of  Inchiquin,  all  Munjler  was  theirs  j 

*  and,  by  the  Force  of  Clanrickard,  all  Connaught, 
4  by  the  Defection  of  the  Scots,  and  the  Treachery 

*  of  the  Englijb  deferting  their  Truft,  all  Ulfter  was 

*  loft,  except  Derry;  and  Leinjier,  even  to  Dublin  j 

*  when  all  the  Englifr)  Intereft  in  Ireland  was  re- 

*  duced,  and  fhut  up  in  thofe  two  Towns,  and  the 

*  latter  ftraitly  befieged  by  fo  potent  a  Force,  where - 

*  by  the  Enemy  was  arrived  to  fuch  a  Confidence, 

*  as  that  the  Lord  Ormond  began  to  be  folicitous, 
'  and  full  of  Trouble  to  himfelf,  what  to  do  with 

*  our  Men,  when  they  fhould  be  in  his  Power, 
4  whereof  he  made  no  Doubt ;  inclining,  as  he 

*  faid,  to  fend  them  to  the  Barbadoes  and  our  other 

*  Plantations,  if  fufficient  Shipping  could  be  gain'd; 

L  2  and 


164     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  c  and  the  Lord  Taa/\  to  eafe  him  of  that  Care,' 

1649.         <  fuggefted,  as  an  eafier  Expedient,  the  throwing 

*— — v— •*    *  them  into  the  Sea:   Such  are  the  Mercies  of  the 

suft-       c  Wicked  !  Then,  when  they  only  ftaid  but  for 

'  the  coming  up  of  their  additional  Forces,  to  effect 

'  all  this  the  more  fecurely,  then  the  Lord  look'd 

'  flown  from  Heaven,  the  Habitation  of  his  Ho  line  j} 

*  and  his  Glory,   and  defeated  them  ;   then  he  fent 
<  forth  his  Wrath  ^  and  consumed  them  a:  Stubble  or 
1  as  Chaff  before  the  Wind:  And  thus  hath  he  be- 

*  gun  to  avenge  his  Ifrael  there,  and  vifit  for  the 

*  Blood  of  his  People  ftied  in  that  Kingdom,  with 

*  a  Rage  reaching  up  to  Heaven ;  and  therein  given 
6  his  Servants  here  Caufe  with  triumphant  Joy  to 
'  fing,   Who  is  like  unto  thee,  O  Lord,  among  the 

*  Gods  ?  Who  is  like  thee,  glorious  In  Holinefs,  fear- 

*  ful  in  Praifes,  doing  Wonders  ? 

4  The  Particulars  of  which  wonderful  Mercy, 

*  now  given,  are  more  fully  and  clearly  certified  in 

*  feveral  ExpreiTes  from  Lieutenant-General  Jones y 

*  the  principal  and  moft  honourable  Inftrument  in 

*  the  Hand  of  God  for  this  great  Deliverance  and 

*  Succefs,  fumm'd  up  in  the  enfuing  Narrative  : 

Since  Ormond'j  firft  fetting  himfelf  before  Dub- 
lin, (where  he  continued  from  the  20th  of  June  tb 
the  id  Injlant)  little  was  done  againft  this  City ;  he 
aiming  firjl  at  the  gaining  the  principal  Out-gar- 
rifons,  as  Drogheda,  Dundalk,  and  Trym,  the 
lajl  being  taken  the  2 1/?  pa  ft. 

On  the  22d  Col.  Venables  landed  with  his  Foot\ 
the  2$tb,  Col.  Reynolds,  with  his  Horfe  ;  the  26th, 
Col.  Moor  and  Col.  Hunks,  with  their  Footj  and 
Captain  Norwood  and  Major  Eliot,  with  tlci; 
Troops,  whereby  this  Party  became  in  fome  Sort 
confiderable :  Wherewithal!)  and  by  the  Report  of 
the  Lord- Lieutenant's  folloiuing  foon  after  with  the 
't.uhole  Army^  the  Enemy  being  awaken  d,  there- 
upon  refolv'd  to  fet  themfelves  wholly  to  thh 
Work  j  and,  in  the  fir  ft  Place,  they  did  cut  off  thai 
Water  whereby  our  Mills  were  driven^  and  thereby 


Of   ENGLAND.      165 

was  our  Condition  fometbing  Jlraitened;  but  prin-  Inter-regnum. 
cipally,  upon  the  jecond  Injlant,  they  cajl  up  a  JVork        1649. 
at  Baggarath,  within  a  Quarter  of  a  Mile  of  this    v— "V—-^ 
City,  whither  having  drawn  about  1 500  Foot,  be- 
fedes  Horfe,  they  thence  purpofed  to  work  them/elves 
forward  in  their  Approaches,   and  to  take  from  us 
our  Fwage  for  our  Horfe,  and  Grafs  for  our  Cattle, 
without  which  this  Place  could  not  long  have  fubfiji- 
ed  ;  and  they  built  Forts  towards  the  Sea  to  deprive 
us  of  the  Landing-place  for  our  common  Supplies ; 
and  this  was   the  only  Jafe  Landing  left  for  our 
Forces  in   the  Dominion  of  Ireland. 

The  Enemies  Horfe  and  Foot  appearing  at  Bag- 
garath the  fecondof  this  Inftant,  about  Nine  in  the 
Adorning,  Lieutenant- General  Jones  drew  out  I2CO 
Horfe  and  4000  Foot,  intending  then  only  to  beat  up 
the  Enemies  Quarters,  and  not  to  engage  with  fa 
fmall  a  Party,  their  Camp  being  at  Rathmines, 
within  lefs  than  a  Mile  of  Baggarath  j  but  God 
blejjing  our  Men  with  Succefs,  and  by  the  coming  on 
cf  Parties  on  all  Sides,  it  came  at  length  to  a  gene- 
ral Engagement ;  and,  after  more  than  two  Hours 
hot  Difpute,  the  Enemy  was  totally  routed:  Or- 
mond  hardly  efcaped  with  eight  Horfe,  and  few  had 
efcaped  of  their  whole  Numbers,  but  that  there  was 
Caufe  to  provide  again/I  a  Body  of  jooo  frejh 
Horfe  of  the  Enemies,  commanded  by  Sir  Thomas 
Armftrong ;  which  coming  up  frejh,  and  in  our  Men's 
Diforder,  might  have  endangered  all ;  but  they,  in- 
Jlead  of  advancing  as  our  Men  expefted,  fied  to~ 
wards  Drogheda. 

Our  Lojs  of  Men  was  little,,  there  not  being 
2O  miffing  ;  but  many  wounded. 

Of  the  Enemy  were  Jlain  about  4000,  fame  of 
conjiderable  Duality,  and  2517  taken  Prisoners  j 
among/i  whom  Col.  Chriftopher  Plunket,  the  Earl 
of  Fingall,  and  Col.  Richard  Butler,  the  Earl 
of  Ormond'j  Brother,  were  Principals  ;  and,  with 
them,  j  6  Colonels  and  Field-Officers,  41  Captains, 
58  Lieutenants,  42  Enjigns ;  of  Cornets,  ^uarter- 
Majlers,  and  other  Perfons  of  inferior  Offices  and 
,^  great  Numbers,  mojl  of  them  of  Inchiquin'j 
L  3  '  Eng,- 


i66     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Infr-rfgnum.  Englifh  and  our  Runaways:  To  which  is  to  be  add- 
1649.         ed  Mr*   John  Herbert,  Servant  to  the  pretended 
King,  who,  about  fix  Day!  before  landed  his  Ma- 
per,s  fjoujhold  Stuff  in  Galway. 

Our  Men  took  in  the  Place  three  Demi-cannons,  cne 
large  fquare  Gun,  carrying  a  Ball  of  twelve  Pounds , 
cne  ^acre-Drake,  and  one  Mortar-piece  :  All  thcfe 
Urafs.  And  our  Men  alfo  gained  about  200  Oxen 
for  the  Train,  be/ides  Carriages.  The  next  Day  our 
Men  feized  a  Brafs  Cannon  within  Jive  Miles  of 
the  Camp',  which  Camp  was  richly  furnijhcd  with 
great  Store  of  Velvets,  Silks,  Scarlets,  and  other 
Clothing  of  Value ;  Wines,  Groceries,  with  fame  con- 
venient Quantity  of  Money  ;  all  which  they  left  be- 
hind them,  and  the  neighbouring  Villages  plentifully 
Jlorcd  with  Cattle  of  all  Sorts  Jit  for  Food. 

There  are  alfo  taken  of  the  Train  Carriages  and 
Waggons,  belonging  to  the  Enemies  Army,  at  leafl 
300  j  Tents,  500  ;  Cows,  300  ;  and  Irifh  Nags, 
term'd  by  them  Garroones,  800. 

It  was  for  our  Advantage  that  Inchiquin  had 
fome  Days  before  gone  towards  Munfter,  yet  in- 
tending to  return  Jhortly  :  As  alfo  that  our  Men  fa 
engaged  before  Clanrickard'j  Coming  up  with  his 
3000  Men  out  of  Connaught,  and  7000  Ulrter 
Scots  alfo  upon  advancing. 

All  this  was  done  by  a  Handful  of  Men,  and  not 
the  third  Part  of  our  Foot  coming  in  to  the  princi- 
pal Part  of  the  Work  ;  yet,  by  them,  the  Lord  de- 
feated an  Enemy,  by  themfelves  now  acknowledged 
19,000,  and  they  having  a  frejh  Referve  of  Horfe 
little  Jhort  of  our  Numbers. 

The  fame  Night  Rathfarnham  (Sir  Adam  Lof- 
tos'j  Houfe)  lately  taken  by  the  Enemy,  was  regained; 
and  the  Soldiers,  in  Number  about  J even  Score,  enter- 
tained into  the  Parliament's  Service,  profejjing  their 
Abhorrence  to  accompany  any  longer  vjith  thofe  bloody 
Irifh  Rebels,  and  that  they  were  forced  to  do  what 
they  did ;  andthat  hereafter  they  would  live  and  die 
"with  us. 

Nor  did  their  Fears  leave  them  till  they  had  alfo 
quitted  Maynogth,  (the  Earl  of  KildareV  Houfe, 

and 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       167 

and  one  of  tbejirongeft  Places  in  Ireland)  the  Naas,  Inter-regnum. 
Donahedy,  and  Richardftown,  each  twelve  Miles  at 

lea  ft  diftant  from  Dublin.  *"" TV~T-' 

IT  J  r*      •    T    i      j   i'i       ;  •  i         Anguft. 

Never  was  any  Day  in  Ireland  like  tbts^  to  the 

Confufion  of  the  Irifh,  to  the  raifing  up  the  Spirits 
of  the  poor  Englifh,  and  to  the  reftoring  cf  the 
Englifh  Inter  eft;  which ,  from  their  fir  ft  Footing  in 
Ireland,  -was  never  in  jo  low  a  Condition  as  at  that 
very  Injlant;  there  not  being  one  considerable  Landing- 
place  left  us  but  this  alone^  and  this  almojj  gone, 

4  Upon  the  Confideration  of  all  which,  the  Par- 

*  liament,  for  the  Manifestation  of  their  high  and 
'  extraordinary  Senfe  of  fo  fignal  and  feafonable  a 

*  Mercy,  have  thought  it  fit,  and  their  Duty,  to  fet 

*  a-part  .a  Time  for  public  and  folemn  Thankfgi- 
'  ving,  to  be  rendered  to  the  Lord,  the  Author  of 

*  that  Mercy :  And  they  do  therefore  EnacT:  and 
'  Ordain,  That  Wednesday,  the  2gth  of  this  in- 
'  ftant  Auguft^  fhall  be  obferv'd  and  kept  as  a  Day 

*  of  public  and  holy  Rejoicing  and  Thankfgiving; 
'  to  the  Lord,  in  all  the  Churches  and  Chapels, 

*  and  Places  of  divine  Worfhip,  within  this  Com- 

*  monwealth  of  England^  Dominion  of  Wales,  and 
'  Town  of  Berwick  upon  Tweed;  and  that  the 

*  Minifters  of  the  refpe£tive  Pariflics  and  Places 
c  aforefaid,  be  and  hereby  they  are  required  and 
4  enjoin'd  to  give  Notice  on  the  Lord's  Day  next 
'  preceding  the  faid  2Qth  of  Au.guft^  of  the  Day 

*  fo  to  be  obferved,  to  the  end  the  People  of  their 

*  feveral  Congregations  may  the  more  generally 

*  and  diligently  attend  the  public  Exercifes  of  God's 
«  Worfhip  and  Service  there  to  be  difpenfed  upon 
«  this  Occafion  j  at  which  Time,  that  the  People 
'  may  be  more  particularly  and  fully  informed  of 
'  this  great  Deliverance  and  Succefs,  the  faid  Mi- 
'  nifters  are  hereby  required  to  publilh  and  read 
'  this  prefent  Adi  and  Declaration. 

«  And  for  the  better  Obfervation  of  the  Day,  the 
'  Parliameat  doth  hereby  inhibit  and  forbid  the 

*  holding  or  ufe  of  all  Fairs,  Markets,  and  fervile 

*  Works  of  Men's  ordinary  Callings  upon  that 

*  Day: 


1  68       cfke  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

.-num.  '  Day  :  And  ail  Mayors,  Sheriffs,  Juftices  of  Peace, 
1649.         *  Conftables,  and  other  Officers,  are  hereby  enjoin'd 
c  —  v—  —  '    *  to  take  efpecial  Care  of  the  due  Obfervance  oi 
*  the  laid  Day  of  Thankfgiving  accordingly.' 

One  thoufand  Pounds  per  Ann,  in  Lands,  was 
fettled,  by  an  Act,  upon  Lieutenant-General  'Jones  , 
and  his  Heirs  ;  alfo  fix  of  the  King's  bed  Horfes 
were  given  to  him,  as  a  Reward  for  this  great  Service 
in  Ireland.  Nothing  more  of  Moment  done  till 

Aug.  23.  When  we  find  that  a  Complaint  war- 
made  to  the  Council  of  State,  and  by  them  refer- 
red to  the  Houfe,  of  many  Engltjh  Merchants  tra- 
ding to  France,  That  the  French  King  had  forbid 
the  Importation  into  that  Kingdom  of  all  Sorts  of 
Draperies  of  Wool  or  of  Silk,  made  either  in 
England  or  Holland  ;  and  had  inhibited  all  his  Sub- 
jects from  buying  or  ufmg  them,  under  fevere  Pe- 
nalties, contrary  to  feveral  Treaties,  there  recited, 
then  fubfifting  between  the  two  Nations  :  That,  in 
confequence  of  this  Declaration,  feveral  of  our 
Englijh  Cloths  were  feiz'd  at  Diepe,  and  none  durft 
claim  them  ;  and  that  the  Englijh  Merchants  were 
put  into  fuch  a  Condition,  that  their  Factors  durft 
not  write  to  them,  for  fear  their  Letters  fhould  be 
intercepted,  and  bring  them  in  Danger  for  only  a 
bare  Relation  of  the  Fact. 

Fnr.cb  Wines        Thefe  Matters  being  proved  by  the  Merchants, 
and  divers  Ma-  the  Houfe   refolved,   4  That   all  Wines   of  the 


of  France,  and  all  Manufacture's  of  Wool 
be  imported.  and  Silk:  made  in  that  Kingdom,  be  inhibited  to  be 
imported  into  England  or  Ireland,  or  the  Domi- 
nions belonging  to  them,  under  the  Penalty  of 
Confifcation  of  Ship  and  Goods.  An  Act  was 
afterwards  pafled  to  this  Purpofe,  and  ordered  to  be 
proclaimed  at  the  Royal  Exchange,  Guildhall,  &c. 

Aug.  30.  The  Commons  took  into  Confidera- 
tion  the  feveral  Salaries  and  Fees  due  to  their  Offi- 
cers attending  the  Houfe,  and  fettled  the  fame  ;  the 
Particulars  whereof  are  put  down  in  the  Journals. 

Aug. 


Of    ENGLAND.       169 

Aug.  31.  The  Houfe  having  been  informed  that  inter-regnum. 
Sir   John  Wintour,   Sir  Kenelm   Digby,  and   Mr.        l649- 
Walter  Montague,    (Perfons    of   whom  frequent    ^ — *~T~^ 
Mention  has  been  made  in  the  Proceedings  of  this      epteir 
Parliament)  had  been  fccn  in  Town  ;  they  ordered 
the  firft  to  be  apprehended,  imprifoned,  and  pro- 
ceeded againft  according  to  Law;   and  the  two 
latter  to  depart  the  Kingdom,  never  more  to  re- 
turn, without  Leave  of  the  Parliament,  on  Pain  of 
Death  and  Confifcation  of  their  Eftates. 

September  4..  The  Houfe  began  this  Month  with 
a  public  Charity,  by  palling  an  A£l  for  the  Relief 
of  fuch  infolvent  Debtors  as  mould  fwear  them- 
felves  not  worth  5  /.  but  they  added  a  moft  partial 
Provifo,  '  That  it  mould  not  extend  to  any  Perfons 
who  had  been  in  Arms  againft  the  Parliament :' 
However  this  laft  was  not  carried  without  a  Divi- 
fion,  Yeas  18,  Noes  17;  for  Col.  Thompfon,  who 
was  in  the  Houfe  when  the  Queftion  was  put,  and 
had  withdrawn,  being  called  in, and  required  to  give 
his  Vote,  declared  for  the  Affirmative,  fo  the  Adi: 
pafled  ;  whereby  many  poor  Wretches,  no  doubt, 
were  left  to  rot  in  Goal,  who  had  fpent  their  For- 
tunes in  the  Service  of  their  King,  and  were  now 
fo  unhappy  as  to  be  thrown  there  by  their  merci-^"  A^  Pafs><1 

,   r   ^     y*  for  Relief  of  in- 

lefs  Creditors.  folvent  DebtorSi 

The  Parliament  did  nothing  now  for  feveral  Days  &c. 
worth  Notice,  fome  A&s  excepted,  which  were 
pafled  ;  as,  one  for  the  taking  off"  an  Impofition  of 
four  Shillings  on  each  Chaldron  of  Coals,  which 
had  been  long  paid  at  Newcaftle ;  and  another  for 
prohibiting  Brewers  to  brew,  for  Sale,  any  Ale  or 
Beer  above  ten  Shillings  the  Barrel,  befides  the 
Excife. 

Sept.  ii.  The  Parliament  was  not  yet  altoge- Mutinies  and 
ther  free  from  Alarms  :  For  they  had  Intelligence  Jnfurreftions  at 
of  a  great  Mutiny  in  the  Garrifon  at  Oxford,  which  °£frd> 
was  ordered  to  be  inquired  into.     A  much  greater^'  a 
Infurre&ion  happened  alfo  at  Norwich,  in  which 

many 


Inter-  I'gnutn. 
1649. 

September. 


170     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

many  People  were  flain  ;  and  Mr.  Utthjgy  the 
Mayor,  and  one  Mr.  Tuolyt  were  voted  grand  De- 
linquents, and  ordered  to  be  lent  for  as  fuch  by  the 
Serjeant  at  Arms  attending  the  Houfe.  They  were 
afterwards  fined  and  imprifoned  in  the  Fleet ;  the 
former  looo/.  and  three  Months  Confinement ; 
the  latter  5OO/.  and  fix  Months. 

Nor  was  the  Parliament  without  their  Fears  near- 
er home,  as  appears  by  a  Paper  read  in  the  Houfe, 
intided,  An  Outcry  of  the  young  Men  and  Appren- 
tices of  London  :  As  they  had  had  enough  to  do 
with  this  Sort  of  People  lately,  it  gave  them  the 
greater  Alarm  ;  and  they  ordered  Commiffions  to 
be  iffued  out,  under  the  Great  Seal,  for  trying  fuch 
Perlons  as  had  been  Contrivers,  Promoters,  or 
Publifhers  of  the  faid  Paper,  on  their  newAdt  re- 
lating to  Trcafon. 

Sept.  20.  This  Day  the  A&  aeainft  unlicenfed 
An  Aft  pafs'd  anc^  fcanc^lous  Books  and  Pamphlets,  and  for  bet- 
for  regulating  the  ter  regulating  the  Prefs,  was  read  a  third  Time  and 
Preii.       ,       paft'd.     This  A61  is  a  fufficient  Evidence,  if  there 
was  not  another,  of  the  greateft  Pretenders  to  Li- 
berty being  no  fooner  inverted  with  Power,  than 
they  degenerate  into  the  mod  abfolute  Tyrants  j 
and  that  the  People,  who  had  complained  of  being 
chaftifed  with  Whips  by  their  Kings,  were  now  to 
be  chaftifed  with  Scorpions  by  thole  who  were  but 

lately  their  Fellow-Subjeas. But  an  Abftra6t 

of  this  Adi  will  be  the  beft  Defcription  of  it.  The 
Preamble  runs  thus : 

*  Whereas  divers  fcandalous,  feditious,  and  li- 

*  bellous  Pamphlets,  Papers,  and  Books  are  daily 
6  contrived,  printed,  vended,  and  difperfed,  with 

*  officious  Care  and  Induftry,  by  the  Malignant 

*  Party  at  home  and  abroad,  for  the  better  com- 

*  pafling  of  their  wicked  Ends,  the  Subverfion  of 
'  the  Parliament  and  prefent  Government ;  which 

*  they  well  know  cannot  with  more  Eafe  be  at- 
'  tempted,  than  by  Lyes  and  falfe  Suggestions, 
'  cunningly  infinuatcd   and  fpread  amongft  the 

'  People 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       171 

*  People  ;  and,  by  malicious  Mifreprefenta'dons  of  Inter- regnum. 
'  Things  acted  and  done,  to  take  ofF  and  divide        l649- 

*  their  Affections  from  that  juft  Authority  which  is    ^      v~T~t 

<  fet  over  them  for   their  'Good   and  Safety ;  to     S*ttB 
'  bring  a  low  and  mean  Efteem  upon  the  Perfons, 

'  and  a  Sufpicion  and  Hatred  upon  the  Courfes  and 
'  Intentions,    of   the    faithful    Members    of    the 

*  People's  Reprefentative  in  Parliament,    and  of 

*  other  Minifters  of  State,  ferving  the  Common- 
«  wealth  in  their  feveral  Subordinations ;  efpecially 

*  fuch  who  are  moft  conftant  and  confcientious  in 
'  Difcharge  of  their  Truft,  and  are  therefore  be- 
«  come  the  utmoft  Object  of  their  wretched  Spleen 
'  and  Malice :  And  whereas  a  great  Occafion  of 
'  thefe  Mifchiefs  and  Scandals,  and  Diflatisfadtion 
'  of  many,  hath  been  as  well  the  Ignorance  and 

<  affumed  Boldnefs  of  the  weekly  Pamphleteers, 

c  without  Leave  or  due  Information,  taking  upon  " 
'  them  to  publifh,  and  at  Pleafure  to  cenfure,  the 
'  Proceedings  of  Parliament  and  Army,  and  other 
'  Affairs  of  State  ;  as  alfo  the  Irregularity  and  Li- 
«  centioufnefs  of  Printing,  the  Art  whereof  in  this 

*  Commonwealth,  and  in  all  foreign  Parts,  hath 

*  been,  and  ought  to  be,  reftrained  from  too  arbi- 
'  trary  and  general  an  Exercife :  To  prevent  the 

*  many  Mifchiefs  inevitably  following  thereupon, 
'  the  Parliament  of  England^  duly  confidering  the 

*  Premifes,  and  willing  to  apply  fit  Remedy  here- 
'  in,  do  enadr.,  bV.' 

The  moft  material  Claufes  are, 

'  That  the  Laws  made  formerly,  and  now  in 
Force,  for  Punifhment  of  Devifers  and  Spreaders 
of  falfe  and  feditious  News,  Lyes,  and  Rumours, 
by  writing,  printing,  fpeaking,  or  otherwife,  fhall 
be  put  in  due  and  diligent  Execution. 

c  That  no  Perfon  whatfoever  fhall  prefume  to 
make,  write,  print,  publim,  fell,  or  utter,  or  caufe 
fo  to  be  done,  any  fcandalous  or  libellous  Books, 
Pamphlets,  Papers,  or  Pictures  whatfoever,  on  the 
Penalties  following,  viz.  the  Author  of  fuch 
Books,  &c.  to  forfeit  io/.  or  be  imprifoned  in  the 
common  Goal  of  the  County  or  Liberty  where 

the 


172      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

the  Offence  is  committed,  or  the  Offender  fhal] 
found?  untill  he  pay  the  fame,  fo  that  the  Im- 
prifonment  exceed  not  40  Days  ;  the  Printer  to 
forfeit  5  /.  and  fuffer  the  like  Impriibnment  untili 
he  pay  the  fame,  not  exceeding  20  Days ;  and  like- 
wife  have  his  Prefs  and  Implements  of  printing 
feized  and  broken  in  Pieces :  The  Book-feller  to 
forfeit  40  s.  or  be  imprifon'd  in  like  Manner  untiii 
he  pay  the  fame,  not  exceeding  10  Days. 

'  That  if  any  Perfon  happen  to  buy  any  fuch 
feditious  Books,  £?V.  and  do  not  within  24.  Hours 
after  Knowledge  thereof,  bring  them  to  the  Loid 
Mayor  of  London,  (if  the  Buyer's  Refidence  be 
there)  or  to  fome  other  Juftice  of  the  Peace  with- 
in the  County,  City,  or  Liberty  where  fuch  Buyer 
fhall  then  happen  to  be,  to  be  difpoied  of  as  by  this 
A6r,  is  afterwards  mentioned  j  and  give  Notice  like- 
wife  of  the  Party  of  whom  he  had  or  bought  the 
fame,  he  (hall  forfeit  for  every  fuch  Omiiiion  the 
Sum  of  20  s.  for  every  fuch  conceal'd  Book,  &c. 
to  be  difpofed  of  as  after-mentioned? 

'  That  no  Perfon  fhall  compofe,  write,  print, 
publilh,  fell,  or  utter,  or  caufe  fo  to  be  done,  any 
Book  or  Pamphlet,  Treatife  or  Sheet  of  News 
whatfoever,  unlefs  licenfed,  as  hereafter  mention- 
ed, upon  the  like  Penalty  as  upon  the  Maker,  Wri- 
ter, Printer,  and  Bookfeller  refpecSiively,  of  fcanda- 
lous  Books  and  Pamphlets,  both  for  Fine  and  Im- 
prifonrhent,  as  herein  before  appointed. 

'  That  a!l  former  Licenfes,  granted  by  Autho- 
rity of  both  or  either  Houie  of  Parliament,  to  any 
Perfon  for  printing  any  Diurnal,  News,  or  Occur- 
rences, fhall  be  from  henceforth  void ;  and  no 
Book,£SY.  fhall  henceforth  be  printed,  or  put  to  Sale 
by  any  Perfon  whatfoever,  unlefs  firft  licenfed  un- 
der the  Hand  of  the  Clerk  of  the  Parliament,  or 
of  fuch  Perfon  as  fhall  be  authorifed  by  the  Coun- 
cil of  State  for  the  Time  being ;  or  for  fo  much 
as  may  concern  the  Affairs  of  the  Army,  under 
the  Hand  of  their  Secretary  for  the  Time  being ;  the 
fame  to  be  entered  in  their  feveral  Regiflers,  to 
be  kept  for  that  Purpofe  j  and  alfo  in  the  Regifter 

of 


Of    ENGLAND.       173 

of  the  Company  of  Stationers ;  and  the  Printer  inter-regmim. 
thereof  to  put  his  Hand  thereto.  l649- 

*  Provided  that  the  Penalties  herein  exprefs'd  ^T^v^-' 
fhall  not  extend  to  quit  any  Perlbn  that  (hall  make, 
write,  csV.  or  caufe  fo  to  he  done,  any  Book,  &c. 
that  fhall  contain  any  feditious,  treafonable,  or 
blafphemous  Matter ;  but  the  Offenders  in  fuch 
Kind  (hall  be  liable  to  fuch  farther  Penalties,  as  by 
the  Laws  of  the  Land  are  provided,  or  by  Autho- 
rity of  Parliament  fhall  be  judged,  according  to 
the  Quality  of  fuch  Offences. 

'  That  the  Mafter  and  Wardens  of  the  Com- 
pany of  Stationers,  London^  affifted  with  fuch  Per- 
fons  as  the  Council  of  State  fhall  for  that  Purpofe 
nominate  or  approve,  fhall  make  diligent  Search 
in  all  Places  where  they  fhall  think  meet,  for  all 
unallowed  Printing-Preffes,  and  all  Prefles  employ- 
ed in  printing  of  any  fuch  unlicenfed  Books,  &c. 
as  aforefaid ;  and  the  fame  feize  and  carry  away 
to  the  Common-Hall  of  the  faid  Company,  there 
to  be  defaced  and  made  unferviceable ;  and  like- 
wife  make  diligent  Search  in  aii  fufpected  Printing- 
Offices,  Warehoufes,  Shops,  &c.  for  fuch  unlicen- 
fed and  fcandalous  Books,  &c.  and  the  fame  to 
feize ;  and  likewife  to  apprehend  all  Authors,  Prin- 
ters, £ffr.  of  fuch  Books.  &c.  and  to  bring  the 
Offenders,  and  what  they  fhall  have  fo  feized,  be- 
fore fuch  Officers  as  are  appointed  for  the  Execu- 
tion of  this  A6t,  to  be  by  them  difpofed  of  accord- 
ing to  the  Direction  of  the  fame. 

'  That  no  Perfon  whatever  fhall  prefume  to  fend 
by  the  Poft,  Carriers,  or  otherwife,  or  endeavour 
to  difperfe,  any  fuch  unlicenfed  Books,  &c.  on  For- 
feiture of  40  s.  for  every  fuch  Book,  &c.  or  Impri- 
fonment  of  the  Offender,  the  fame  not  to  exceed 
40  Days ;  the  Penalty  to  be  inflicted,  the  Mo- 
ney to  be  difpofed  of,  and  fuch  Inquiry,  Searches, 
and  Seizures  touching  the  fame  to  be  made,  as  in 
the  Cafe  of  felling  unlicenfed  Books,  £ffr. 

'  No  Printer,  nor  any  other  Perfon  whatfoever, 
(hall  from  henceforth  print,  or  employ  any  Print- 
ing-Prcfs,  Rolling- Prefs,  or  any  other  Inftruments 

for 


1 74      The  Parliamentary  H I  s  T  OR  Y 

Jnter-regnom.  for  Printing,  in  any  Place  of  this  Commonwealth* 

1049.        fave  only  in  the  City  of  London,  and  Liberties 

*-— v— — '    thereof,  the  City  of  Tork^  and  the  two  Univerfi- 

September.    tjgg^  (exceptjng  fucn  as  fliau  be  particularly  licen- 

fed  by  fpecial  Order  of  the  Council  of  State)  on 

Forfeiture  of  20  /.  and  having  all  their  PJ  inting- 

Prefles,  Letters,  and  Materials,  defaced  ;  and  fhall 

alfo  be  for  ever  difabled  to  be  a  Matter-Printer,  or 

Owner  of  a  Printing-Prcfs. 

*  Every  Pi  inter,  or  other  Perfon,  in  London,  be-* 
ing  the  Owner  of  Printing-PrefTes,  Rolling-Prefies, 
or  other  Inftruments  for  Printing,  (hall,  before  the 
firft  Day  of  Oflober^  1649,  enter  into  Bond,  with 
two  Sureties,  of  300  /.  Penalty,  to  the  Keepers  of 
the  Liberty  of  England^  by  Authority  of  Parlia- 
ment, not  to  print,  or  caufe  or  fuffer  to  be  printed, 
any  feditious,  fcandalous,  or  treafonable  Book,  &c. 
difhonourable  to,  or  againft,  the  State  and  Govern- 
ment ;  nor  any  Book  of  News,  &c.  not  enter'd 
and  licenfed  as  aforefaid ;  and  {hall  alfo,  to  every 
Book,  &c.  they  fhall  imprint,  prefix  the  Author's 
Name,  with  his  Quality  and  Place  of  Refidence, 
or  at  leaft  the  Licenfer's  Name,  where  Licenfes 
are  required,  and  his  own  Name  and  Place  of  Re- 
fiuence  at  Length,  in  the  Title -Page,  on  Pain  of 
forfeiting  io/.  for  every  wilful  Failing,  and  to  have 
all  their  Printing  Materials  defaced  j  and,  for  the 
fecond  Offence,  to  be  difabled  from  exercifmg  his 
Trade  of  Printing. 

'  That  no  Perfon  fhall  hereafter  fet  up  a  Print- 
ing-Prefs,  Rolling-Prefs,  or  other  Inftrument  for 
Printing,  nor  caft  any  Printing- Letters,  before  they 
enter  into  a  Bond  as  aforefaid  ;  nor  fhall  any  Per- 
fon let  any  Houfe,  Vault,  Cellar,  or  other  Room, 
for  a  Place  to  print  in,  unlefs  he  firft  give  Notice 
thereof  to  the  Mafter  or  Wardens  of  the  Stationers 
Company,  on  Forfeiture  of  5  /.  for  every  Offence  ; 
of  which  Intimation  they  are  cnjoin'd  to  make  an 
Entry  in  their  Regifter,  on  Pain  of  like  Forfeiture 
for  every  Omiiiion. 

*  That  no  Joiner,  or  other  Perfon,  (hall  make 
any  Printing- Prefs  or  Rolling-Prefs,  nor  any  Smith 

{hall 


Of    ENGLAND.       175 

ftiall  forge   any  Iron-work  for  a  Printing-Prefs,  Inter-resnum 
nor  any  Founder  caft  any  Printing-Letters  for  any        l6-*9- 
Perfon  whatfoever ;  neither  fhall  any  Perfon  ini-    V'~v~v 
port,  or  cauie  fo  to  be  done,  any  Printing- Preffes 
or  Letters  ;  nor  (hall  any  Perfon  buy  fuch  Preffes 
or  Letters,  unlefs  he  firft  acquaint  the  faid  Mafter 
and  Wardens  for  whom  the  faid  Prefs,  &c.  are  to 
be  made  or  imported,  on  Forfeiture  of  5  /.  for  every 
Offence  ;  of  which  Intimation  they  are  to  make 
Entry  as  above. 

'  That  no  Perfon  whatfoever  fhall  import  any 
fcandalous  or  feditious  Books,  &c.  on  Forfeiture 
of  5  /.  for  every  fuch  Book,  &c.  nor  fhall  any  Per- 
fon land  any  imported  Books  at  any  Place  but  the 
Port  of  London  j  and  that  no  Packs  or  Chefts  of 
Books  be  permitted  by  any  Officers  of  the  Cuftoms 
or  Excife  to  be  opened  or  conveyed  away,  before 
the  fame  be  viewed  by  the  faid  Matter  and  War- 
dens, or  fuch  as  they  fhall  appoint,  on  Forfeiture 
of  5  /.  for  every  Offence  ;  fo  as  they  make  the 
laid  View  within  48  Hours  after  Notice ;  which 
they  are  required  to  make  upon  like  Forfeiture  for 
every  Omiffion. 

'  And  for  better  Difcovery  of  malignant  Book- 
fellers,  who  make  a  Trade  of  vending  and  difper- 
fmg  to  their  Cuftomers  in  the  Country,  in  Packets, 
by  the  Poft,  Carriers,  &c.  unlicenfed,  fcandalous, 
and  feditious  Books,  &c.  to  the  great  Abufe  of  the 
Parliament  and  Prejudice  of  the  People,  any  two 
Magiftrates  intrufted  with  the  Execution  of  this 
A£t,  fhall  have  Power,  upon  any  juft  Occafion  of 
Sufpicion,  to  grant  Warrants  for  fearching  of 
Packs  and  Packets,  and  feizing  the  fame,  to  the  end 
the  Penalties  may  be  levied  thereupon  :  And  that 
all  unlicenfed  Books,  &c.  to  be  feized  by  Virtue  of 
this  Act,  fhall,  after  Condemnation  of  the  Offen 
der  with  whom  they  are  taken,  or  to  whom  they 
belong,  be  brought  to  the  Secretary  to  the  Coun- 
cil of  Slate,  to  be  difpofed  of  to  the  Fire  or  other- 
wife,  as  that  Council  fhall  direct. 

'  That  no  Hawkers  fhall  be  any  more  permitted, 
and  that  they  and  all  £al)  ad  -fingers,  wherefoever 

ap- 


176     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum,  apprehended,  (hall  forfeit  all  Books,  &c.  by  them 
1649^  expofed  to  Sale  ;  and  {hall  be  conveyed  to  the 
^ou^e  °f  Correction,  there  to  be  whipt  as  com- 
mon Rogues,  and  then  difmifled ;  and  where  no 
fuch  Houfe  of  Correction  is,  they  {hall  be  deliver- 
ed over  to  the  Conftable  of  the  Liberty  where  they 
are  apprehended,  to  be  whipt  as  common  Rogues ; 
on  Forfeiture  of  40  s.  for  the  Neglect  of  his  Duty 
herein. 

'  That  whatfoever  Penalties  in  Money  {hall 
be  levied  by  the  Company  of  Stationers,  one  neat 
Moiety  thereof  lhall  be  referved  for  the  Ufe  of  their 
Poor,  and  the  other  for  the  Ufe  of  the  Common- 
wealth. 

«  All  Officers,  Civil  and  Military,  Soldiers,  and 
other  well -affected  People,  are  enjoin'd  to  be  af- 
fifting  in  the  Execution  of  this  Act ;  and  the  Coun- 
cil of  State  {hall  have  Power  to  enquire  into  all 
wilful  Defaults,  and  Contempts  of  Officers  or 
others ;  and  to  reward  Profecutors  or  Difcoverers 
of  Offenders. 

'  Profecutions  to  be  commenced  within  fix 
Months ;  and  the  Act  to  continue  in  Force  till  the 
20,th  of  September,  1651.' 

The  reft  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Houfe,  for 
this  Month,  are  very  little  to  our  Purpofe,  run- 
ning moftly  on  the  Sale  and  Divifion  of  Crown 
and  Church  Lands  amongft  themfelves  and  their 
Friends.  On  the  2yth  a  Report  was  made  from 
the  Council  of  State,  to  the  Houfe,  that  they  found 
the  Tax  of  90,000  /.  per  Menfem  was  not  fuffici- 
ent  for  the  Pay  of  the  Army ;  and  that  for  the 
Support  of  it  the  Council  had  charged  Monies  on 
the  Receipts  at  Goldfmiths-  Hall :  That  at  prefent 
Monies  did  not  come  in  there,  for  want  of  perfect- 
ing fome  Compofitions  depending.  The  Houfe 
therefore  ordered,  That  the  Committee  at  Gold- 
fmitks-Hall  {hould  fif  that  Afternoon,  and  fo  de 
Die  in  Diem  till  thofe  Compofitions  were  finiflied ; 
that  Supplies  might  be  had  from  thence, feafonably, 
for  the  NecelHties  of  the  Army. 

The 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      177 

The  laft  Thing  material  done  in  the  Houfe  this  Interregnum. 
Month,  was  to  read  and  agree  to  a  Declaration,  for        l649' 
vindicating;  all  the  late  Proceedings  of  theParlia-    VT""V"T""1 

&       *-ii      c        c       u-   i       i     •  i  September. 

ment ;  every  Claufe  of  which,  being  put  to  the 
Queftion,  was  pafs'd  on  the  28th,  ordered  to  be 
forthwith  printed  and  publifhed,  and  to  be  dif- 
perfed  into  the  feveral  Counties,  in  fuch  Manner 
as  the  Council  of  State  fhould  order. 

^DECLARATION  of  the  PARLIAMENT  of  ENG- 
LAND, in  Vindication  of  their  Proceedings^  and 
difcovering  the  dangerous  Prafiices  of  feveral  In- 
terejls  againjl  the  prejent  Government  and  Peace 
of  the  Commonwealth*. 

(  TTQW  greatly  it  hath  pleafed  God,  even  byTheParliament'* 
e  J    |_  a  continued  Series  of  Miracles  and  Won-!Jeclamion  in_ 
'  ders,  to  exalt  his  own  Name,  and  glorify  hfeJSnSSU? 
c  mighty  Power  in  the  Eyes  of  this  and  our  Neigh- ings;  fife. 
c  bour  Nations,  by  the  conftant  Courfe  of  Deli- 

*  verances  which  he  hath  wrought  for  thefe  many 

*  Years  late  paft,  on  the  Behalf  of  a  finful  and 
c  undeferving  People,  and  by  the  Means  of  weak 
c  and  unworthy  Inftruments,  we  can  never  fre- 

*  quently  enough  remember,   nor  be  fufficiently 
e  thankful  for :  Their  Rock  hath  not  been  as  our 
'  Rock,  even  our  Enemies  themfehes  being  Judges. 

'  And,  indeed,  this  wonderful  Going-forth  of 
£  the  good  Hand  of  God  with  us,  and  for  us,  hath 
c  been  that  principally  which  hath  fupported  us, 
'  and  borne  us  up  above  all  thofe  fwelling  and  mul- 
4  tiplied  Waves  that  have  followed  one  upon  ano- 
'  ther,  and  hath  made  us  to  ftand  againft  the  many 
'  Storms  and  Aflaults  wherewith  we  have  been  at- 
'  tempted  by  all  Sorts  of  Parties  and  Interefts 

*  amongft  us ;    who,    dividing   and  withdrawing 

*  themfelves  from  public  Ends,  do  all  of  them* 
6  notwithftanding,  (becaufe  a£ted  by  one  Principle* 
6  even  the  Power  of  Darknefs)  make  fhift  fo  far  to 

*  underftand   each  other,  as,  when  Opportunity 
'  ferves,  to  take  one  another  by  the  Hand,  for 

VOL.  XIX.  M  « ftrength- 

b  Printed  by  John  Field  for  Edward  HufianJf,  Printer  to  the 
Parliament  of  England, 


378      ¥he  Parliamentary  H  i  s  T  o  R  y 

'  ftrengthen'mg  and  upholding  themfelves,  in  prac- 

*  tiling  and  contriving,  under  ieveral  fpecious  Pre- 

*  tences,  againft  the  Good,  Peace,  and  Safety  of 
September.     t  ^  Whofe>      We  hayc  becn  like  untQ  the  Buftl 

«  in  the  Midft  of  Flames  ;  but,  by  the  Good-will 
'  of  him  that  dwelt  in  the  Bufh,  we  have  not  been 
'  confumed  ;  and,  like  the  Remnant  left  by  God 
s  in  the  Land,  which  though  he  will  caufe  to  pafs 

*  through  the  Fire,  yet  it  is  to  refine  them  as  Sil- 

*  ver  is  refined,  and  to  try  them  as  Gold  is  tried, 

*  that  he  may  make  them  a  People  who  jball  call 

*  upon  God,  and  he  will  hear  them  ;  and  of  whom 
'  God  (hall  fay,  They  are  my  People,  and  they  Jhull 
'  fay,  The  Lard  is  our  God. 

'  By  this  fecrct  Confidence  and  Expectation  of 

*  our  Hearts,  wherein  we  hope  we  fhall  not  be  dif- 

*  appointed,  and,  through  the  good  Providence  of 

*  God,  we  have  been  kept  together,  even  to  this 

*  very  Day,  as  weak  Inftruments  in  the  Hand  of 
c  our  great  God,  ferving  our  Generations,  and  dif- 
4  charging  the  high  Truft  of  our  Places,  whatever 
1  the  Difcouragements  and  Difficulties  have  been 

*  that  we  have  met  with,  and  Dangers  that  have 
'  threatened  us  on  every  Side ;  fuch  as  we  may 

*  truly  fay,  former  Ages  can  hardly  parallel ;  and 

*  fuch  as  were  not  to  have  been  expected,  efpecially 

*  from  thofe  who  had  made  fo  great  a  Progrefs  in 

*  Conjunction  with  us  againft  the  common  Knemy, 

*  and  in  vindicating  and  aflerting  the  Purity  of 

*  Religion  and  public  Liberty. 

'  For,  when  firft  of  all  we  came  to  be  engaged 

*  in  carrying  on  this  great  and  glorious  Work  of 

*  Religion  and  public  Liberty,  how  lively  and  un- 

*  corrupted  were  our  Affections  ?   How  fatisfied 

*  and  unanimous  were  our  Judgments  ?  How  fix'd 
e  and  undaunted  our  Refolutions  in  that  which  ap- 

*  peared  to  us  fo  necefiary,  fo  juft,  and  fo  worthy 

*  to  be  undertaken  by  true  Patriots  and  good  Chri- 
'  ftians  ?  We  did  therefore  run  well ;  but  who,  or 

*  what,  hath  hindered  us  that  we  feek  not  ftill  to 

*  obtain  what  at  firft  we  thought  fo  defirable,  with- 

*  cut  giving  back  or  turning  afide  untill  the  Work 

'be 


Of    E  N  G  L  AN  D.      179 

*  be  perfected,  and  the  Perfons  engag'd  in  the  Pro-  inter-regnuir, 
'  fecution  thereof  be  fecured  againft  the  Enmity        1649- 

'  and  Revenge  of  thofe  that  are  rather  made  more    v*— ~ v— -' 
'  implacable,  than  converted,  by  all  the  Deliver-     Sc?temfccr' 

*  ances  that  God  hath  wrought  for  us,  and  the 

*  Teftimonies  of  Difpleafure  againft  them,  as  often 

*  as  they  have  rifen  up  and  fet  themfelves  againft 

*  us  ? 

'  Whatever  the  great  Failings  and  Infirmities 
'  have  been,  and  do  ftill  daily  difcover  themfelves 
'  amongft  us,  that  hold  it  onr  Duty  to  give  our 
'  Attendance  upon  our  Truft  in  Parliament,  fo 

*  long  as  Opportunity  is  offered  unto  us  for  the 

*  fame  ;  we  can  truly  fay,  That  as  Religion  in  its 
'  Purity,  and  public  Liberty,  were  the  Ends  which, 
6  from  the  Beginning,  we  had  before  our  Eyes 
c  when  we  engaged  in  this  great  Work,  fo  are  they 
4  ftill  our  Defires  and  Endeavours ;  the  comfort- 
6  able  Fruit  whereof  we  would  willingly  have  to  be 
'  reaped  by  this  Nation,  at  leaft  in  their  fucceed- 

*  ing  Generations,  if  it  were  the  Will  of  God ; 

*  and  the  Profecution  of  this,  and  this  only,  (how- 

*  ever  we  are  reproached,  and  unjuftly  vilified  by 
'  flanderous  Tongues  and  Pens)  is  that  which  keeps 
4  moft  of  us  together  at  fuch  a  Time,  when,  as  in 
'  the  Cafe  of  Hefter^  we  fee,  if  we  had  done  other- 

*  wife  than  we  have  done,  and  deferted  our  Sta- 

*  tions,  and  caft  up  the  Helm,  the  vifible  Means 

*  of  carrying  on  the  Work  had  failed,  and  funk 

*  down  into  certain  Diforder  and  Confufion. 

'  But  whether  there  hath  not  been  found  a  ma- 

*  nifeft  Defection  and  Apoftacy  from  thefe  good 
«  and  public  Ends,  by  thofe  that  at  the  firft  did 

*  bear  the  Name  of  Patriots  and  Lovers  of  Religion 
'  amongft  us,  we  appeal  to  the  Actions  and  Ways 
'  themfelves,  which  fuch  Perfons  have  flnce  ap- 
'  peared  in,  that  do  fufficiently  evidence  againft 
'  them,  and  declare  them  the  Builders  up  again  of 

*  what  they  once  joined  in  the  Deftrudlion  of;  and 

*  fo  do  make  themfelves  TrangrefTors,  and  ftand 

*  in  Need  of  no  other  Confutation  and  Convic- 

*  tion. 

M  ?  'Among 


180      ¥he  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

6  Among  the  Number  of  thofe  we  reckon  them 
4  that,  either  under  Pretence  of  advancing  Refor- 
*  mation  of  Religion,  can  go  back  and  incorporate 
Septem  er.  c  themfeives  with  the  avowed  and  known  Haters  of 
'  God,  and  Enemies  to  the  Life  and  Power  of  Ho- 
4  linefs ;  or  that,  under  Pretence  of  bringing  us 
4  into  the  Perfection  of  public  Liberty,  can  fetch 
4  a  Compafs  quite  round,  and  make  the  bringing 
4  in  again  of  Monarchy  into  this  Commonwealth, 
4  to  be  the  only  Means  of  fettling  it  in  Freedom. 
4  The  A&ors  in  fuch  Defigns  as  thefe  carry  the 
4  Evidence  of  their  own  Conviction  in  their  Fore- 
4  head,  unto  all  that  are  not  wilfully  blind,  or  ma- 
4  licioufly  corrupt ;  and  therefore  would  feem  to 
e  ftand  in  no  great  Need  of  much  Pains  to  be  taken 
4  to  undeceive  them. 

*  And  however  it  hath  been  the  good  Pleafure 

*  of  God  to  fuffer  thofe  that  have  been  formerly 

*  instrumental  and  Helps  to  us  in  this  great  Caufe, 

*  thus,  by  Steps  and  Degrees,  to  fail,  and  fall  off" 
4  like  untimely  Fruit ;  yet  herein  hath  he  fhewed 
4  his  wonderful  Goodnefs  to  this  Nation,  that  their 
4  deferting  of  us,  and  breaking  from  us,  hath  not 
4  hitherto  been  able  to  keep  the  Work  itfelf  at  a 

*  Stand,  but  that  it  is  ftill  carried  on  3  wherein  we 
4  rejoice. 

*  And,  on  the  contrary,  the  Time  wherein  they 
4  afforded  their  Afliftance  and  Help  hath  been  im- 
4  proved  by  God's  over-ruling  Providence,  to  bring 
4  us  much  nearer  to  our  Journey's  End  than  ever 
4  we  could  have  expected,  though  the  Ship  fliould 
1  hereafter  mifcarry  in  the  very  Harbour ;  which 
4  God  forbid.     And,  for  our  Parts,  the  larger  Ex- 
4  perience  which  we  have  had  of  God's  conftant 
4  owning  and  feafonable  aflifting  us  in  our  greatefl 
c  Straits  and  moft  imminent  Dangers ;  and  the  feri- 
4  ous  Confideration  that  the  Work  itfelf  is  of  that 
e  Nature  as  requires  and  obliges  us,  and  all  good 

*  Men,  to  the  utmoft,  to  offer  up  ourfel  ves  in  the  Sa- 

*  orifice  and  Service  thereof,  as  we  defire  to  approve 
4  ourfel  ves  fincere  in  our  Obligations  to  God,  and 

*  faithful  in  our  Trufts  to  this  Nation  j  we  do  re- 

*  folve, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       181 

'  folve,  through  God's  Afliftance,  to  caft  ourfelves  Inter-regnum. 
'  upon  his  favourable  Acceptance  of  our  Endea-        l649' 

*  vours  in  perfevering  to  the  End,  and  his  Protec-    ^sTtembT1 
'  tion  of  us  in  our  doing  our  Duties,  let  the  Iflue 

'  be  what  feems  beft  to  his  Divine  Providence, 
c  whether  for  Life  or  for  Death. 

«  And  that  we  may  not  be  wanting  in  what  we 
'  are  able,  for  the  awakening  of  all  thofe  whom  it 

*  doth  concern  unto  the  fame  Senfe  of  their  Duty 
'  in  this  Behalf  with  ourfelves,  we  {hall  briefly  lay 

*  before  them  the  happy  Progrefs  that,  thro'  God's 

*  Goodnefs,  hath  been  made,    in  procuring  the 
'  Bleflings  of  pure  Religion  and  juft  Liberty  unto 

*  this  Nation,  notwithftanding  all  the  Reproaches 
«  and  unthankful  Murmurings  of  ill-minded  Men; 
'  and  wherein,   we  are  hopeful,    to  grow  up  to 
'  whatever  remains  yet  unperfe£ted,  if  there  be 
4  but  anfwerable  Readinefs  in  thofe,  whom  the 
4  Good  of  this  as  much  concerns  as  ourfelves,  to 
'  ftand  by  us,  and  join  with  us,  in  attaining  the 

*  fame  againft  thofe  many  hellifh  Defigns  and 

<  curfed  Practices  that  are  now  on  Foot,  to  plunge 
e  us  again  into  new  Troubles,  and  give  greater 
'  Advantage  than  ever  to  the  common  Enemy,  by 

*  our  Divifions  and  Breaches,  to  come  upon  us  as  an 

*  irrefutable  Flood,  with  Tyranny,  Popery,  Su- 

*  perftition,   Profanenefs,   and  whatever  elfe  we 
'  have  fo  dearly  contended  againft  for  fo  many 

*  Years  together. 

'  And,  firft,  as  to  advancing  of  Religion  to  its 

*  greateft  Degree  of  Purity ;  can  any  be  unmind- 
'  ful  in  what  a  corrupted  and  degenerate  State  we 
'  found  the  Matters  of  Religion,  at  the  firft  Sitting 
'  of  this  prefent  Parliament  ?  How  near  the  whole 
'  Adminiftration  of  Church- Affairs  was  brought  to 

*  the  fuperftitious  and  idolatrous  Pattern  of  Rome  } 
'  and  how  quickly  we  fhould  have  found  ourfelves 
c  fwallowed  up  in  that  finful  and  wretched  Apofta- 
'  cy  ?  For  our  Recovery  out  of  which  Danger,  how 

*  careful  and  zealous  hath  the  Parliament  been  to 

<  propagate  and  advance  the  Work  of  Reforma-> 
«  tion  in  thefe  Nations ;  propounding  to  themfelves, 

M  3  *  for 


182      tte  Parliament  dry  HISTORY 

«  for  their  Guide  herein,  the  Word  of  God  and  the 

*  beft  Reformed  Churches  ?  In  which  Work,  how 
'  happily  and  comfortably  did  they  proceed,  whilft 
4  we"  were  purging  and   reforming   the   Evil  of 
'  Popery, .Superitition,  and  Profanenefs  ;  in  which 
'  there  was  a  common  Confent  and  Agreement  of 
'  all  thofe  that  unfeignedly  defired  the  Enjoyment 
'  of  Religion  in  its  greateft  Purity:  But  when  once 
'  there  appeared  amongft  us  (and  this  from  feme  of 
'  thofe  who  moft  earneftly  put  on  the  Work  of  Re- 
'  formation,  untill  it  arrived  to  their  own  Meafure 
'  and  Growth)  anlmpatiency  toward  any  of  differ- 
'  ing  Minds  from  themfelves,  however  otherwife 
'  truly  fearing  God,  and  faithful  Advancers  of  his 
'  Glory ;  and  a  Fearfulnefs  in  them  of  going  for- 
'  ward,  left  that  which  was  beyond  them,  and  as 
'  necefiary  to  be  known  and  attained  to  lead  us  to 
'  the  Enjoyment  of  Religion  in  its  Purity  and 
4  Power,  fhould  take  Place;  whereby  it  might  ap- 
'  pear,  that  the  Reformers  of  Popery  and  Profane- 
4  nefs  flood  themfelves  in  Need  of  Reformation, 
'  by  his  Appearance  and  Manifestation  of  himfelf, 
'  who  fits  as  a  Refiner  and  Purifier  of  Silver ,  and 

*  Jhall  purify  the  Sons  of  Levi,  and  purge  them  af 
'  Gold  and  as  Silver,  that  they  'nay  offer  unto  the 

*  Lord  an  Offering  in  Righteoufnefs.     When  this 
c  Frame  of  Spirit  appeared  amongft  us,  then  all 
'further  Degrees  and  Mealures  of  attaining  unto 

*  Religion  in  its  Purity  would  not  be  borne ;  but 

*  muft  be  branded  with  the  foul  Names  of  Herefy, 

*  Blafphemy,  and  Schifm  ;  and  the  Perfons  be  de- 
cclared  and  proceeded  againft  as  Enemies  to  Re- 

*  formation,  as  Difturbers  of  the  Peace,  and  as  fit 

*  Objects  of  the  Magiftrate's  Difcountenance  and 
'  Punimment. 

'  And  fuch  was  the  implacable  and  irreconcilable 
*•  Temper  of  thefe  Men  towards  thofe  differing 
'•from  them,  that  were  defirous  to  carry  on  the 
fc  Purity  of  Religion  beyond  their  Meafure,  that 
1  many  of  them  chofe  rather  to  fall  into  the  Power 
'  of  the  Cavalier  and  Epifcopal  Party,  and  became 

*  inftrumental  to  the  bringing  in  of  the  late  King, 

'  upon 


1649. 


September. 


Of   ENGLAND.        183 

upon  the  Treaty  at  the  Ifle  of  Wight  ^  (fo  much  inter-regmim 
fince  declared  againft  by  the  Church  of  Scotland^ 
as  deftructive  to  the  Work  of  Reformation  fet- 
tled in  thefe  Nations)  than  thut  they  would  join 
with  thofe  they  reputed  Sectaries,  in  their  Endea- 
vours to  carry  on  the  W6rk  they  firft  engag'd  in, 
to  that  Degree  of  Perfection  as  became  them,  af- 
ter fo  much  Blood  and  Treafure  expended  in  the 
Profecution  of  it. 

'  In  this  Condition  was  the  Woik  of  Reforma- 
tion when  the  Treaty  of  the  Ifle  of  Wight  Joy  God's 
over-ruling  Providence,  came  to  be  broken  orFj 
that  is  to  fay,  in  a  Manner  yielded  and  refigned  up 
into  the  Power  of  the  Enemies  thereof,  and  refufed 
to  be  carried  on  by  them  that  were  the  moft  zea- 
lous Promoters  thereof  at  firft ;  altho'  it  had  plea- 
fed  God  to  make  a  Way  for  the  fame,  by  continu- 
ing together  a  competent  Number  in  Parliament, 
to  hold  up  the  vifible  Authority  of  this  Nation ; 
and,  by  keeping  their  Places  and  Stations,  to  do 
their  Endeavours  to  profecute  their  firft  Principles 
and  Ends,  whilft  God  gave  them  any  Opportunity 
for  the  fame  :  Nay,  we  could  wifh  that  they  had 
only  remained  paffive,  and  been  contented  to  have 
let  others  carried  on  the  Work  of  Religion  in  its 
Purity,  tho'  they  themfelves  held  back;  but  this 
would  not  ferve  their  Turn,  unlefs  they  flew  in 
the  Face  of  the  vifible  Authority  of  this  Nation, 
and  took  upon  them  to  be  Judges,  whether  we 
were  a  lawful  Magiftracy  or  not ;  as  if  that  were 
within  their  Line,  and  committed  to  them  to  de- 
termine. 

'  Yet  hath  not  all  this  difcouraged  this  prefent 
Parliament  to  do  their  Part  in  propagating  the 
Gofpel,  and  advancing  the  Purity  and  Power  of 
Religion  in  this  Commonwealth  ;  but  they  have 
continued  thofe  Laws  and  Ordinances  that  were 
already  in  Force,  for  the  Good  and  Furtherance 
of  the  Work  of  Reformation,  in  Doctrine,  Wor- 
fhip,  and  Difcipline ;  and  are  ftill  moft  willing 
to  uphold  the  fame,  in  order  to  fupprefs  Popery, 
Superftition,  Blafphemy,  and  any  Manner  of 

« Wick- 


184     tte  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

jnter-regnum.  <  Wickednefs  or  Profanenefs  in  the  Land ;  only 

1649.        <  they  <]o  conceive  themfelves  obliged  to  remove 

c——v^"~'    *  and  take  away  all  Obftrudtions  and  Hinderances 

'    «  to  the  Growth  of  Religion  and  Power  of  Holi- 

«  nefs  in  the  Midft  of  us  ;  and,  for  this  End,  they 

*  have  it  now  under  Confideration  how  fuch  Acts 
'  and  Ordinances,  or  any  Part  of  them,  as  they 

*  find  penal  and  coercive  in  Matters  of  Confcience, 
'  which  have  been  made  Ufe  of  for  Snares,  Bur- 
'  thens,  and  Vexations  to  the  truly  fincere-hearted 

*  People  of  God,  that  fear  him,  and  wait  for  the 
'  Coming  of  his  Son  Jefus  Chrift,  may  be  taken 
'  away. 

*  And  becaufe  we  are  not  ignorant  how  inju- 
'  rioufly  our  Proceedings  herein  are  charged  upon 
'  us,  as  if  we  were  fetting  up  and  countenancing 

*  an  untverfal  Toleration,  when  our  true  Aim  in 
'  the  Liberty  we  give,  is  only  the  necefTary  En- 

*  couragement  we  conceive  due  to  all  that  are  Lo- 

*  vers  of  God,  and  the  Purity  and  Power  of  Re- 

*  ligion :  We  can  and  do  therefore  declare,  in  the 
'  Sight  of  God  and  Man,  That  by  whomfoever 

<  we  mail  find  this  Liberty  abufed,  we  mail  be  moft 
'  ready  to  teftify  our  Difpleafure  and  Abhorrency 

*  thereof,    by  a  ftrict  and  effectual  Proceeding 

*  againft  fuch  Offenders. 

'  And  if,  after  all  this,  any  of  thofe  amongft  us, 

*  that  do  profefs  a  Love  to  God,  and  Zeal  to  ad- 

*  vance  Religion  in  its  Purity,  to  be  their  chiefeft 
«  End  andDefire,  mail  neverthelefs  ftill  fit  at  a  Dif- 
'  tance  from  us,  or  mail  be  given  up  fo  far  by  God, 

*  as  to  make  Defection   to   the  contrary  Party 
e  againft  us,  and  join  themfelves  to  them  that  are 
'  open  Enemies  to  Religion  and  the  Power  of  God- 
'  linefs,  in  what  Drefs  foever  they  cover  them- 
'  felves ;  we  (hall  not  doubt  but  their  own  Unfaith- 
'  fulnefs,  deteftable  Neutrality,  and  wicked  Do- 

*  ings,  will  find  them  out ;  and  Enlargement  and 

<  Deliverance  mail  arife  to  the  People  of  God  fome 
«  other  Way,  whilft  they,  their  Names  and  Pofte- 
«  rities,  {hall  be  deftroyed. 

<As 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       185 

4  As  far  public  Liberty,  which  is  the  fecond  Inter-regn 

*  Thing;  for  the  Vindication  and  Aflerting  where-        l649' 
4  of  we  have  not  thought  our  L/ives  nor  Eftates, 

*  nor  any  other  of  thefe  outward  Comforts,  too 

*  dear  for  us  to  hazard  and  expofe :  In  what  a  Con- 
'  dition  that  was  at  the  Sitting-down  of  this  Par- 

*  liament,  how  near  it  was  to  breathing  its  laft, 

*  and  how  little  it  wanted  of  being  fwallowed  up  in 
4  the  Will  of  a  Tyrant,  is  fo  well  known  to  all 

*  Men  that  then  made  any  Obfervation  of  the 
4  State  of  Things,  or  had  any  Senfe  of  their  own 
4  Sufferings,  and  will  but  now  remember  them, 
4  that  it  fhall  not  be  neceflary  to  repeat :  And  into 
4  what  a  happy  Condition  it  is  already  brought  at 
e  prefent,  by  the  Bleffing;  of  God  upon  the  Coun- 
f  cils  and  Forces  of  the  Parliament ;  and  how  far 
4  advanced,  in  a  fair  Way,  to  a  fettled  and  well- 

*  eftablifhed  Security  for  the  future,  though  it  will 
4  not  be  confefled  by  unthankful  Men  (whofe  In- 
4  gratitude  can  value  no  Benefit  received,  be  it  ne- 
4  ver  fo  great,  while  any  Thing  remains  for  their 
4  exorbitant  Defires  to  purfue)  yet  it  is  fuch  as  we 
4  cannot  but  have  a  deep  and  tender  Senfe  of,  and 
4  acknowledge  it  with  all  humble  Thankfulnefs  to 
4  our  gracious  God,  who  hath  hitherto  helped  us; 
4  unlefs  we  fhould  {hew  ourfelves  lefs  affected  with 
4  it  than  our  Friends  are,  who  are  lefs  concerned, 
4  and  yet  look  upon  it  with  Rejoicing.     And  how 
4  low  Thoughts  foever  thefe  Men  have  of  the  Pro- 
4  ceedings  of  Providence  in  the  Carrying-on  of  this 
4  Caufe,  yet  the  future  Contemplation  of  the  Ac- 
4  tions  of  this  Time,  (for  the  Greatnefs  and  Juftice 
4  of  them  hardly  to  be  exampled  in  any  other)  will 

*  caufe  Men  to  fay,  What  hath  God  wrought ! 
4  And  our  very  Enemies  themfelves  {hew,  that  they 
4  have  other  Opinions  of  it,  being  forced  to  feel 
4  God's  Hand  lifted  up,  which  they  would  not  fee; 
4  finking  into  Confufion,  and  gnafhing  with  their 
4  Teeth,  while  they  confume  away  in  their  Envy 
4  at  that  Profperity  which  God  hath  clothed  us 
4  with  from  his  own  good  Hand, 

'And 


1 86     7/je  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

'  And  we  arc  very  confident,  that  even  thofe 
1649.        «  Wi10  are  now  a£ting  their  Parts  for  their  private 
*^  ~v~         '  Ends,  which  they  would  bring  about*  by  what 
'  Means  Ibevcr,  and  remove  whatever  ftands  in 

*  their  Way,  however  either  dear  or  facred  ;  and 

*  would  deirroy  this  prefcnt  Government,  which 
'  doth  and  will  hinder  fuch  Dcfigns  fo  long  as  it  is 
*•  in  being  ;  and  they  therefore  endeavour  to  render 
'  vile,  publifning  daily  againft  it,  and  again  ft  many 
'  particular  Men  whom  God  hath  honoured  with 
'  Faithfulnefs  to  his  Caufe,  and  made  eminently  or 
'  fpecially  inftrumental  to  advance  the  fame,  all 

*  Manner  of  fhamelefs  Calumnies,  lying  Revilings, 
'  Slanders,  and  Reproaches  ;  as  if,  in  this  Time, 
'  nothing  had  been  done  toward  this  juft  Liberty, 

*  nor  that  any  Thing  would  be  done,  unlcfs  they, 

*  like  Abfolom^  could  bring  themfelves  into  Power, 

*  and  undertake  the  Work  according  to  thofe  wild 

*  Principles  of  theirs,  which  they  have  publifhed 

*  in  Print  to  that  Purpofe  ;  which  holds  forth  a 
'  Liberty  without  Property,  public  Safety,  or  Pro- 

*  teiSlion: 

4  We  fay,  if  thofe  Men  would  but  recall  to  their 

*  Confideration  their  own  Hopes  which  they  had 
*•  of  Liberty  in  the  Beginning  of  this  Parliament, 

•  *  and  with  how  fmall  a  Proportion  of  what  they 

*  now  enjoy   their  then  narrower   Defires  were 

*  bounded,  they  would  confefs  them  to  be  far  fhort 
'  of  what  is  already  had. 

'  But  to  let  them  pafs,  who,  being  afted  by  par- 
'  ticular  Intercft,  have  not  left  themfelves  the  Be- 

*  nefit  of  being  convinced  or  di re&ed  by  common 
*•  and  univcrfal  Reafon,  it  was  not  then  believed 
'  by  moil  of  thofe,  whofe  Innoccncy  and  good 

*  Meaning  is  now  dangeroufly  abufed  by  the  Ma- 
Mignant  Party  (by  Means  of  fome  of  thofe  whom 
4  they  name  Levellers^  whole  fpecious  Overtures 
*•  and  former  Pretenfions  to  Goodnefs  have  deceiv'd 
*•  them)  that  ever  they  mould  have  feen  all  that 

*  Ecclefiaftical  Hierarchy,  with  all  their  tyrannical 

*  Courts  and  Attendants,  the  Star-Chamber,  High 

4  Com- 


Q/    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      187 

4  Commiffion- Court,  Ship-Moncy,  Projects,  Mo-  Inter-regmm 
4  nopolies  and  Purveyances,  the  Court  of  Wards        l649- 
4  and  Tenures,    and  all  the  Dependences  of  it,    vr"""~ 
4  which  heretofore  was  a  legal  Peft  to  the  free-born      cptai 

*  People  of  this  Nation,  and  the  very  Ruin  of  many 
4  Families,  together  with  the  deepeft  Root  and 
4  Foundation  of  all  the  People's  Sufferings,  even 
4  Kingfhip  and  Tyranny  itfelf,   as  well  as   the 

*  late  King,  mould  be  wholly  taken  away ;    and 
4  thereby   (if  God  be  pleafed  to  go  on  to  blefs 
4  us,  and  the  Fault  be  not  in  the  People  them- 
4  felves,  fuffering  themfelves  to  be  made  inftru- 
4  mental    to  their  own  Miferies,  by  endeavour- 

*  ing  to  build  again  the  Things  that  are  deftroy'd) 

*  a  fure  Foundation  laid  for  Time  to  erect  upon  it 
4  the  moft  happy  Structure  of  a  juft  Liberty  and 
1  fettled  Profperity  that  may  be  expected  in  this 
4  World,  under  the  Direction  and  Government  of 
4  fucceflive  and  equal  Reprefentatives  in  Parlia- 
4  ment :  Yet  all  this,  and  much  more,  hath  been 
4  'done  fince  the  Beginning  of  this  Parliament,  and 
4  to  which  we  have  been  led  by  feveral  Steps  by 
4  the  Providence  of  God,  directing  our  Councils 
4  in  feveral  Degrees  of  Manifestation,  and  bleffing 
4  our  Forces  for  effecting  of  them,  beyond  what 
4  was  either  firft  propounded  by  us,  or  could  rea- 
4  fonably  have  been  hoped  to  be  brought  to  pafs  ; 
4  the  very  Difcovery  of  fo  remote  an  End,  in  the 
4  Beginning  of  the  Action,  had  been  fufficient  to 

*  have  difcouraged  any  Undertaking  therein. 

4  And  although  this  great  Progrefs  hath  been 
4  made  in  the  Vindication  and  eftabliming  of  our 
4  juft  Liberties,  yet  we  do  not  fet  up  our  Reft,  as 
4  if  there  remained  no  more  to  be  done  :  And  we 
4  conceive  they  who  duly  confider  of  how  great 
4  Weight  and  Difficulty  the  Work  is  that  we 
4  have  in  hand,  and  will  but  inform  themfelves 
4  what  hath  been  done  now  in  eight  Months,  fince 
4  the  Reftitution  of  the  juft  Liberties  of  the  People, 
4  and  the  fettling  of  the  prefent  Government,  will 
4  not  be  offended  that  fomething  remains  to  be 

*  proceeded  in. 

<  They 


iS8     7/fc  Parliamentary  HISTORV 

ater-resiuKM.       *  They  may  take  Notice  that  Ireland,  which  was 

1649.         <  brought  into  fuch  a  Condition,  firft  by  the  Trea- 

-" v~  ^  '  fon  of  Incbiquin,  whereby  the  whole  Province  of 

'    c  Munjier  was  loft ;  then  by  the  Return  thither  of 

'  Orniond,  whereby  moft  of  the  Popifh  Party  were 

'  reconciled,  and  with  whom  a  Peace  was  made 

*  for  carrying  on  the  Intereft  and  pretended  Title 
v  of  Charles  Stuart.    Thirdly,  by  the  Rebellion  of 
'  all  the  Scots  in  U/J?tr,  upon  the  fame  Intereft,  and 

*  by  the  Revolt  of  many  that  were  under  the  Com- 
'  mand  of  Lieutenant-General  Jones  ;  all  that  re- 

*  mained  to  the  Parliament  there  was  only  within 

*  the  Walls  of  Dublin  and  Derry,  and  they  both 

•  *  ftrongly  befieged  ;  yet,  through  the  Bleffing  of 
'  God,  Ireland  itfelf  is  now  in  a  more  hopeful 
c  Way  of  fpeedy  fettling,  than  at  any  Time  fmce 
«  the  firft  Rebellion. 

'  There  hath  been  alfo,  this  Year,  a  great  and 
'  powerful  Fleet  fet  out  to  Sea,  under  faithful  Com- 
'  manders,  whereby  Trade  hath  been  protected, 
'  the  Englijh  Honour  and  Intereft  upon  their  Seas 
4  maintained,  foreign  Attempts  againft  us  difcou- 

*  raged,  and  a  great  Reputation  procured  to  our 
«  Affairs  abroad. 

'  A  free  Paffage  hath  been  alfo  given  to  the 
c  Execution  of  Juftice,  according  to  the  Laws, 

*  throughout  the  Nation ;  and  the  Peace  thereof 

*  hath  been  prefervcd,  notwithftanding  many  De- 
'  figns,  and  fome  Endeavours,  to  drfturb  it. 

6  And,  for  what  ftill  remains  to  be  done,  we 
'  {hall,  according  to  the  great  Truft  that  is  upon 
'  us  from  the  People,  proceed  therein  for  the  pro- 
'  curing  their  common  Good,  which  is  the  true 

*  and  ultimate  End  of  all  juft  Government ;  and, 

*  by  a  right  Aim  at  that,  direct  all  our  Actions, 

*  and  not  ceafe  to  improve  our  beft  Judgments,  and 

*  lay  out  our  moft  unwearied  Labours,  notwith- 
'  ftanding  all  Difcouragements  either  from  Malice, 

*  Envy,  Danger,  or  any  other  Caufe  whatfoever, 
'  to  promote  the  fame,  fo  far  and  fo  faft  as  the 
'  Subject-Matter  will  bear;  the  Proceedings  where- 

*  in  ought  to  be  judged  fufficiently  expeditious, 

'  that 


"  Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      189 

*  that  are  fufficiently  fafe.     And  we  {hould  betray  inter-rcgsocn 

*  our  great  Truft  if  we  {hould  fufter  ourfelves,  by        1649- 

4  the  impotent  Hafte  and  Importunity  of  any,  to  do  *— — v— -* 
4  that  which  might  be  inconfiltent  with  the  Peace  SePtenaber« 
4  and  Safety  of  the  whole. 

«  The  great  Work  we  have  firft  to  do,  is  to 

*  eftablifh  the  Being  and  Safety  of  the  Common- 
4  wealth  upon  fure  Foundations,  which  are  under- 
e  mined  by  more  Enemies  than  are  vifible  to  all. 
4  This  provided  for,  we  (hall  not  be  wanting  daily 
4  to  remove  or  add  what  {hall  be  for  the  Well-being 
4  of  it,  either  in  Conveniency  or  Ornament ;  for 
4  the  Enjoyment  whereof  we  conceive  the  People 
4  may  with  the  greater  Patience  attend,  becaufe 
4  their  prefent  Condition  is  already  fo  much  better, 

*  befides  the  Capacity  of  Improvement,  than  it  was 
4  in  the  beft  of  that  Egyptian  State,  to  which,  by 

*  reafon  of  fome  neceifarily  remaining  Preffures, 

*  they  are  too  eafily  feduced  to  an  Inclination  to 

*  return.     To  preferve  them  from  which  (becaufe 

*  we  would  not  omit  any  Thing  that  is  in  our 
4  Power,  that  may  be  for  the  Good  of  thofe  who 

*  have  trufted  us)  we  fhall  endeavour  to  undeceive 
4  thofe  of  the  People,  whofe  Innocency  and  Well- 
4  meaning  hath  fubjected  them  to  be  deceived  and 
4  dangeroufly  mifled,  by  the  fpecious  and  fubtle 
4  Infmuations  of  that  Sort  of  Men,  who,  being 
4  themfelves  corrupted  by  the  common  Enemy,  do 
4  endeavour  to  bring  the  Nation  again  under  the 
4  Bonds  of  Tyranny  and  Monarchy ;  and,  while 
4  they  have  nothing  in  their  View  but  Liberty,  are 
4  deceived  into  thofe  Actions  and  Practices  which 
4  tend  naturally  and  necefiarily  to  the  inevitable 
4  Lofs  of  that  Liberty  they  fo  much  call  for,  if  they 
4  {hould  not  be  preferved  againft  their  Will,  by 
4  thofe  who  know  the  Danger  into  which  they 
(  run. 

4  For  this  Purpofe  we  defire  all  Men  to  remem- 
4  ber,  that,  at  the  End  of  the  firft  War,  we  had 
4  not  then  an  End  of  our  Troubles  ;  but  that  Ene- 
4  my  which  was  beaten  and  conquer'd  in  the  Field, 
4  and  could  do  no  more  by  Force,  had  Recourfe  to 

<  4  fubtle 


190     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

inter- regnum.  «  fubtle  Practices  j  and  by  corrupting  a  Party  in 

1649.        <  the  Parliament,  and  by  their  Influence  there,  be- 

*— \r— -f    '  in£  fo  corrupted,  had  almoft  broken  that  Army 

September.         ?  i  •   i    i  i_ 

*  by  which  he  was  beaten. 

c  The  fpecious  P/etence  was  the  Liberty  and 

*  Eafe  of  the  People ;  they  had  long  been  under  a 
e  War,  opprefled  and  ruined  with  heavy  Burthens, 
'  which  it  was  now  neceflary  to  eafe  them  of: 

*  What  Benefit  had  the  People  by  thofe  Victories, 

*  and  that  Conqueft,  if  they  muft  Hill  continue  un- 
«  der  the  fame  Charge  ?  There  was  now  no  more 

*  an  Enemy  in  the  Field,  What  Need  was  there 
'  of  an  Army  to  continue  that  heavy  and  unnecef- 
'  fary  Charge  upon  the  People  ?   By  fuch  Argu- 

*  ments,  and  by  their  Power,  that  Faction  prevail- 
'  ed  to  vote  the  Difbanding  of  the  Army,  and  vaft 
'  Sums  of  the   Commonwealth's   Trcafure   was 

*  by  them  then  wafted  to  effedt  it ;  thereby  to 

*  make  Way  for  the  admitting  of  the  then  King 
c  to  the  re-exercifmg  of  that  Power  which  had  pro- 
«  duced  fuch  bloody  and  fatal  Effects,  and  without 

*  any  juft  Satisfaction  given  to  the  People  for  the 
'  fame ;  which  how  eafily  and  certainly  it  would 
e  have  followed  the  Difbanding  of  the  Army,  is 
'  fufficiently  evident  by  the  breaking-out  of  the  fe- 
e  cond  War,  then  in  Defign  and  Agitation. 

'  And  although  the  fecond  War  was  alfo,  by  the 

*  Blefiing  of  God  upon  the  Endeavours  of  thofe 

*  who  were  faithful  in  the  Parliament  and  Army, 

*  brought  to  an  End ;  and  that  Defign  of  Mifchief 

*  which  was  fo  univerfally  laid,  and  that  came  to 

*  Action  in  fo  many  feveral  Parts  of  this  Nation, 

*  (although   aflifted  with  the  Invafion  of  a  nu- 

*  merous  Army  of  a  foreign  Enemy,  who  had  a 

*  deep  Intereft  in,  and  clofe  Correfpondency  with, 

*  a  very  great  Party  of  all  Sorts  in  this  Nation)  ef- 

*  fe&ed  nothing  of  their  main  End,  God  being 
'  pleafed  fo  fignally  to  evidence  his  Indignation 

*  againft  them  ;  yet  it  is  very  evident  in  what  Con- 

*  dition  the  Liberty  of  the  People  had  been,  as  to 
'  all  human  Support,  if  the  Army  had  not  been  in 
«  a  Readinefs  to  have  oppofed  that  Defign,  which 

'  that 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      191 

*  that  traiterous  Party  did  fo  vigorously  drive  on,  inter-regnsm 
'  under  the  Pretence  of  eafmg  their  Burthens,  to  l649- 

*  leave  them  naked  of  all  Defence  a?ainir.  the  pre-  ^ — v~~- •* 
'  pared  Attempts  of  their  Malice. 

'  This  grand  Defign  of  Mifchief  is  flill  carried 

*  on,  although  by  other  Agents,  and  under  ano- 

*  ther  Pretence  :  The  former  Agents  have  now, 

*  neither  Credit  nor  Power;  and  therefore,  being 

*  able  to  contribute  to  that  Caufe  no  more  than  the 

*  firft  Malignants  themfelves,  they  now  appear 

*  not.     Another  Courfe  is  refolved  and  purfued ; 

*  they  faw  they  were  not  able  to  beat  the  Army, 

*  nor  difband  it,   nor  perfuade  the  People  they      ' 
'  might  fpare  it,  fo  they  attempt  to  corrupt  theDif- 

6  cipline  of  it,  and  debauch  the  Fidelity  of  the  pri- 

*  vate  Soldiers,  and  make  them  theirs  :  And  while, 
4  the  Endeavours  are  ftrong  to  re-eftablifh  Monar- 

*  chy  and  Tyranny,   and  to  make  the  People  ab- 
'  folute  Slaves,  nothing  is  to  be  held  out  to  them, 

*  but  Liberty,  and  make  them  believe  there  is  no- 
'  thing  hinders  it  but  the  Parliament. 

«  And  the  apparent  Actors  in  this  muft  be  thofe 
c  called  Levellers,  none  being  fo  fit  as  they  to  de- 

*  ftroy  the  People's  Liberty  unfufpected,  if  they 
'  once  undertake  it,  as  having  endeavoured  already 
'  (though  there  be  little  Caufe  for  it)  to  make  them 
'  believe  they  are  the  only  faithful  Patriots,  the  Af- 
'  ferters  and  Maintainers  of  it.     Some  of  thofe  ha- 

*  ving  made  Defection  from  that  Profeflion  they 
'  fometimes  made  of  Religion  and  Godlinefs,  and 

*  having  entertained  Principles  of  Atheifm  and  Li- 

*  centioufnefs,   and  praitifed  accordingly,    found 

*  that  the  practifmg  of  thofe  Principles  would  not 
'  be  borne  in  a  Commonwealth,  under  a  good  and 
t  juft  Government,  where  Juftice  hath  its  Courfe, 
'  and  Property  is  maintained ;  where  Sobriety  and 
'  Temperance  is  in  Reputation,  and  the  Purity 
«  and  Power  and  Life  of  Religion  and  Godlinefs 
'  is  countenanced  and  promoted. 

4  And  knowing  that,  if  the  pretended  Intereft  of 
c  Charles  Stuart  could  be  fet  up,  the  Managing  of 

*  it  would  be  in  the  Hands  of  thofe  that  are  of  as 

*  atheiftical 


192     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter- regnum.  (  atheiftical  and  licentious  Principles  as  themfelvesj 
<  and  that  they  might  in  fuch  a  Government,  with- 

*  oat  either  Shame  or  Danger,  let  out  their  Lufts 

*  without  Controul,  they  have  efpoufed  that  Inte- 
4  reft,  come  oft  to  that  Side,  held  Correfpondency 
c  with  him  and  his  Party:  And  in  purfuance  there- 
c  of  have,  for  fome  while  paft,  directed  all  their 
4  Actions,  to  the  Ruin  of  this  Commonwealth, 

*  and  Enflaving  the  People  j  whom  they  deceive,  • 
4  in  the  mean  Time,  with  the  Name  of  Liberty, 
'  with  which  they  would  cloak  their  own  Licen- 
4  tioufnefs. 

.  '  Thefe  Principles  and  this  Practice  of  theirs  is 
4  evident  to  all  who  obferve  their  Walkings  and 
4  their  Correfpondency ;  befides  what,  from  the 
c  Abundance  of  their  Hearts,  flow  from  their  Pens 
4  in  what  they  publifh  to  the  World,  take  this  Tef- 
4  timony  of  an  intercepted  Letter,  written  from  one 
4  who  hath  been  employed  to  corrupt  them,  and 
4  thereby  drive  on  the  main  Defign;  it  needs  no 

*  Comment,  it  fpeaks  plain,  and  is  as  follows : 

May  it  pleafe  your  Lordfhips, 

TOUR S  of  the  third  Injlant  came  to  my  Hand$ 
In  return  whereof  know,  that  all  our  Hopes  here 
depend  on  his  Jlfajefty's  feeming  Compliance  with 
Lilbourne  and  the  Levelling  Party>  whofe  Difccn- 
tents  increafe  daily;  without  which  it  is  impojjible 
for  any  of  his  Party  here  to  be  ferviceable,  unlefs 
upon  their  Principles.  For  my  own  Part,  I  am 
ferviceable  to  that  End  with  my  utmojl  Abilities.  I 
have  not  been  ivanting  to  endeavour  the  creating  Jea- 
laujies  and  Difcontents>  thereby  to  ruin  the  moft  po- 
tent :  In  order  whereunto  I  have  caufed  Lenthall, 
the  Speaker \  to  be  accufed  by  fome  discontented  Per- 
fans,  Prifonersy  to  whom  I  have  been  very  prodigal, 
bofh  in  Rewards  and  Promifes  of  Freedom ;  info- 
much  that  they  have  profecuted  him  fo  cunningly  that 
many  conjiderable  Perfons,  both  in  the  Army  and  Cityt 
are  engaged  therein.  And  to  the  end  the  Plot  may 
take  to  the  Purpofe^  I  have  injinuated  by  my  Agents^ 
into  fome  of  the  Levelling  Party ,  that  it  is  a  Dejign 

°f 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       193 

of  the  Grandees  to  remove  him,  to  the  end  they  may  Inter-regnurr. 
make  their  Lord-Preftdent,  Bradfliaw,  Speaker  in 
his  Room  ;  which  hath  taken  juch  EffeEl  among  the 
Jimple-hearted  Levellers,  that  they,  jo  far  as  I  can 
apprehend,  are  refolved  to  join  their  Interejl  with 
the  Speaker's,  to  prevent  Jo  great  a  Mijchief,  as 
they  call  it ;  by  which  Means  I  doubt  not  but  to  ac~ 
complijh  a  Defign  that  Jhall  pull  down  thofe  two  great 
Pillars  of  their  new  Commonwealth. 

As  touching  the  State  of  Affairs  here,  in  relation  to 
his  Majefty,  I  find  that  his  Friends  increafe  daily , 
(as  to  Matter  of  AffeSlion)  but  have  no  Pojjibility  of 
embodying,  although  fame  Endeavours  have  been  that 
Way,  unlefs  the  Levellers  lead  the  Way  \  which  (al- 
though fame  Overtures  have  been  made  to  prevent) 
will  be,  I  hope,  fuddenly  put  in  Execution.  To  that 
Purpofe  I  defire  fame  AJJiftance  may  be  given  me ;  for 
without  Supplies  of  Money  little  can  be  expected,  thofe 
I  converfe  with  all  being  either  extreme  needy  or  co- 
vetous. I  have  fent  a  faithful  Agent  over  Sea,  tit 
fahite  and  attend  the  Motion  of  his  Irifh  Excellency* 
I  doubt  not  but  Jhortly  you  will  receive  a  good  Ac- 
count touching  that  Bujinefs.  Sir,  I  pray  be  mindful 
of  him,  that,  as  a  Pr  if  oner  for  his  Affeftion  to  the 
Service  of  his  Majejly,  hath  been  wanting  in  nothing^ 
according  to  his  utmoft  PoJJibilities,  that  might  ma- 
nifeft  his  Loyalty  to  his  King^  and  Refpeft  to  your 
Lordjhip.  h  T  F 

London,  Fleet,  Sept.  6,  1649. 

1  The  inner  Cafe,  in  which  the  Letter  was  in- ' 
'  clofed,  indorfed  thus,  For  250,  thefe. 

'  The  outer  Cafe  thus,  A  Monjieur,  Monjieur 
'  Robert  Shamatte,  au  quatre  Vents  Rue  perdue, 

*  proche  la  Place  Maubert,  a  Paris.     In  which  was 

*  written  thus  :  Sir,  I  befeech  you,  as  heretofore,  con- 

*  vey  the  inclofed  as  direSled;  the  Performance  hereof 
'  will  exceedingly  oblige         Your  Friend, 

T.  F. 

VOL.  XIX.  'N  'And 

1»  This  Letter  was  intercepted  two  or  three  Days  before  the  Mu- 
tiny at  Oxford  brake  forth.  Notes  in  tbt  Origine^ 


194    Th*  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

4  And  whereas  the  principal  Means  that  God 

*  hath  ufed  to  procure  the  Liberty  we  now  enjoy, 
4  hath  been  the  Councils  and  Authority  of  the  Par- 

'    «  liament,  and  the  Faithfulnefs  of  the  Army :  Thcfe 
'  Men  have  attempted  upon  both  ;  they  have,  by 

*  their  falfe,  feditious,  and  treafonable  Invectives 
'  and  Pamphlets,  laboured  to  render  the  Parliament 
'  not  only  contemptible,   but  abominable  to  all 
4  the  People,  that  they  might  weaken  and  take  off 
'  that  RefpecT:  and  Reverence  they  owe  to  them, 
'  from  whofe  Obedience  they  defigned  to  debauch 
'  them,  and  fo  be  left  without  any  vifible  Power  to 

*  direct  them;  and  that  this  Commonwealth  might 

*  run  into  tumultuary  Confufions  in  the  Infancy, 
'  and  not  grow  up  into  any  Meafure  of  Strength 

*  and  Settlement,  in  the  Hands  of  thofe  whom 
'  God  hath  owned   and  ufed  as  Inftruments  to 
'  bring  the  Work  thus  far;  and  who,  by  long  Ufe, 

*  might  reafonably  be  fuppofed  to  have  gotten  fome 
'  Experience  in  that  great  Work :  All  their  En- 

*  deavours  have  been  improved  to  procure  a  Diflb- 
'  lution  of  this  Parliament,  and  the  Calling  of  a 

*  new  Reprefentative,  pretending  the  People  ought 

*  to  have  the  Liberty  of  new  and  frequent  Elec- 

*  tions  ;  though  they  very  well  know  that,  as  the 
<  prefent  Diftemper  of  the  People  was,  the  Vio- 

*  lence  of  Faction,  and  Activity  of  their  fecret  Enc 

6  mies,  either  thefe  Elections  could  not  be  free,  or 

c  the  People  muft  have  loft  their  Liberty  by  it, which 

'  was  theThing  they  had  inDefignandProfecution. 

'  And  to  give  them  an  Experiment  how  much 

*  Liberty  they  were  like  to  have  enjoyed  under  the 

*  managing  of  thefe  Men,    whofe  Principles  of 
'  Tyranny  are  as  the  Loins  to  the  Little  Finger  of 

*  thofe  whom  they  fo  much  cry  down;  that  crude 

*  Conception  of  the  Agreement  of  the  People^  which 

*  was  the  firft  Birth  of  a^vfr  of  themfelves,  muft 
'  be  obtruded  upon  them  as  a  Super-parliamentary 
'  Law,  without  receiving  and  owning  of  which, 
'  no  Man  fhould  have  enjoyed  thofe  Liberties  they 
1  fo  much  boaft  to  be  the  unqueftionable  Biith- 

*  right  of  every  free-born  Man* 

«For 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       195 

'  For  the  Army ;  they  knew  the  Officers  were  Inter-regnum, 

*  above  their  fecret  Practice,  they  therefore  apply  to 
e  the  Soldiers;  and,  by  their  Emiflaries  every  where, 
'  infufe  into  them  their  Do&rine  of  Difobedience. 

'  And  knowing  well  how  the  Defign  of  Charles 

*  Stuart  was  laid  for  Ireland,  and  into  what  hope- 
c  ful  Condition  for  his  Party  his  Affairs  were  there 

*  grown,  all  their  Endeavours  were  ufed  to  hinder 

*  the  fending  of  Forces  thither,   to  prevent  his 

*  Greatnefs  there,  from  whence  he  might  have 

*  been   confiderably   dangerous   to   this  Nation : 
'  They  delivered  for  good  political  Doc-trine,  That 
'  Ireland  was  a  free  Kingdom,  bad  been  conquered 

*  by  Force ,  had  jujlly  vindicated  their  own  Liberty , 

*  and  ought  not  to  be  compelled  to  any  Obedience  or 
'  Subordination  to  this  Nation;  that  the  Soldiers 

*  ought  not  to  fuffer  themf elves  to  be  tranfported  thi- 
'  ther\  they  had  indeed  fought  for  their  own  Liberty 
'  here,  but  ought  not  to  be  commanded  out  of  their 
e  own  to  take  away  that  of  others.    And  what  Effect 
'  this  had,  and  how  far  and  how  long  the  Relief  of 
'  Ireland  was  hindered  by  the  Difobedience  and 
'  Mutinies  by  them  caufed,  is  very  well  known;  fo 
c  as  if  God  had  not  been  pleafed,  by  no  lefs  than  a 
«  Miracle,  to  give  Viftory  to  a  fmall  Handful  of 

*  our  Men  there,  even  befides  their  own  Intention^ 

*  and  beyond  their  Defign,  againft  a  very  great  Ar- 

*  my  of  the  Enemy's,  there  had  not  been  left  a 

*  Landing-place  in  Ireland  for  our  Army,  but  what 
'  they  muft  have  fought  for. 

'  They  alfo  continually  fuggefted  to  the  Soldiers, 
c  That  the  Parliament  was  a  Neft  of  Tyrants,  and 

*  therefore  to  be  deftroyed  as  public  Enemies ; 
'  with  much  more  of  this  Kind,  both  publifhed 

*  in  Print,  and  fo  difperfed,  and  otherwife  difiemi- 

*  nated  among  them ;  and  what  Effects  this  Doc- 
'  trine  wrought,  the  Defection  begun  in  fome  Re- 
'  giments  in  Wiltjhire  and  other  Places,  (though, 

*  by  the  Mercy  of  God,  foon  ended  atBurford)  and 

*  now  lately  at  Oxford,  hath  fufficiently  manifeft- 

*  ed  ;    which  Difobedience,  if  it  had  proceeded 
«  further,  and  not  been  retrained  by  that  fpecial 

N  2  '•  Pro- 


196     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

ater-regnum.  *  Providence  which  hath  fct  Bounds  to  the  Sea 

1649.        *  which  it  cannot  pafs,  we  might  Toon  have  been 

"•g*"""v~        *  without  an  Army,  to  have  ferved  the  Common- 

'    *  wealth  againft  their  Attempts,  who  had  laid  their 

'  Defigns  to  appear  then,  when  the  Diftempers  in 

*  the  Army  fhould  be  ready  for  them  ;  as  at  that 

*  Time  the  Surprize  of  I'feymviitb  was  appointed 
'  by  Capt.  Gardiner  and  his  Accomplices,  by  Com- 
4  miflion  from  Charles  Stuart. 

*  And  to  the  end  alfo  the  Army  might  be  the 
'  more  eafily  corrupted  in  its  Difcipline,  and  made 
'  odious  to  the  People,  all  Means  are  ufed  to  keep 

*  the  Army  at  Free-quarter,  whereby  they  might 

*  gratify  Licentioufnefs,  while  Soldiers  were  un- 
4  paid,  and  lo  left  to  live  atDifcretion  ;  they  pur- 

*  fue  the  former  Method,  complain  of  Burthens, 

*  cry  down  Excife  and  Taxes,  but  not  a  Word  of 

*  Danger ;   they  know  without  thefe,  at  prefent, 
«  an  Army  cannot  be  paid,  or  the  Liberty  of  the 
'  People  preferved  :  If  this  Art  had  fucceeded,  and 

*  the  People  had  abfolutely  refufed  to  pay,  the  Ar- 

*  my  mult  either  have  come  to  Free-quarter,  hea- 
'  vier  than  all  Taxes,  or  muft  have  broken,  and 
'  then  the  Commonwealth  had  been  again  a6tually 

*  in  the  Hands  of  Tyranny. 

'  To  perfuade  the  People  the  better,  they  rc- 

*  prefent  unto  them  what  vart  Sums  are  daily  levi- 
c  ed;  tell  of  many  Millions,  with  a  fufficient  Mul- 

*  tiplication,  that  have  been  collected,  of  which  no 
'  Account,  they  fay,  can  be  given  :  That  they  are 

*  beyond  all  that  ever  was  laid  upon  them  by  Mo- 

*  narchy  in  the  worft  of  Times;  and  they  leave  no 
'  Way  unattempted  to  aggravate  every  Inconve- 
'  nience,to  make  the  People  fenfible  of  their  Smart, 
'  that  they  may  throw  away  their  Plaifter,  and 
'  die  of  their  Wounds  :  Indeed  we  cannot  but  ac- 
'  knowledge  that  the  prefent  Burthens  are  great, 
'  and  we  have  Reafon  ourfelves  to  be  as  fenfible  of 
'  them  as  any  others,  having  no  Exemption  from. 
c  them  according  to  the  Proportion  of  our  Eftates, 
(  wherever  they  lie  :  And  there  is  nothing  that  is 
'  more  in  our  Defires  and  Endeavours,  than  that 

•  w« 


Of    ENGLAND.       197 

1  we  may  be  able  to  abate  the  Taxes,  and,  in  inter-regmim. 
'  Time,  to  take  them  off",  that  the  People  might         l649- 
4  come  to  enjoy  intirely  the  Fruit  of  that  which    *""""v""""""1 

*  hath  coft  them  fo  dear ;  and  we  hope,  through       el>tem  "' 
'  the  Blelfing  of  God,  difpofing  the  Minds  of  the 

'  People  to  a  chearful  Co-operation  in  this  Work, 
1  with  a  Calmnefs  and  Patience  for  a  little  while 
'  longer,  there  will  be  a  happy  End  of  thefe  Trou- 

*  bles,  and  a  fure  Settlement  of  the  Peace  of  this 
'  Commonwealth,  in  the  true,  good,  and  juft  Li- 
'  berty  of  the  People. 

*  But,  for  the  better  Prefervation  of  the  People 

*  from  the  Diftempers  that  might  arife  from  fuch 
'  Suggeftions,  we  defire  them  to  conlider  that  if 

*  the  Burthens  they  bear  be  great,  yet  by  whofe 
'  Means,  and  for  what  Caufe,  were  they  laid  on  ? 

*  Phyfic  may  be,  and  often  is,  more  troublefome 

*  than  the  Difeafe  ;  yet  the  Tendency  of  the  one 

*  is  to  Health  and  Recovery,  the  other  to  Death ; 
'  and  from  that  Difference  the  Election  is  clear 

*  and  eafy  :  And  though  the  Art  of  reftoring  a  dif- 

*  located  Joint  is  much  more  Torment  than  the 
'  quiet  fuffering  of  the  prefent  Pain,  yet  every  Man 

*  prefers  thatTorment  before  Lamenefs.    No  Mari 

*  refufeth  to  procure  Antidotes  in  Time  of  epide- 
'  mical  Difeafes,  though  at  very  dear  Rates,  be- 
'  caufe  it  is  for  his  Prefervation  ;  nor  to  buy  Food 
'  and  Cloathing,  becaufe  he  cannot  live  without 

*  them.     And  we  doubt  not  but,  if  Men  would 

*  without  Prejudice  confider  that  they  can  no  more 
'  live,  or  live  free,  without  an  Army,  than  without 

*  Food,  as  the  prefent  State  of  Affairs  ftand  ;  and 
'  that  they  now  are  in  Times  of  fuch  general  Di- 
'  ftempers,  as  that  there  is  need  of  fuch  a  Remedy, 
'  they  would  be  beyond  the  Danger  of  being  fe- 

*  duced  by  thefe  Pretences. 

'  And  whereas  the  Liberty  of  the  People  is  fo 
6  highly  cried  up  by  thefe  Deceivers,  as  being  that 
'  for  which  Men  muft  thus  adventure  all ;  we  do 

*  acknowledge,  that  a  juft  and  well-regulated  Li- 

*  berty,  under  juft  and  good  Laws  that  may  pre- 

*  ierve  it  from  Participation  of,  or  degenerating 

N  3  '  into, 


198     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  into,  Anarchy  and  Confufion,  is  a  moft  defirable 
'  Thing,  and  that  which  may  deferve  the  utmoft 
'  Hazard  of  all  that  is  dear  to  a  Man ;  but  we  de- 

<  ^  t^cm  to  confider,  that  this  was  feized  into 
'  fuch  Hands  as  it  could  not  be  purchafed  from 
'  without  a  vaft  Expence,    nor  fecured  without 

*  Trouble  and  Charge  ;  which  we  therefore,  tho' 

*  with  a  tender  Senfe  and  with  much  Reluclancy, 

*  are,  for  the  prefent,  neceflitated  to  raife.     Thole 

*  who  cry  out  upon  it,  and  would  have  all  Bur- 
'  thens,  all  Taxes,  taken  off  for  the  Liberty  of  the 

*  People,  are  thofe  who  at  beft  (if  they  be  not  pro- 
'  fefledly  Enemies)  are  yet  a&ed  and  abufed  by 

*  them,  as  Inftrurnents  to  deftroy  all  our  true  Li- 

*  berties,  to  reduce  us  again  under  the  Power  of  a 

*  worfe  Tyranny,  than  we  ever  yet  were  under : 
'  And  to  this  the  People  muft  themfelves  be  made 

*  inftrumental,  while  they  purfue  an  empty  Name 

*  of  that  Thing,  the  PolFeflion  whereof  they  al- 

*  ready  have,  and  rnay  keep  and  enjoy,  if  they 

*  will  not  be  abufed  by  thofe  who,  under  the  Pre- 

*  tence  of  that  Name,  which  is  in  itfelf  moft  de- 

*  firable,   would   bring  into  the  Nation  what  in 

*  themfelves  they  have  entertained,  both  in  Prin- 
'  ciple  and  Praclice ;  namely,  Atheifm,  Licentiouf- 

*  nefs,  with  Anarchy  and  Confufion  of  all  Things. 

'  We  have  thought  it  neceflary,  at  this  Time, 

*  to  make  this  Difcovery  of  thofe  Men,  and  to  give 

*  this  Warning  of  them ;  and,  God  aflifling  us, 

*  {hall  not  ceafe  to  watch  againft,  and  fupprefs, 

*  all  their  Defigns,  and  oppofe  all  their  Practices : 

<  And  as  our  Duty  is,  in  refpedl:  of  our  great  Truft, 

*  we  lhall  endeavour  to  make  the  People  happy, 

*  and  promote  their  Good ;  and  fhall  not  give  over 

*  that  good  Work  for  any  Difcouragements  from 

*  the  Unkindnefs  and  Unthankfulnefs  of  thofe  for 

<  whom  our  Labours  are  intended. 

'  And  if  we  have  fuffered  thefeDiftempers  to  pro- 

*  ceed  thus  far,  and  have  not  put  forth  the  Power 

*  that  refides  in  us  to  fecure  the  Commonwealth 

*  and  good  Patriots  from  the  Dangers  that  are  here 
«  repreiented  -3  let  it  be  confidered  what  weighty 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       199 

(  Affairs  have  been  upon  us,  and  how  much  hath  Inter-regnum. 
'  been  done  fmce  we  were   a  Commonwealth.        :649> 

*  Befides  that,  the  whole  Body  hath  been  in  a  Ions:    <f7v-T~> 

T^. . ,.  J,  .  E>       September, 

'  and  dangerous  Difeafe ;  and  it  could  not  be  ex- 

*  peeled  but,  though  the  Cure  be  perfect,  yet  many 
'  Humours  would  remain  that  might  poflibly  be  ca- 
4  pable  to  be  altered ;  and,  being  fo,  be  more  pro- 

*  h'table  to  the  Body  than  to  be  purged  out ;  and 

*  we  thought  it  convenient  to  wait,  if  their  better 

*  Confideration  of  Affairs,    and  of  their  Duty, 

*  would  reduce  them  to  a  better  Temper:  But  now 
'  finding  fome  incorrigible,  and  that  our  Tender- 

*  nefs  to  their  Errors  (which  we  would  willingly 
4  have  called  Miftakes)  is  interpreted  to  be  Weak- 

*  nefs  and  Fear  by  thole  that  offend,  and  Slacknefs 
e  and  Negligence  by  thole  who  are  in  Danger;  we 

*  do  hereby  declare,  That  we  have  refolved  to  al- 
c  ter  that  Courier  And  as  Juftice  hath  been  lately 

*  done  on  fome  at  Oxford,  in  a  Military  and  Mar- 

*  tial  Way,  who  were  fubject  to  that  Jurifdi£tion, 
*•  and  fhall  be  in  like  Manner  on  any  other  that 

*  fhall  fo  offend ;  fo  we  have  iffued  fpecial  Com- 

*  miffions  of  Oyer  and  Terminer^  for  the  fpeedy 
'  Trial  of  the  Chief  of  thofe  who  have  laid  and  car- 

*  ried  on  thofe  dangerous  Defigns ;  and  fhall  be 
'  ready  to  fpare  the  reft  for  prefent,  whofe  Repent- 

*  ance  and  Sorrow  for  their  paft  Crimes  may  ren- 

*  der  them  capable  of  Mercy  j  and  who  fhall  give 

*  fufficient  Security,  that  they  will  not  hereafter 
'  endanger  or  difturb  the  Peace  of  the  Common- 
«  wealth.     And  we  do  alfo  hereby  declare,  That 

*  as  we  fhall  have  in  efpecial  Efteem  all  good  Pa- 
'  triots,  and,  for  their  juft  Advantage  upon  all  Oc- 

*  cafions,  take  Notice  of  thole  who  deferve  well  of       , 
c  the  Commonwealth ;  fo  if  any  fhall  hereafter 

c  pra£life  againft  the  Commonwealth  and  the  pre- 
4  lent  Government  thereof,  and  fhall  offend  againft 
'  the  Laws  eftablifhed,  of  whatever  Quality,  Coa- 
'  dition,  or  Calling  they  are,  there  fhall  be  a  fpeedy 
'  and  fevere  Proceeding  againft  them,  without  Fa- 
'  vour  or  Refpeft  of  Perfons ;  that  we  may,  fo  far 
<  as  God  fhall  enable  us,  fulfil  the  End  of  Magif- 


zoo     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

'  tracy,  in  being  a  Terror  to  the  Evil-Doers,  and 
«  for  the'Praife  and  Encouragement  of  them  that 
«  do  well.  £COBELLj  Cler  parL 


The  fame  Day  that  the  foregoing  Declaration 
was  pafs'd,  the  Houfe  ordered  that  it  be  referred 
to  the  Council  of  State,  to  confider  of  fuch  Per- 
fons  now  in  Prifon,  or  under  Reftraint,  as  are  fit  to 
receive  Favour  in  purfuance  thereof;  and  to  give 
Order  for  their  Discharge,  they  fubmitting  to  the 
Government  now  eftablifhed,  and  giving  Security 
not  to  endanger  or  difturb  the  Peace  of  the  Com- 
monwealth. 

The  Lord  Mayer  Oftober.  This  Month  began  with  the  Ceremony 
of  London  pre-of  preferring  a  new  Lord  Mayor  of  London  to  the 
^l^fhe-;  Houfe  for  their  Approbation.  This  Affair  having 
.Approbation,  never  been  pra&ifed  before  by  the  Commons,  oc- 
cafioned  the  more  Formality  about  it,  to  ftand  as  a 
Precedent  for  the  future.  Accordingly  the  Lord 
Mayor  ElecT:  being  call'd  into  the  Houfe,  the  Re- 
corder *  made  an  eloquent  Oration,  as  the  'Journals 
exprefs  it,  reciting  the  great  Providence  of  God,  ia 
thefe  late  Years,  to  the  Parliament  and  Nation  ; 
and  the  conftant  Affection  of  the  City  to  the  Par- 
liament and  the  Caufe  they  engaged  in  ;  Decla- 
ring that  the  City  had  chofen  Mr.  Alderman  Tho- 
mas Foote^  to  be  Lord  Mayor  for  the  enfuing  Year  : 
He  gave  a  large  Teftimony  of  the  Fidelity,  Inte- 
grity, and  Abilities  of  the  faid  Alderman,  and  his 
Qualification  for  that  great  Office  and  Truft  ;  and 
defired  the  Approbation  of  the  Houfe  to  the  faid 
Eleaion. 

Being  all  withdrawn  and  call'd  in  again,  the 
Speaker,  by  Direction  of  the  Houfe,  fpoke  as  fol- 
lows : 

My  Lord  Mayor  Eletf, 

c  '\7'OU  have  been  prefented  unto  the  Parlia- 
'  j[  ment  of  England,  by  Mr.  Recorder,  for 
*  their  Approbation  ;  and  the  Parliament  of  Eng- 

4  land 

a  Mr.  Stecle,  who  had  been  appointed  to  that  Office  on  the  Re- 
rr.cv-i  of  Mr.  Gljr.ne,  one  of  the  fecluded  Members. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       201 

*  land  have  commanded  me,  in  their  Names,  to  Inter-regnum, 
'  declare  unto  you,  That  they  do  well  approve  and 

'  confirm  the  Choice  of  you  to  be  Lord  Mayor  of    v"^^~r 
'  the  City  of  London  for  the  Year  enfuing :  And, 

*  out  of  their  Experience  of  your  great  Service  and 
'  Fidelity  to  this  Commonwealth  and  Parliament, 
c  and  the  Confidence  they  have  of  your  Abilities 
'  for  fo  high  a  Truft,  they  are  well  pleafed  that 
4  fuch  an  eminent  Stamp  of  Authority  is  fo  fitly 
'  placed ;  and  they  have  ordered  that  you  fhall  be 
'  iworn  accordingly.' 

On  the  fecond  of  this  Month  the  Houfe  receiv'd 
an  Account  from  Ireland  of  the  great  Succefs  of 
the  Parliament's  Forces  in  that  Kingdom.  The 
Particulars  of  which  will  beft  appear  from  their 
Lord-Lieutenant's  Letters,  as  laid  before  them  b. 

For  the  Hon.  WILLIAM  LENTHALL,  Efq-y  Speaker 
of  the  Parliament  of  England. 

SIR,  Dublin,  Sep.  17,  1649. 

1  '\7'QUR  Army  being  fafely  arrived  at  Dublin, Gen-  Cromwe 

<  Y     and  the  Enemy -endeavouring ,  tc >  draw ^  all  % 

<  his  r  orces  together  about  Trym  and  Tecroghant  Drogbed 
'  as  my  Intelligence  gave  me ;  from  whence  £n- 

'  deavours  were  ufed  by  the  Marquis  of  Ormond 
£  to  draw  Owen  Roe  O'Neal  with  his  Forces  to  his 

*  Afiiftance,  but  with  what  Succefs  I  cannot  yet 

<  learn,  I  refolved,  after  fomc  Refremment  taken 
«  for  our  Weather-beaten  Men  and  Horfes,  and 
'  Accommodations  for  a  March,  to  take  the  Field; 
'  and  accordingly,  upon  Friday  the  3Oth  of  Au- 

*  guft  laft,  rendezvous'd  with  eight  Regiments  of 

*  Foot,  fix  of  Horfe,  and  fome  Troops  of  Dragoons, 
'  three  Miles  on  the  North  Side  of  Dublin :  The 
'  Defign  was  to  endeavour  the  regaining  of  Drogb- 
(  heda,  or  tempting  the  Enemy,  upon  his  Hazard 
c  of  the  Lofs  of  that  Place,  to  fight. 

'Your 

b  From  the  original  Edition,  printed  by  John  Field  for  Edward 
JIuJbands,  Printer  to  the  Parliament  of  England,  and  publilhed  by 
their  Order. 


202      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  Your  Army    came   before   the  Town  upon 
T^Wrty  Allowing;    where  having  pitched,  as 

v.-s  taken  as  could  be  to  frame 
•  h  «x>ok  up  the  more  Time, 

*  becai .     ~    -  ...v    .   t.-::ng  Guns  were  on 
'  Ship  board.      Upon  Monday  the  Qth  of  this  In- 

*  flant  the  Batteries  began  to  play  ;  whereupon  I 

*  fent  Sir  Arthur  Afton^    the    then  Governor,  a 

*  Summons  to  deliver  the  Town  to  the  Ufe  of  the 

*  Parliament  of  England  ;  to  the  which  receiving 

*  no  fatisfa&ory  Anfwer,  I  proceeded  that  Day 

*  to  beat  down  the  Steeple  of  the  Church  on  the 

*  South  Side  of  the  Town,    and  to  beat  down  a 

*  Tower  not  far  from  the  fame  Place,  which  you 

*  will  difcern  by  the  Chart  inclos'd. 

*  Our  Guns  not  being  able  to  do  much  that 

*  Day,  it  was  refolved  to  endeavour  to  do  our  ut- 
«  moil  the  next  Day  to  make  Breaches  affaultable, 

*  and,  by  the  Help  of  God,  to  ftorm  them.     The 

*  Place  pitch'd  upon  was  that  Part  of  the  Town 
«  Wall  next  a  Church  call'd  St  Marys ;  which 

<  was  the  rather  chofen,  becaufe  we  did  hope  that 
'  if  we  did  enter  and  poflefs  that  Church,   we 

*  fhould  be  the  better  able  to  keep  it  againft  their 

*  Horfe  and  Foot,  untill  we  could  make  Way  for 

*  the  Entrance  of  our  Horfe,  which  we  did  not  con- 
'  ceive  that  any  Part  of  the  Town  would  afford 

<  the  like  Advantage  for  that  Purpofe  with  this. 
'  The  Batteries  planted  were  two,  one  was  for 
«  that  Part   of  the  Wall  againft  the  Eaft  End 

<  of  the  faid  Church,  the  other  againft  the  Wall 
'  on  the  South  Side:  Being  fomewhat  long  in  bat- 

*  tering,   the  Enemy   made   fix  Retrenchments, 
'  three  of  them  from  the  faid  Church  to  Duleek 

*  Gate,  and  three  of  them  from  the  Eaft  End  of 

*  the  Church  to  the  Town  Wall,  and  fo  back- 

*  ward.     The  Guns,  after  fome  two  or  three  hun- 
4  dred  Shot,  beat  down  the  Corner  Tower,  and 

*  opened  two  reafonable  good  Breaches  in  the  Eaft 
«  and  South  Wall. 

'  Upon  Tuefday  the  icih  of  this  Inftant,  about 
6  five  o'Clock  in  the  Evening,  we  began  the  Storm, 

4  and, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       203 

c  and,  after  fome  hot  Difpute,  we  entered  about  Inter-regnum. 

*  7  or  800  Men,  the  Enemy  difputing  it  very  ftifly 

*  with  us  ;  and  indeed,  through  the  Advantages  of 
'  the  Place,  and  the  Courage  God  was  pleafed  to 

*  give  the  Defenders,  our  Men  were  forced  to  re- 
'  treat  quite  out  of  the  Breach,  not  without  fomc 

*  confiderable  Lofs  ;  Col.  Caffel  being  there  (hot 

*  in  the  Head,  whereof  he  prefently  died,  and  di- 

*  vers  Officers  and  Soldiers,  doing  their  Duty, 

*  kill'd  and  wounded.     There  was  a  Tenalia  to 

*  flanker  the  South  Wall  of  the  Town,  between 

*  Duleek  Gate  and  the  Corner  Tower  before-men- 
«  ed,  which  our  Men  enter'd,  wherein  they  found 
'  fome  forty  or  fifty  of  the  Enemy,  which  they 

*  put  to  the  Sword,  and  this  they  held ;  but  it  be- 
'  ing  without  the  Wall,  and  the  Salley-Port  thro* 
'  the  Wall  into  that  Tenalia  being  choak'd  up  with 
'  fome  of  the  Enemy  which  were  kill'd  in  it,  it 
'  prov'd  of  no  Ufe  for  our  Entrance  into  the  Town 

*  that  Way. 

'  Although  our  Men  that  ftorm'd  the  Breaches 

*  were  forced  to  recoil,  as  before  is  exprefs'd,  yet 

*  being  encouraged  to  recover  their  Lofs,  they 
'  made  a  fecond  Attempt,  wherein  God  was  plea- 

*  fed  fo  to  animate  them,  that  they  got  Ground  of 

<  the  Enemy;  and,  by  the  Goodnefs  of  God,  for- 

*  ced  him  to  quit  his  Entrenchments ;  and,  after 
'  a  very  hot  Difpute,  the  Enemy  having  both 

*  Horfe  and  Foot,  and  we  only  Foot  within  the 

*  Wall,  they  gave  Ground,  and  our  Men  became 
4  Mafters  both  of  their  Retrenchments  and  the 
'  Church  i  which,  indeed,  although  they  made  our 
'  Enterance  the  more  difficult,  yet  they  prov'd  of 

<  excellent  Ufe  to  us,  fo  that  the  Enemy  could  not 

*  annoy  us  with  their  Horfe  ;  but  thereby  we  had 
«  Advantage  to  make  good  the  Ground,  that  fo 
'  we  might  let  in  our  own  Horfe  ;  which  accord- 
'  ingly  was  done,  though  with  much  Difficulty. 

'  Divers  of  the  Enemy  retreated  into  the  Mill" 
f  Mount,  a  Place  very  ftrong  and  of  difficult  Ac- 
«  cefs,  being  exceeding  high,  having  a  good  Graft 

*  and  ftrongly  pallifadoed.   The  Governor,  Sirjfr- 

'  thur 


Ottobcr. 


204     The  Parliamentary  His  TOR  y 

.  «  thur  djlon  and  divers  confiderable  Officers  be- 
'  ing  there,  our  Men  getting  up  to  them,  were  or- 

*  dered  by  me  to  put  them  all  to  the  Sword  :  And, 

*  indeed,  being  in  the  Heat  of  Action,  I  forbad 
'  them  to  fpare  any  that  were  in  Arms  in  the 

*  Town ;  and  I  think  that  Night  they  put  to  the 

*  Sword  about  2000 Men,  divers  of  theOfficers  and 

*  Soldiers  being  fled  over  the  Bridge  into  the  other 

*  Part  of.  the  Town  ;  where  about  1 00  of  them 
'  poflefs'd  St.  Peter's  Church  Steeple,  fome  the  Weft 

*  Gate,  and  others  a  round  ftrong  Tower  next  the 

*  Gate  call'd  St.  Sunday's.    Theie  being  fummoned 

*  to  yield  to  Mercy,  refufed  ;  whereupon  I  ordered 

*  the  Steeple  of  St.  Peter's   Church  to  be  fired, 

*  where  one  of  them  was  heard  to  fay  in  the  Midft 
'  of  the  Flames,  God  damn  mey  Gad  cenfound  me, 

*  /  burn^  I  burn. 

'  The  next  Day  the  other  two  Towers  were 

*  fumrnoned,  in  one  of  which  was  about  fix  or 

*  feven  Score,  but  they  refufed  to  yield  themfelves ; 

*  and  we  knowing;  that  Hunger  muft  compel  them, 

*  fet  only  good  Guards  to  fecure  them  from  run- 

*  ing  away,  untill  their  Stomachs  were  come  down. 

*  From  one  of  the  faid  Towers,  notwithftanding 

*  their  Condition,  they  kill'd  and  wounded  fome 

*  of  our  Men.     When  they  fubmitted,  their  Of- 

*  fleers  were  knock'd  on  the  Head,  and  every  tenth 

*  Man  of  the  Soldiers  kill'd,  and  the  reft  fhipped 

*  for  the  Barbadoes.     The  Soldiers  in  the  other 

*  Town  were  all  fpared  as  to  their  Lives  only,  and 
c  fhipped  likewife  for  the  Barbadoes. 

*  I  am  pcrfuaded  that  this  is  a  righteous  Judg- 

*  ment  of  God  upon  thefe  barbarous  Wretches, 

*  who  have  embrued  their  Hands  in  fo  much  inno- 

*  cent  Blood,    and  that  it  will  tend    to  prevent 

*  the  Effufion  of  Blood  for  the  future ;  which  are 
'  the  fatisfa&ory  Grounds  to  fuch  Actions,  which 

*  otherwife  cannot  but  work  Remorfe  and  Regret. 
c  The  Officers  and  Soldiers  of  this  Garrifon  were 

*  the  Flower  of  their  Army  ;  and  their  great  Ex- 
c  pcclation  was,  that  our  attempting  this  Place 

*  would  put  fair  to  ruin  us  j  they  being  confident 

'  of 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       205 

*  of  the  Refolution  of  their  Men  and  the  Advan-  inter-regnum. 

*  tage  of  the  Place.     If  we  had  divided  our  Force        1649- 

4  into  two  Quarters,  to  have  befieged  the  North    ^— "v*— - -* 

4  Town  and  the  South  Town,  v/e  could  not  have      Oftober« 

4  had   fuch    a   Correfpondency  between   the   two 

4  Parts  of  our  Army ;  but  that  they  might  have 

4  chofen  to  have  brought  their  Army,  and  have 

4  fought  with  which  Part  they  pleafed,  and  at  the 

4  fame  Time  have  made  a  Sally  with  2OOO  Men 

4  upon  us,  and  have  left  their  Walls  mann'd,  they 

4  having  in  the  Town  the  Number  hereafter  fpe- 

4  cified  ;  but  fome  fay  near  4000. 

4  Since  this  great  Mercy  vouchfafed  to  us,  I  fent 
4  a  Party  of  Horfe  and  Dragoons  to  Dundalk,  which 
4  the  Enemy  quitted,  and  we  are  pofTefs'd  of;  as 
4  alfo  another  Caftle  they  deferted  between  Trym 
4  and  Drogbedd,  upon  the  Boyne.  I  fent  a  Party  of 
4  Horfe  and  Dragoons  to  a  Houfe  within  five  Miles 
4  of  TVywz,  there  being  then  in  Trym  fome  Scots 
4  Companies,  which  the  Lord  of  Ardes  brought  ro 
4  aflift  the  Lord  of  Ormond ;  but  upon  the  News 
4  of  Drogheda  they  ran  away,  leaving  their  great 
4  Guns  behind  them  j  which  we  alfo  have  pof- 
4  fefs'd. 

4  And  now  give  me  Leave  to  fay  how  it  comes  to 

*  pafs  that  this  Work  is  wrought :  It  was  fet  upon 
4  fome  of  bur  Hearts  that  a  great  Thing  mould  be 
4  done ;  not  by  Power  or  Might,  but  by  the  Spirit 
4  of  God  ;  and  is  it  not  fo  clearly  ?  That  which 
4  caufed  your  Men  to  ftorm  fo  courageoufly,  it  was 
4  the  Spirit  of  God  who  gave  your  Men  Courage, 
4  and  took  it  away  again ;  and  gave  the  Enemy 
4  Courage,  and  took  it  away  again ;  and  gave  your 

*  Men  Courage  again,  and  therewith  this  happy 
4  Succefs  ;  and  therefore  it  is  good  that  God  alone 
'  have  all  the  Glory. 

4  It  is  remarkable  that  thefe  People  at  the  fit  ft 
4  fet  up  the  Mafs  in  fome  Places  of  the  Town  that 

*  had  been  Monafteries ;  but  afterwards  grew  fo 
4  infolent,   that  the  laft  Lord's  Day  before  the 
4  Storm,   the  Proteftants  were  thruft  out  of  the 
'  great  Church  call'd  St.  Peter's,  and  they  had 

*  public 


2o6      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY* 

later-regnum.  c  public  Mafs  there  j  and  in  this  very  Place  near 

1649.       «  1000  of  them  were  put  to  the  Sword,  flying  thi- 

«— -V-— '    «  ther  for  Safety.     I  believe  all  their  Friars  were 

'ber.      <  Jcnock'd  on  the  Head  promifcuoufly,  but  two, 

'  the  one  of  which  was  Father  Peter  Taaff^  Bro- 

*  ther  to  the  Lord  Taaff^  whom  the  Soldiers  took 

*  the  next  Day  and  made  an  End  of ;  the  other 

*  was  taken  in  the  Round  Tower,  under  the  Re- 
s  pute  of  a  Lieutenant ;  and  when  he  undcrftood 

*  that  the  Officers  in  that  Tower  had  no  Quarter, 

*  he  confefs'd  he  was  a  Frier  j  but  that  did  not  fave 
•him. 

*  A  great  deal  of  Lofs  in  this  Bufmefs  fell  upon 
«  Col.  Hewfon's,    Col.  CaffeFs,   and  Col.  Ewer's 

*  Regiments ;   Col.  Ewer  having  two  Field  Offi- 

*  cers  in  his  Regiment  mot,  Col.  Caffel  and  a  Cap- 

*  tain  of  his  Regiment  (lain,  Col. //n^n's  Captain- 

*  Lieutenant  flain.     I  do  not  think  we  loft  100 

*  Men  upon  the  Place,  though  many  be  wounded. 

*  I  moft  humbly  pray  the  Parliament  may  be 

*  pleafed  this  Army  may  be  maintained,  and  that  a 

*  Confideration  may  be  had  of  them,  and  of  the 

*  carrying  on  Affairs  here,  as  may  give  a  fpeedy 

*  Iflue  to  this  Work,  to  which  there  feems  to  be  a 

*  marvellous  fair  Opportunity  offer'd  by  God.    And 

*  although  it  may  feem  very  chargeable  to  the  State 

*  of  England  to  maintain  fo  great  a  Force,  yet  fure- 

*  ly  to  ftretch  a  little  for  the  prefent,  in  following 

*  God's  Providence,  in  hope  the  Charge  will  not 

*  be  long,  I  truft  it  will  not  be  thought  by  any  (that 

*  have  not  irreconcilable  or  malicious  Principles) 
e  unfit  for  me  to  move  for  a  conftant  Supply,  which, 
4  in  human  Probability,  as  to  outward  Means,  is 
'  moft  likely  to  haften  and  perfe6l  this  Work ; 

*  and  indeed,  if  God  pleafe  to  finifh  it  here,  as  he 
'  hath  done  in  England,  the  War  is  like  to  pay  it- 
«  felf. 

'  We  keep  the  Field  much,  our  Tents  flickering 

*  us  from  the  Wet  and  Cold,  but  yet  the  Country 
«  Sicknefs  overtakes  many,  and  therefore  we  defire 

*  Recruits  and  fome  frefh  Regiments  of  Foot  may 

*  be  fent  us  j  for  it  is  eafily  conceived,  by  what 

« the 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        207 

*  the  Garrifons  already  drink  up,  what  our  Field  Inter- regmun. 
<  Army  will  come  to,    if  God  fhall  give  more        j649- 

'  Garrifons  into  our  Hands.     Craving  Pardon  for    <~Z2^~~J- 
«  this  great  Trouble,  I  reft 

Tour  mcft  bumble  Servant, 

O.   CROMWELL. 

<•  P.  S.  Since  writing  of  my  Letter,  a  Major, 
c  who  brought  off  43  Horfe  from  the  Enemy,  told 

*  me,  that  it  is  reported  in  their  Camp  that  Owen 
'  Roe  and  they  are  agreed. 

4  The  Defendants  in  Drcgbeda  confifled  of 
c  the  Lord  of  Ormond's  Regiment,  Sir  Edmund 
<•  Verney  Lieutenant-Colonel,  of  400 ;  Col.  Byrn's, 
«  Col.  Warren's*  and  Col.  Watt's,  of  2IOO;  the 

*  Lord  of  WeJlmeatVs*  of  200 ;  Sir  James  Dillon' 's, 

*  of  200 ;  and  200  Horfe.' 

Another  LETTER  front  the  LORD-LIEUTENANT 
of  Ireland. 

Mr.  Speaker,  Dublin,  Sept.  27,   1649, 

*  T  Had  not  received  any  Account  from  Col.  Ve- 

*  J_  nables  (whom  I  fent  from  Drogheda  to  endea- 
'  vour  the  reducing  of  Carlingford,  and  fo  to  march 

*  Northward  towards  a  Conjunction  with  Sir  Charles 

*  Coot)  untill  the  Jaft  Night.     After  he  came  to 
c  Carlingford,  having  fummoned  the  Place,  both 

*  the  three  Caftles  and  the  Fort  commanding  the 
'  Harbour,  were  rendered  to  him  ;  wherein  were 
c  about  40  Barrels  of  Powder,  feven  Pieces  of  Can- 
'  non,  about  loco  Mufkets,  and  500  Pikes  want- 

*  ing  2O.     In  the  Enterance  into  the  Harbour  Capt. 
'  Fern,  aboard  your  Man  of  War,  had  fome  Dan- 
«  ger,  being  much  fhot  at  from  the  Sea  Fort,  a  Bui- 
'  let  (hooting  through  his  Main  Maft.     The  Cap- 

*  tain's  Entrance  into  that  Harbour  was  a  confi- 
'  derable  Adventure,  and  a  good  Service  ;  as  alfo 

*  was  Capt.  Brandley's,  who,  with  40  Seamen, 

*  ftorm'd  a  very  ftrong  Tenalia  at  Drogheda,  and 
«  help'd  to  take  it ;  for  which  he  dcferves  an  Own- 


aoS     Tbe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  '  ing  by  you.  Venalhs  march'd  from  Carlintford 
«  with  a  Party  of  Horfe  and  Dragoons  to  the  Jtowry, 
'  leaving  the  Foot  to  comeup  after  him.  He  fum- 

*  moned  the  Place,  and  it  was  yielded  before  his 

*  Foot  came  up  to  him.     Some  other  Informations 

*  I  have  received  from  him,  which  promife  well 

*  towards  your  Northern  Intereft  ;  which,  if  well 

*  profecuted,  will,  I  truft  God,  render  you  a  good 

*  Account  of  thofe  Parts. 

'  I  have  fent  thofe  Things  to  be  prefentcd  to  the 
Council  of  State  for  their  Confideration.     I  pray 

*  God  as  thefe  Mercies  flow  in  upon  you,  he  will 
«  give  you  an  Heart  to  improve  them  to  his  Glory 

*  alone,  becaufe  he  alone  is  the  Author  of  them,  and 

*  of  all  the  Goodnefs,  Patience,  and  Long-fuffering 

*  extended  towards  you.     Your  Army  is  march'd, 

*  and  I  believe  this  Night  Jieth  at  Arttlo,  in  the 
«  County  of  Wicklo,  by  the  Sea  Side,  between  30 
«  and  40  Miles  from  this  Place.     I  am  this  Day, 

*  by  God's  Bleffing,  going  towards  it.     I  crave 

*  your  Pardon  for  this  Trouble,  and  reft 

Tour  moft  bumble  Servant , 

O.  CROMWELL. 

'  P.  S.  I  defire  the  Supplies  moved  for  may  be 

*  haften'd.     I  am  verily  perfuaded,   though  the 

*  Burden  be  great,  yet  it  is  for  your  Service.     If 

*  the  Garrifons  we  take  fwallow  up  your  Men, 

*  how  fhall  we  be  able  to  keep  the  Field  ?   Who 

*  knows  but  the  Lord  may  pity  England's  Suffer- 

*  ings,  and  make  a  fhort  Work  of  this  ?  It  is  in  his 

*  Hand  to  do  it,  and  therein  only  your  Servants 

*  rejoice. 

4  I  humbly  prefent  the  Condition  of  Capt.  George 
e  Jenkins's  Widow.  He  died  prefently  after  Tre- 
s  dagb  Storm.  His  Widow  is  in  great  Want. 

*  The  following  Officers  and  Soldiers  were  flain 
'  at  the  ftorming  of  Drogbeda  ;  Sir  Arthur  Afton^ 
'  Governor ;  Sir  Edmund  Vcrney^  Lieut.  Col.  to 
'  Ormond\  Regiment;  Col.  Fleming^  Lieut.  Col. 

*  Finglafs^  Major  Fitzgerald^  with  eight  Captains, 

>  '  Lieu- 


Of   ENGLAND.     209 

e  eight  Lieutenants,    and  eight  Cornets,   all   of  Inter-regnunu 
'  Horfe  ;  Colonels  Warren,  Wall,  and  Byrne,  of       l649- 
e  Foot,  with  their  Lieutenants,  Majors,  &c.  the    *~ ~~ v~" "^ 
'  Lord  r^^Ps  Brother,   an  4uguftine  Fryer;  44      °ftobcr' 
'  Captains,  and  all  their  Lieutenants,  Enftgns,  &c. 
e  220  Reformadoes  and  Troopers  ;    2500  Foot 
'  Soldiers,  befides  Staff-Officers,  Surgeons,  &c. 
*  and  many  Inhabitants.' 

Thus  far  the  Account  as  laid  before  the  Houfe 
by  Cromwell j  the  Parliament's  Lord-Lieutenant  of 
Ireland. 

The  Marquis  of  Ormond,  the  Regal  Lord -Lieu- 
tenant of  Ireland,  in  his  Letters  to  King  Charles 
the  Second  and  Lord  Byron  a,  in  relation  to  the 
Storming  ofDrcgbeda,  remarks, '  That  on  this  Oc- 
cafion  Cromwell  exceeded  himfelf,  and  any  Thing 
he  had  ever  heard  of,  in  Breach  of  Faith  and  bloody 
Inhumanity;  and  that  the  Cruelties  exercifed  there 
for  fiveDays  after  theTown  was  taken,  would  make 
as  many  feveral  Pidlures  of  Inhumanity  as  are  to  be 
found  in  the  Book  of  Martyrs,  or  in  the  Relation 
of  Amboyna?  General  Ludlow  writes  b',  '  That 
the  Slaughter  was  continued  all  the  Day  of  the 
Storming,  and  the  next ;  which  extraordinary  Se- 
verity was  ufed  to  difcourage  others  from  making 
Oppofition.'  And  it  is  obfervable  that  this  terrible 
Slaughter,  charged  uponCromwell is  fo  far  from  be- 
ing palliated  or  excufed  in  his  own  Letters,  that 
he  feems  to  look  upon  the  Irijh  as  a  Body  of  Ama- 
lekites,  deftin'd  to  Deftrudtion  by  Divine  Ven- 

f:ance,  and  himfelf  as  the  Executioner  only  of  the 
Imighty's  Refentment.     And  accordingly  a  Wri- 
ter of  his  Life  terms  this  extraordinary  Acl:  of  Cru- 
elty a  Sacrifice  of  3000  Irijh  to  the  Ghofts  of 
.    VOL.  XIX.  O  10,000 

a  Carte's  Life  of  Jama  Duke  of  Ormond,  Vol.  II.  p.  84.  See 
alfo  Lord  Clarendon's  Vindication  of  the  Marquis's  Conduft,  p.  130^ 
and  349  ;  his  Hiftory  of  the  Rebellion,  Vol.  V.  8vo.  p.  341  j  and 
Hugh  Peteris  Letter  in  Wbitlockfs  Memorials,  p.  411, 

b  Memoirs,  Vol.  I,  p,  303,    • 


210     *fbe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  io,ooo  Eng/rjb,  whom  they  had  maffacred  fome 

1649.        Years  before0. 

*— • -V-— ^  How  agreeable  the  Conduct  of  General  Crom- 
'  cr*  well  in  this  Affair  was  to  his  Matters,  appears 
by  the  Refolutions  of  the  Houfe  after  reading  the 
regoing  Letters.  For  they  appointed  a  Thankf- 
that  Occaiion.  giving-Day  to  be  held  on  the  hut  of  November 
enfuing,  throughout  the  whole  Kingdom.  They 
likewife  ordered  that  a  Declaration  Ihould  be  pre- 
pared and  fent  into  the  feveral  Counties,  fignifying 
the  Grounds  for  fetting  a-part  that  Day  of  public 
Thankfgiving.  A  Letter  of  Thanks  was  alfo  vo- 
ted to  be  fent  to  the  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland^ 
and  to  be  communicated  to  the  Officers  there  ;  in 
which  Notice  was  to  be  taken,  That  the  Houfe 
did  approve  of  the  Execution  done  at  Drogheda^  as 
an  A61  both  of  Juftice  to  them,  and  Mercy  to  others 
who  may  be  warned  by  it. 

On  the  nth  of  this  Month  the  Declaration  be- 
fore-mentioned was  brought  into  the  Houfe  by 
Sir  IVilliam  Majbamy  read,  and  agreed  to,  as  fol- 
lows: 

And  n  Dechra-e  rTT^HE  great  and  wonderful  Providences  where- 
ib^  therof? "" '     A     in  the  Lord.  hath  eminently  gone  forth  in 

*  Mercy  towards  this  Nation  have  been  fuch,  that 
'  however  many  do  fhut  their  Eyes,  or  murmur 
'  againft  them,  or  at,leaft  refufe  to  join  in  public 
.'  Acknowledgments  and  Thankfgiving  to  Almigh- 

*  ty  God  for  the  fame  ;  neverthelefs  the  Lord  hath 

*  been  pleafed  to  publifh  to  all  the  World,  That  it 

*  is  the  Work  of  his  own  Hand  :  Nor  hath  his  in- 
'  finite  Goodnefs  and  Favour  been  reftrained  to 
'  England  only,  but  extended  into  Ireland,  which 

*  he  hath  been  pleafed  to  remember  in  its  low 

«  Eftate 

c  The  Hiftry  of  tit  Life  and  Deatl  o£  bit  Mofl  Serene  Higbnef,, 
Oliver  Lord  frotifior  ;  ti'bcreiT!,  from  his  Cradle  to  kis  Tomb,  are 
impartially  tianfmitied  to  Poftcnty,  ibe  mofl  weighty  Tranfafiions, 
foreign  and  dsmejlick,  that  haiie  happened  in  bis  Time,  either  in 
Matters  of  Ltnv,  Proceedings  in  Parliament,  or  other  Affairs  in 
Church  or  State.  By  S.  Carrington.  Printed  for  Natb,  Brook, 
ia  Cornbili,  1659. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       211 

*  Eftate  j  and  when  his  People  there  were  as  dry  Inter-regnuuu 

*  Bones,  he  hath  not  only  revived  them  in  a  Way        l649- 

*  almoft  as  miraculous  as  a  Refurrection  from  the    ^^T"^' 
'  Dead,  but  been  pleafed  to  raife  both  them  and  us 

4  to  a  high  Pitch  of  Hope  that  the  Lord  will  go 
4  on  to  perfect  his  Work  in  that  Land,  and  make 
'  it  likewife,  at  laft,  a  quiet  Habitation  for  his 

*  People,  and  eftablifh  the  Power  and  Purity  of  the 

*  Gofpel  there.     The  Confideration  whereof,  and 
4  of  the  Goodnefs  and  Power  of  God  in  the  late 

*  wonderful  Victory  which  he  hath  been  pleafed  to 

*  give  unto  the  Parliament's  Forces  there  before 

*  Dublin,  never  to  be  forgotten ;  and  the  further 

*  Progrefs  God  hath  made  in  giving  Drogbeda^  a 

*  Place  of  great  Strength  and  Confequence,  de- 

*  fended  by  a  confiderable  Number  of  their  prime 

*  Officers  and  Soldiers,  the  Particulars  whereof  are 
'  exprefled  in  the  Lord-Lieutenant's  and  other  Let- 

*  ters  lately  printed  ;  and  fmce  that,  by  finking  a 
'  Terror  into  the  Hearts  of  the  Enemy,  fo  as  they 

*  have  yielded  up  or  deferted  many  other  confider- 

*  able  Caftles .  and  Garrifons,  as  Tryni,  Dundalk^ 
6  CarUngford^  the  Newry,  and  other  Places,  and 

*  fome  other  additional  Victories  which  God  hath 
c  caft  in  fince,  cannot  but  make  a  deep  Impreffion 

*  on  the  Hearts  of  all  that  fear  the  Lord,  and  pro- 

*  voke  them  to  exceeding  Thankfulnefs  and  Re- 

*  joicing. 

'  Upon  Confideration  of  all  which  the  Parlia- 

*  ment,  out  of  their  deep  Senfe  of  fo  great  conti- 
4  nued  Mercies,  have  thought  fit,  as  in  Duty  to 
4  God,  to  fet  a-part  a  Day  for  public  and  folemn 

*  Thankfgiving  to  the  Lord,  the  Author  of  thefe 

*  Mercies  :  And  they  do  therefore  enact  and  or- 

*  dain,  &c.' 

The  Houfe  ordered  12,000  Copies  of  this  De- 
claration to  be  forthwith  printed,  and  fent  to  the 
feveral  Sheriffs,  to  be  by  them  difperfed  to  the  Mi- 
nifters  of  every  Parifh  in  their  refpective  Counties, 
Who  were  requir'd  to  read  it  to  their  Congregations. 
02  The 


212      'The  Parliamentary 

inter-regnum.       The  fame  Day  that  the  foregoing  Declaration 
1649.         Was  agreed  to,  a  Refolution  was  alfo  pafs'd,That 

*— -*/~— '    every  Member  who  then  did,  or  fhould  hereafter, 
fit  in  that  Houfe,  fhould  fubfcribe  his  Name  to  the 
The  Parliament  following  Engagement,  viz. 

refolve  that  an  /  do  declare  and  promifey  that  I  will  be  true  and 
^fSTcTthe0  fButyfl  to  the  Commonwealth  of  England,  as  the 
Commonwealth  fame  's  mw  ejlablijhed  without  a  King  or  Houfe  of 
Government,  be  Lords.  And  that  thefe  Subfcriptions  fhould  begin 
fubv.rrib/^by  allthe  next  Morning : 

public  Officers. 

Accordingly,  the  next  Day,  Off.  12.  the  Speaker 
firft,  and  afterwards  divers  Members  of  the  Houfe, 
did  fubfcribe  this  Engagement. 

Ordered  alfo  that  the  General,  and  all  the  Offi- 
cers and  Soldiers  of  the  Army  fhould  do  the  fame  : 
That  the  Judges  of  the  feveral  Courts  at  Weftmin- 
jler^  all  the  Serjeants  at  Law,  Counfellors,  Offi- 
cers, Minifters,  and  Clerks,  and  all  Attornies  and 
Solicitors,  fhould  fubfcribe  this  Engagement.  The 
fame  Orders  were  fent  into  Ireland ;  to  the  Lord 
Mayor  of  London  ;  to  the  Generals,  and  Admirals 
of  the  Fleets  at  Sea ;  to  the  Judges  of  the  Courts 
of  Admiralty  and  the  Civil  Law  ;  to  the  Readers, 
Benchers,  &c.  of  the  feveral  Inns  of  Court  and 
Chancery  :  In  fhort,  to  all  and  fingular  Perfons 
that  bore  any  Office,  Civil,  Religious,  or  Military, 
and  thofe  under  them,  throughout  all  England^ 
JVales^  and  all  the  Englijh  Dominions ;  who  were 
to  fubfcribe  this  Engagement,  or  elfe  be  rendered 
incapable  of  holding  any  fuch  Office  or  Employ- 
ment, public  or  private,  for  ever  after  y ' . 

The  Houfe  alfo  ordered  the  Style,  heretofore 
ufed  in  the  Orders  and  Acts  of  the  Houfe,  viz. 
By  the  Commons  in  Parliament  ajfembled,  to  be  al- 
tered and  no  more  ufed,  but,  inftead  thereof,  thefe 
Words,  viz.  By  the  Parliament.  As  the  firft  In- 

ftance 

Y  See  the  Ccmntcm  Journals  and  Seekers  Ads  for  the  whole  De- 
tail of  thofe  Perfons  who  were  to  be  Subfcribers  to  this  Engage- 
ment. It  was  afterwards  made  Part  of  the  Oath  to  be  taken  by 
the  Judges,  Sheriffs,  and  all  other  public  Officers  in  the  Nation. 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      213 

ftance  of  which  it  was,  at  the  fame  Time,  orderedj  Inter-regnum. 
That  the  Title  to  the  Engagement  be  changed*        l649- 

and  made  Refolded  by  the  Parliament^  &c.  '^ TX"^"' 

J  Oaober. 

The  principal  Employment  of  the  Houfe,  for  A  Review  of 
many  Months  enfuing,  was  little  elfe  than  reading  fome  other Tefts, 
Letters  of  the  great  Succefs  of  the  Parliament's  before  required  to 

-r-,  •       T     t      j         T  A  i    •         be  taken  by  their 

rorces  in  Ireland^  railing  an  Army  to  march  mtoown  Members. 
Scotland  upon  that  Nation's  declaring  for  King 
Charles  II.  and  laying  Taxes  for  the  Support  of 
thefe  expenfive  Expeditions.  Before  we  enter  into 
this  Military  Scene,  it  may  be  neceffary  to  take 
a  Review  of  the  Houfe,  in  order  to  account  for 
their  extraordinary  Unanimity  in  every  Queftion 
hitherto  that  regarded  the  Eftablifhment  of  their 
new  Commonwealth,  and  their  no  lefs  remarkable 
Concurrence  with  the  Council  of  State.  The 
Reader  cannot  but  remember  the  Garbling  of 
the  Houfe  by  the  Army  in  the  Beginning  of  De- 
cember^ 1648  :  That  on  the  firft  of  February  fol- 
lowing, thofe  Members  who  were  permitted  to 
keep  their  Seats,  pafs'd  aRefolution,  That  all  fuch 
who  had  concurred  in  the  Vote  of  Dec.  5,  '  That 
'  the  King's  Conceffions  were  a  Ground  of  Peace,* 
be  difabled  from  fitting  for  the  future  ;  and  that 
thofe  who  were  abfent  at  the  Time  of  pafling  that 
Vote,  fhould  enter  their  Diflent  thereto,  previous 
to  their  Admifiion  into  the  Houfe. 

Thefe  Refolutions  had  fo  greatly  reduced  the 
Number  of  acting  Members,  that  there  are  many 
more  Inftances  of  Divifions  in  which  the  whole 
Number  prefent  fell  fhort  of  fifty  than  exceeded  it; 
and  of  thefe  molt  of  them  were  Members  of  the 
Council  of  State  as  well  as  of  the  Parliament :  Not- 
withftanding  all  which,  they  were  fo  apprehenfive  of 
the  many  Attempts  to  fubvert  their  ill-gotten  Power, 
that  on  the  5th  of  March  they  appointed  a  Com- 
mittee, confifting  of  Mr.  Lijle,  Mr.  Scot,  Mr.  Hoi- 
land^  Mr.  Luke  Robinfon,  and  Col.  Ludlow^  to  dive  • 
into  each  particular  Member's  Sentiments ;  which 
Unparliamentary  and  Unconstitutional  Meafure 
O  3  cannot 


214     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

liter-regnum.  cannot  be  better  defcrib'd  than  in  the  laft-named 
Gentleman's  own  Words  °  : 

*  The  Parliament  being  defirous  to  exclude  from 
their  Places  thofe  who  were  likely  to  undo  what 
they  had  done  ;  and  yet,  unwilling  to  lofe  the  Af- 
fiftance  of  many  honeft  Men,  who  had  been  in 
the  Country  during  the  late  Traniactions,  pafs'd  an 
Order,  That  fuch  Members  as  had  not  fat  fince 
the  Trial  of  the  King,  fhould  not  be  admitted  to 
fit,  till  the  Houfe  fhould  be  particularly  fatisfied 
concerning  them  ;  appointing  the  above-mention'd 
£ve,  or  any  three  of  them,  to  be  a  Committee,  to 
receive  Satisfaction  touching  the  Affections  of  every 
Member  to  the  Public  Intereft,  who  had  not  fat 
fince  the  Time  aforefaid,  and  the  Reafon  of  his  Ab- 
fence ;  and  to  make  their  Report  to  the  Parliament 
concerning  them.' 

Our  Memorialift  proceeds  to  obferve,  «  That 
the  new  Commonwealth  beginning  to  acquire  Re- 
putation, and  to  carry  a  fair  Probability  of  Suc- 
cefs,  divers  Members  who  had  been  long  abfent, 
addrefs'd  themfelves  to  the  Committee  before- 
mentioned,  in  order  to  their  Admiflion  to  fit  in 
Parliament,  and  fome  of  them  would  not  fcruple 
to  give  any  Satisfaction  that  was  defired  to  the 
Queftions  propofed  unto  them ;  which  were,  Whe- 
ther they  join'd  in  or  approved  that  Vote,  declaring 
the  King's  Conceflions  a  Ground  for  a  future  Set- 
tlement? Whether  they  approved  of  the  Proceed- 
ings againft  the  King  ?  And  whether  they  would 
engage  to  be  true  to  a  Commonwealth  Govern- 
ment ?  But  we,  fays  he,  apprehending  fuch  extra- 
ordinary Expulfions  as  had  been  lately  ufed,  to  be 
extremely  hazardous  to  the  Public  Safety,  made  it 
our  Endeavour  to  keep  thofe  from  a  Re-admiflion, 
who  might  neceflitate  another  Occafion  of  ufmg 
the  like  Remedy :  And  therefore,  though  all  pof- 
fible  Satisfaction  was  given  in  Words,  we  did,  by 
weighing  the  former  Deportment  of  every  parti- 
cular Member  who  prcfented  himfelf,  defire  to  be 

in 

o  Memoirs,  Vol.  I.  p.  288, 


Richard  Aldworth,  Efq; 
Robert  Andrews,  Efq; 
Henry  Arthington,  Efq; 


Abraham  Barrel!,  Efq; 
Nathaniel  Bacon,  Efqj 
Francis  Bacon,  Efq; 
John  Barker,  Efq; 
Col.  Thomas  Birch, 
Peter  Brooke,  Efq; 
Sir  Thomas  Barnardtfton, 
Sir  Nath.  Barnardijion, 
Mr.  Crompton  % 
William  Carew,  Efq; 
Thomas  Cholmley,  Efqj 
Henry  Darley,  Efq; 
John  Dormer,  Efq; 
William  Ellis,  Efq; 
Richard  Edwards,  Efq;  ° 
Thomas  Lord  Fairfax, 
Charles  Fleetwood,  Efq; 
Thomas  Fell,  Efq; 


Brijlol. 

Weobley. 

PontefracJ. 

Newton,  Hants. 

Huntingdon. 

Cambridge  Univerfity, 

Ipfwich. 

Coventry. 

Leverpool. 

Newton,  Lancajhire. 

St.  Edmund's  Bury. 

Suffolk. 

Milborne-Port. 

Carlijle.     ? 

Malton. 

Buckingham* 

Bojlon. 

Bedford. 

Cirencefter. 

Marlbor  ought 

Lancajhr.  p 


m  P.  48  z  and  549. 

n  We  have  not  been  able  to  find  out  what  Place  this  Gentleman 
ferv'd  for. 

o  At  p.  *  14,  in  our  Ninth  Volume,  this  Gentleman  is  faid  t9 
have  bien  elaftcd  In  AT«v,  1650  j  but  it  fliould  be  1648, 


1649. 


Ofober. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       215 

in  fome  Meafure  aflured,  that  they  would  be  true  Inter-regmim. 
to  what  they  promifed,  (in  cafe  the  Commonwealth 
Intereft  ihould  come  to   be  difputed)   before  we 
would  report  their  Condition  to  the  Houfe.' 

The  Names  of  the  Members  who  fubmitted  to 
be  examined  by  this  Committee,  and  were  accord- 
ingly re-admitted  into  the  Houfe,  together  with 
fuch  as  were  ele&ed  fince  the  Death  of  the  King, 
are  entered  in  the  "Journals  on  their  refpe&ive  Days 
of  Admiflion  ;  and  from  thefe  Authorities  we  have 
extracted  the  following  Lilt  of  them ;  which,  added 
to  thole  who  entered  their  DilTent  to  the  Vote  for 
Peace,  already  given  in  our  Eighteenth  Volume  m, 
will  point  out  who  were  the  principal  Actors  at  this 
important  Crifis. 


216    The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 


Inter-rcgnum.  Col.  George  Fenwick, 


October. 


Brampton  Gurdon,  Efq; 
Thomas  Hoyle,  Efq; 
Thomas  HuJ/ey,  Efq; 
Thomas  Hodges,  Efq; 
Sir  Henry  Hayman,  Bart. 
EdwardLor&Howard  1 
of  EJkrick,  5 

Philip  Lord  Herbert, 
*John  Lenthall,  Efqj 
John  Lowry,  Efq; 
JLiJlebone  Long,  Efq; 
Sir  Richard  Lucy,  Bart. 
Chrijiopher  Martin,  Efq; 
Moyle,  fen.  Efq; 
Afaw'/fc,  Efq; 
Neville,  Efq; 

North,  Knt. 
PZ»/7;/>  Earl  of  Pembroke, 
Francis  Pierpoint,  Efq; 
Thomas  Pury,  Efq; 
Geruafe  Piggot,  Efq; 
Carew  Raleigh,  Efq; 
Nathaniel  &V&,'Efq; 
Col.  /r<?»«V  J2^7, 
WilliamEzrl  of  Salifbury, 


George  Snelling,  Efq; 
Augujline  Skinner,  Efq; 
William  Sydenham,  Efq; 
Thomas  Stockdale,  Efq; 
Sir  P*/<?r  Temple,  Bart. 
Sir  y^«  Trevor,  Knt. 
Edmund  Wejl,  Efq; 


Morpeth. 

Sudbury. 

York. 

Whitchurcb. 

Cricklade. 

Hytbc. 

Carlijle. 

Glamorgan. 

Gloucejler. 

Cambridge. 

Wells. 

Old  Sarum. 

Plympton. 

Eajilow. 

Retford. 

Abingdan. 

Eye. 

Berk/hire. 

Nottingham. 

Gloucejler. 

Nottinghamjhire. 

Hafelmere. 

Cirencejler. 

Cambridgeshire* 

Lynne, 

Heydan. 

Southward. 

Kent. 

Melcombe- Regis; 

Knarejbrough. 

Buckingham. 

Grampound. 

Buckinghamjhire. 


Lord  Clarendon  t  imputes  the  Return  of  many  of 
thefe  Gentlemen  to  their  Seats  to  a  Defire  of  not 
being  idle  when  fo  much  Bufinefs  was  to  be  done. 
But  adds,  That  others  forbore,  either  out  of  Con- 
fciencc  or  Indignation,  coming  to  the  Houfe  any 
more  for  many  Years ;  and  fome  of  them  not  be- 
fore 
y  JJiJioij,  Vol.  V,  p,  23-jt 


Of    E  N  G  L  AN  D.      217 

fore  the  Meeting  of  the  Convention-Parliament  lnter-regn<nn. 
which  reftor'd  the  King.  «J!^Lj 

There  is  nothing  elfe  remarkable  in  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  this  Month,  only,  at  the  latter  End  of  it, 
an  Account  came  from  Ireland  of  the  taking  of 
Wexford  by  the  Parliament's  Forces.  The  Letters 
from  Lieutenant- General  Cromwell  on  this  Oteih 
fion  are  mentioned  in  the  Journals^  but  not  enter'd 
there,  nor  have  we  any  Copy  of  them  in  our  Col- 
lefiions  ;  we  muft  therefore  content  ourfelves  with 
fuch  Accounts  as  Hiftory  affords  us. 

Mr.  Ludloiv  writes  s,  '  That  the  Guard  ap- 
pointed to  defend  the  Caftle  of  Wexford  quitted 
their  Poft  while  a  Treaty  was  in  Hand  about  a 
Surrender,  whereupon  fome  of  the  Parliament's 
Forces  entered  it,  and  fet  up  their  Colours  at  the 
Top  of  it  i  which  the  Enemy  having  obferv'd,  left 
their  Stations  in  all  Parts,  fo  that  the  Befiegers 
Foot  pofTefs'd  themfelves  of  the  Town  without 
Opposition,  and  opened  the  Gates  for  the  Horfe  to 
enter.'  He  adds,  *  That  great  Riches  were  taken 
in  this  Town,  it  being  accounted  by  the  Enemy 
a  Place  of  Strength  ;  and  fome  Ships  were  feized 
in  the  Harbour,  which  had  much  interrupted  the 
Commerce  of  that  Coaft :  That  Commiffioners 
were  appointed  by  the  Lieutenant-General  to  take 
Care  of  the  Goods  that  were  found  in  the  Town 
belonging  to  the  Rebels,  that  they  might  be  im- 
proved to  the  beft  Advantage  of  the  Public.' 

A  modern  Hiftorian  h,  who  is  very  particular  in 
his  Account  of  the  taking  of  Wexford^  informs  us 
that  the  Place  was  betray'd ;  and  imputes  Crom- 
weirs  Succefs  as  much  to  the  good  Intelligence  he 
kept  in  thofe  Parts,  as  to  his  Arms. 

The  Parliament  ordered  their  Lord  -Lieutenant's 
Account  of  this  Action  to  be  publifhed  by  the 
Clergy  in  their  refpedlive  Cpngregations,  on  the 
Day  appointed  for  a  Thankfgiving  to  God  for  their 
late  Succefs  at  Drogheda. 

No- 

g  Memoirs,  Vol.  I.  p.  303. 

b  Carte'*  Life  of  James  Duke  of  Ormond,  Vol.  II.  p.  90, 


2 1 8     The  Parliamentary  Hi s TOR  v 

November.  The  firft  of  this  Month  was  obferved 
as  a  general  Day  of  Thankfgiving  throughout  the 
wholeKingdom,  for  the  foregoing  Victory  atDrog- 
beda  and  others  ob  ained  fince  in  Ireland.  Two 
Sermons  were  preached  before  the  Houfe  at  Mar- 
garet's IVeftminjler,  as  it  was  then  call'd ;  and  the 
Preachers,  Mr.  Marjhall  and  Mr.  Sterry^  had 
Thanks  next  Day  returned  them  lor  their  great 
Pains  taken  therein.  » 

Nov.  6.  Mr.  Trenchard  reported,  from  the  Com- 
miflioners  for  compounding  with  Delinquents,  an 
Eftimate  of  what  might  arife  out  of  that  Branch 
of  the  Parliament's  Revenue,  towards  a  certain 
Payment  of  their  Army,  in  order  to  an  Abatement 
of  the  prefent  AflefTment  of  90,000  /.  per  Menfem\ 
whereby  it  appeared  that 
There  was  due  upon  Bonds  from  7 

Delinquents  [213,325    9    4 

And  upon  Fines  whereof  no  Part  7      , 

was  yet  paid  {156,447    o   o 

369,772    9    4 

The  Monthly    But  that  the  Payment  of  thefe  was  not  to  be  de- 
*ffef*nt/or    pended  upon  with  any  Certainty.     Hereupon  the 

the  Army  far-     rt      r        J-  i       i     T>,      '  «       »  /-r  rr  r 

ther  continued.  Houfe  refolved,  That  the  Aftenment  of  90,000  /. 
per  Menfem  be  farther  continued  to  Lady-Day,  and 
an  AflefTment  of  60,000  /.  from  that  Time  to 
Midsummer  enfuing,  for  the  Maintenance  of  the 
Army. 

The  Continuance  of  this  exceffive  Burden  upon 
the  Public,  muft  convince  them  how  wretched  a 
Change  they  had  made  from  Monarchy  to  a  Com- 
monwealth. But  the  Cafe  of  the  unhappy  Royalifts 
will  appear  ftill  harder  by  the  above  Calculation  of 
the  great  Sums  they  then  ow'd,  befides  what  they 
had  already  paid,  for  their  feveral  Compofitions. 

In  the  Courfe  of  thefe  Parliamentary  Inquiries 
there  is  little  or  no  Notice  taken  of  what  was  now 
become  of  the  banifhed  Branches  of  the  Royal  Fa- 
mily j  but  they  are  not  fo  neglected  in  the  Hiftories 

of 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.     219 

of  thefe  Times,  particularly  in  Lord  Clarendon ;  Inter-regnunu 
who,  as  he  was  a  Fellow-Traveller  with  them,        l649- 
and  a  Sharer  in  their  evil  Fortune  at  that  Time,    <^T~*f~r~* 
is  very  copious  and  exact  in  his  Hiftory  of  it.  The 
Lord-Commiffioner  Ifhitlocke  alfo  is  not  wanting 
in  tracing  the  unfortunate  Prince,  whom  he  calls 
Prince  Charles,  from  Place  to  Place;  and  as  this 
Memorialift,  befides  his  great  Office  in  Chancery, 
was  alfo  a  Member  of  Parliament,  and  one  of  the 
Council  of  State,  no  doubt  he  had  the  beft  Intelli- 

fence  from  abroad  about  him  j  efpecially  fmce  we 
nd  the  new  Government  here  kept  a  watchful 
and  jealous  Eye  over  all  the  young  King's  Actions ;  •    . 

for  this  Memorialift  tells  us,  '  That  they  had  good 
Intelligence  of  all  the  Tranfactions  of  the  Prince 
and  his  Council,  which  they  procured  by  Money, 
of  which  fome  of  the  Prince's  own  Servants  were 
fo  needy  that  they  would  betray  their  Mafter  for  it.' 

And  accordingly  we  find  that,  about  this  Time,  King  Claries  H« 
the  Parliament  received  Advice,   '  That  Charles  lands  in  thelfle 
Stuart,  eldeft  Son  of  the  late  King  had  left  S/.of  J^V' 
Germains,  and  was  arrived  in  the  Ifland  of  Jerfey, 
with  a  Retinue  of  about  300  Perfons,  where  he 
had  been  proclaimed  King ;  and  that,  upon  an 
Invitation  from  the  Marquis  of  Ormond,  he  in- 
tended fpeedily  to  embark  for  Dublin' 
His  Majefty  continued  in  Jerfey  fome  Months  ; 
but  being  inform'd  of  Cromwell's  great  Succefles  in 
Ireland,  gave  over  all  Thoughts  of  going  thither, 
and  removed  to  Breda ;  where  Commiflioners  from 
the  States  of  Scotland  having  attended  on  him  with 
fome  Propofitions  for  his  Reftoration,  he  refolved 
to  embark  for  that  Kingdom.     During  his  Stay  in  And 
the  Ifland  of  Jerfey,  he  iflued  the  following  De-F*.60^ 
claration  ;  which,  as  the  Prefs  was  at  this  Time  crown8, 
under  fo  heavy  an  Embargo  in  England  by  the  late 
Licenfing  Act,  we  may  well  prefume  could  not  be 
printed  in  this  Kingdom  ;  and  that  probably  was 
the  Reafon  of  its  being  done  at  the  Hague  p. 

nit 

p  Printed  by  Samuel  Broun,  Englijh  Bookfeller,  dwelling  in  tfce 
"X  at  the  Sign  of  the  Englijh  Piiating-hcufc. 


220      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Juter-regnum.    His  MAJESTY'S  DECLARATION  to  all  his  loving 
1649.  Subjects  in  his  Kingdom  ^England  and  Dominion 

*—  -v—  -  '         of  Wales,  publifljed  with  the  Advice  of  his  Privv 
November. 


CHARLES,  the  Second  of  that  Name,  by  the 
Grace  of  God,  King  of  England,  Scotland, 
France,  and  Ireland,  Defender  of  the  Faith,  &c. 
To  all  Perfons  within  our  Kingdom  of  England 
and  Dominion  of  Wales,  to  whom  thefe  Pre- 
fents  fhall  come,  greeting. 

cannot  ,  without  unfpeakable  Grief  and  Sor- 
row,  call  to  Mind,  nor,  without  Horror,  ex- 
prefs,  how  that  our  Dear  and  Royal  Father,  King 
Charles,  of  ever  blejfed  Memory,  hath  been  moft  bar- 
laroujly  and  moft  cruelly  murdered  by  the  Hands  of 
bloody  Traitors  and  Rebels,  within  our  Kingdom  of 
England,  with  Proceedings  and  Circum/lances  Jo 
prodigious,  that  the  Particulars  induce  rather 
Amazement  than  Exprejjion:  And  although  we  have 
hitherto  feemed  filent  in  a  Matter  fo  highly  concern- 
ing us,  as  not  publickly  to  exprefs  to  the  People  of 
England  our  Grief  of  Heart  and  high  Detejlation 
of  that  heinous  Fatt  ;  yet  being  now  fafely  arrived 
in  a  ftnall  Part  of  our  own  Dominions,  at  the  IJland 
of  Jerfey,  we  have  thought  fit  rather  from  hence, 
where  our  Kingly  Authority  takes  Place,  than  from 
any  foreign  Country,  where  we  have  been  hitherto 
•necejjitated  to  rejide,  publickly  to  declare,  That,  out 
of  a  bitter  Senfe  and  Indignation  of  thofe  horrid 
Proceedings  again/I  our  dear  Father,  we  are,  ac- 
cording to  the  Laws  of  Nature  and  Juftice,  firmly 
refolved,  by  the  AJJiftance  of  Almighty  God,  though 
we  perijh  alone  in  the  Enterprise,  to  be  a  fevere 
jfvenger  of  his  innocent  Blood,  which  was  fo  barba- 
rouJJy  fpilt,  and  which  calls  fo  loud  to  Heaven  for 
Vengeance.  And  we  Jhall  therein,  by  all  Ways  and 
Means  pojjible,  endeavour  to  purfue  and  bring  to 
their  due  Punijhment  thoje  bloody  Traitors,  who  were 
either  Affors  or  Contrivers  of  that  unparaleird  and 
inhuman  Murder 

And 


Of   ENGLAND.        221 

And  Jince  it  bath  phafed  God  fo  to  difpofe,  as  by  inter-regnum. 
fuch  an  untimely  Martyrdom  to  deprive  us  of  fo  good  1649- 
a  Father,  and  England  of  fo  gracious  a  King?  we  ^-  ~v™"  •& 
do  further  declare,  That,  by  his  Death,  the  Crown  *overaber« 
of  England,  with  all  Privileges,  Rights,  and  Pre- 
heminences  belonging  thereunto,  is,  by  a  clear  and 
undoubted  Right  of  SucceJ/ion,  juftly  and  lineally  de- 
fcended  upon  us,  as  next  and  immediate  Heir  and 
Succejfor  thereunto,  without  any  Condition  or  Limi- 
tation ;  -without  any  IntermiJJion  or  Claim ;  without 
any  Ceremony  or  Solemnity  whatsoever :  And  thaty 
by  virtue  thereof,  we  are  now  in  Right  laiufully 
feized  of  the  faid  Crown,  and  ought,  by  the  Laws  of 
God,  and  that  Nation,  to  enjoy  a  Royal  Power  there > 
as  vjell  in  Church  as  Commonwealth  ;  to  govern  the 
People  of  that  Kingdom  according  to  the  antient  and 
known  Laws ;  to  maintain  them  in  Peace  andjitftice$ 
and  to  proteff  and  defend  them  from  the  Opprejjion. 
of  any  ufurped  Power  whatfoever.  And  the  People 
of  that  Nation,  by  the  like  Laws,  owe  unto  us,  and 
ought  reciprocally  to  pay,  Duty  and  Obedience,  a? 
unto  their  Liege  Lord  and  Sovereign.  This  Royal 
Right  of  ours  is  grounded  upon  fo  clear  a  Title,  is 
jettled  by  fuch  fundamental  Laws,  confirmed  by  fo 
many  Oaths  of  Allegiance  in  all  Ages,  is  fupported 
by  fuch  a  long-continued  SucceJJion  in  our  Royal  Pro- 
genitors, and  by  fuch  a  conjiant  SubmiJJion  of  all  the 
People,  that  the  fame  can  admit  of  no  Difpute  :  No 
Aft  of  our  PredcccJJbrs  can  debar  us  of  it;  no  Power 
on  Earth  can  juftly  take  it  from  us  j  and,  by  the  un- 
doubted Laws  of  that  Nation,  to  oppofe  us,  either 
in  the  Claim  or  Exercife  thereof,  is  a  Treafon  of  the 
bigbeft  Degree. 

And  although  the  bloody  Contrivers  of  our  Father's 
Murder,  out  of  a  pernicious  Hatred  to  all  Monar- 
chies, have  by  Force,  as  much  as  in  them  lies,  dijin- 
herited  us  of  our  Princely  Right  thereunto  ;  banijb'd 
and  profcrtb'd  us ;  feized  all  our  Revenues ;  prohi- 
bited all  Intercourse  and  Supplies  to  be  fent  to  us ; 
and  have,  by  Violence,  impofed  upon  the  People  of 
England  a  new  Yoke  of  popular  Tyranny,  to  the  ut~ 
ter  Subvcrjion  not  only  ofourjujl  Rights,  but  of  their 

Lazus 


222     %/je  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Laws  and  Liberties ;  yet  zve  do  profefs  that  we  can- 
1 649-         not  pcrfuade  ourf elf  that  the  Body  of  the  Engl  ifh  Na- 

in"'~v'"""'"'  tion  hath  jo  far  degenerated  from  their  antient  Loy- 
'  alty  and  Virtue,  as  to  confcnt  to  thefe  horrid  Pro- 
ceedings againji  us,  or  to  approve  the  cajiing  off  that 
Kingly  Government  under  which  they  and  their  Fore- 
fathers have  happily  fiourifoed  fo  many  Ages  pa/I,  to 
the  Envy  of  all  their  Neighbour  Nations.  Jrlow  can 
that  once  happy  Nation  of  England  dejpair  of  blejfed 
Days  under  a  Royal  Scepter,  and  vainly  hope  for 
them  under  the  Iron  Rod  of  an  infolent  Multitude  ? 
No,  we  cannot  look  upon  thefe  fad  and  dijmal  Changes 
as  the  Defires  or  Intentions  of  the  better  Part  of  our 
Subjefts  of  that  Kingdom  ;  but  rather  as  the  Dc/igns 
and  Contrivances  of  thofe  wicked  Murderers  of  our 
Father;  whofe  Ambition  is  endlefs;  whofe  Avarice 
is  unfatiable  j  and  whofe  Guilt  hath  made  them  de- 
fperate  :  And  therefore,  out  of  a  Confidence  we  have 
of  the  Loyalty  and  good  Affections  of  many  of  our 
Subjects  of  that  Nation,  and  as  well  for  their  En- 
couragement, who  Jiill  perfift  in  their  natural  Alle- 
giance and  Obedience  to  us,  as  for  the  Security  of 
fuch  as  Jhall  yet  return  to  their  Duties  and  Loyal- 
ties, we  have  thought  fit  hereby  further  to  declare. 

That  we  are  gracioujly  p  leafed  to  receive  all  Per- 
fens  of  our  Kingdom  of  England  and  Dominion  of 
Wales,  other  than  fuch  who  voted  or  ailed  in  that 
bloody  Murder  of  our  dear  Father,  into  our  Royal 
Grace,  Mercy,  and  Protection ;  owning  and  efteetning 
them  all  as  our  good  and  loving  SubjecJs,  whom,  upon 
Accefs  to  cur  Kingly  Authority,  we  Jhall  hold  ourfelf 
bound,  according  tc  the  Law  ofGcd,  the  known  Laiv* 
of  that  Nation,  and  the  Duty  of  cur  Kingly  Office^ 
to  protefl,  maintain,  and preferve  in  J'lrcalth,  Peace 9 
and  Happinefs.  And  for  a  clear  Evidence  of  our 
good  Intentions  towards  them,  lue  Jhall  be  contented 
freely  to  pardon,  or  ctherwife  by  Aft  to  declare  or 
hold  indemnified,  allPerfons  within  our  faid  Kingdom 
of  England  and  Dominion  of  Wales,  except  as  be- 
fore excepted,  for  any  Matters  whatsoever  relating 
to.  the  late  unhappy  Wars  and  Diftraftions.  And 
we  Jhall t  according  to  the  Example  of  our  dear  Fa- 
ther 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.     223 

ther,  be  ready,  upon  tin  EJiabliJhment  of  our  Royal .  inter-regnmn. 
Throne,    to  make  fuch  further  Concejffions,  for  the        l649- 
Satisfaction  and  Security  of  our  good  Subjefis  in  ge-    VTT"V"7I"J 
neral,  and  of  all  Interejls  in  particular,  as  jhall  be 
adjudged  mo  ft  to  conduce  to  the  Peace  and  Happinefs 
of  that  Kingdom.  ^ 

And  we  do  further  declare,  That  ^ue  Jhall  give 
cur  utmojl  Ajfylance  to  reft  ore  Parliaments  to  their 
antient  Dignity  and  Honour ',  and  jhall  prejerve  their 
juji  Privileges,  and  join  to  repair  all  thofe  Injuries 
'and  Affronts  which  have  been  done  to  the  Members 
of  that  High  Court. 

And  becaufe  all  IVays  of  gaining  a  mutual  Confi- 
dence betwixt  us  and  our  good  Subjefis  are  at  prc- 
j'ent  objiruffed,  by  the  ufurp'd  Force  and  Power  now 
prevalent  in  that  Kingdom,  we  are  therefore  refolved 
to  make  Ufe  of  fucb  Expedients  as  Jhall  be  necejjary 
for  the  Supprejfion  of  that  tyrannical  and  unjujl 
Power  now  exercifed  over  them,  and  for  bringing  to 
their  due  Puni/hment  thofe  bloody  Murderers  of  our 
dear  Father  ;  for  Jhaking  off"  the  heavy  Burdens  and 
Taxes  they  now  groan  under,  and  for  reftoring  our 
jujl  Rights,  and  the  antient  Liberties  and  Freedom 
of  the  Englifli  Nation  ;  not  doubting  but  zue  jhall 
find  all  our  good  Subjects  ready  to  concur  and  to  ajjift 
us  in  qur  jujl  and  pious  Undertakings  for  thofe 
Ends. 

And,  in  the  mean  Time,  ive  require  and  command 
all  our  faidSubj efts,  according  to  their  Duty  to  God, 
their  Allegiance  to  us,  their  feveral  Oaths  and  Pro- 
teflations,  and  the  Love  and  Affeffion  they  bear  to  the 
Peace  of  their  native  Country,  that  they  do  not  be" 
tray  their  laivful  King,  nor  the  glorious  Liberties 
and  Laivs  of  England,  into  a  perpetual  Slavery,  by 
Acknovjledgment  of,  or  voluntary  Submijfion  to,  any 
new  Forms  or  Models  of  Government,  under  the 
Name  or  Majk  of  a  Free  State,  nor  under  any  other 
Title  or  Pretence  whatfoever. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  Caftle- Elizabeth,  in  our 
Ifle  of  Jerfey,  the  318:  Day  of  O&ober,  1649, 
in  the  firft  Year  of  our  Reign. 

On 


224      Tkc  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter- reenuir..       On  the  24th  of  laft  Month  the  Houfe  having  re- 
l649-        ceived  Information  that  Clement  Walker,  Efq;  (one 

*— -v— •— '  of  the  fecluded  Members)  had  published  a  Book, 
'  intitled,  Anarclna  Anglicana  a,  he  was  ordered  to 
be  fent  for  in  Cuftody  of  the  Serjeant  at  Arms,  with 
Power  to  enter  into  any  Houfe,  and  break  open 
any  Doors  or  Locks  for  that  Purpofe ;  alfo  to  fearch 
for,  and  feize,  all  his  Papers  and  Writings.  And 
it  was  referred  to  the  Council  of  State  to  find  out 
the  Printers  and  Publifhers  of  the  faid  Book,  and 
all  others  who  had  any  Hand  therein.  On  the 
1 3th  of  this  Month  Mr.  Walker  having  been  ap- 
prehended accordingly,  he  was  committed  Pri- 
foner  to  the  Tower,  in  order  to  his  Trial  for  Hi^h, ' 
Treafon.  Whoever  perufes  this  Piece  will  be  at 
no  Lofs  to  account  for  the  Parliament's  high  Re- 
fentment  againft  the  Author  of  it. 

Nov.  1 6.  This  Day  came  a  Letter  from  Lieute- 
nant-General  Cromwell,  concerning  the  Surrender 
of  the  Town  of  Rofs,  in  Ireland^  addrefs'd  to  the 
Speaker  b. 

SIR,  Rofs,  Oft.  25,  1649. 

The  Town  of  «  Qlnce  my  laft  from  Wexford,  we  marched  to 
rcd  '  O  Rofs,  a  wall'd  Town,  fituated  upon  the  Bar^ 
4  row,  a  Port  Town,  up  to  which  a  Ship  of  7  or  800 
'  Tons  may  come.  We  came  before  it  upon 
'  Wednesday  the  zyth  Inft.  with  three  Pieces  of 
'  Cannon :  That  Evening  I  fent  a  Summons  ; 

*  Major- General  Taaff  being  Governor,  refufed 
'  to  admit  my  Trumpet  into  the  Town,  but  took 

*  the  Summons  in,  returning  me  no  Anfwer.     I 
4  did  hear  that  near  1000  Foot  had  been  put  into 

'this 

a  This  makes  the  Second  Part  of  The  Hiflory  cf  Independency, 
publifli'd  in  the  Name  of  Theodora  Verax.  A  Third  Part  was  after- 
wards publi/hed,  by  the  fame  Author,  intitled,  The  High  Court  of 
Jitftice,  or  Cromwell's  new  Slaugbter-Houfe  in  England.  It  is 
highly  probable,  from  many  Circumftances,  that  Mr.  Prynne  had 
a  Share  in  this  Performance.  It  was  reprinted  in  1660,  with 
Mr.  Walker's  Name  to  it,  and  a  Fourth  Part  added  by  another 
Hand. 

b  From  the  original  Edition  printed  by  John  field  for  EdiwJ 
Eufiandf,  Printer  to  the  Parliament  of  England, 


Of    ENGLAND.       225 

s  this  Place  fome  few  Days  before  my  Coming  to  Inter-regnum. 

*  it.     The  next  Day  was  fpent  in  making  Prepa- 

*  rations  for  our  Battery ;  :ind  in  our  View  there      jft^nber 
c  were  boated  over  from  the  other  Side  of  the  Ri- 

*  ver,  of  Englljk,  Scots,  and  Irijh,  1500  more,  Or- 
'  mond-t  Cajflehaven,  and  the  Lord  of  Ardes,  being 

*  on  the  other  Side  of  the  Water  to  caufe  it  to  be 

6  done.  v 

4  That  Night  we  planted  our  Battery,  which 
'  begun  to  play  very  early  the  next  Morning.  The 
'  Governor  immediately  fent  forth  an  Anfwer  to 

*  my  Summons,  Copies  of  all  which  I  make  bold 
'  herewith  to  trouble  you  ;  the  rather,  becaufe  you 
'  may  fee  how  God  pulls  down  proud  Stomachs. 
c  He  defired  Commiffioners  might  treat,  and  that 
'  in  the  mean  Time  there  might  be  a  ceafing  of 
'  Acts  of  Hoftility  on  both  Sides  ;  which  I  refu- 
'  fed,  fending  in  Word,  That  if  he  would  march 
c  away  with  Arms,  Bag  and  Baggage,  and  give  me 
'  Hoftages  for  Performance,   he  mould.     Indeed 
c  he  might  have  done  it  without  my  Leave,  by  the 

*  Advantage  of  the  River.     He  infifted  upon  ha- 
'  ving  the  Cannon  with  him,  which  I  would  not 
'  yield  unto,  but  required  the  leaving  the  Artillery 

*  and  Ammunition  ;  which  he  was  content  to  do, 
4  and  march'd  away  leaving  the  great  Artillery,  and 

*  the  Ammunition  in  the  Stores  to  me. 

*  When  they  march'd  away,  at  leaft  500  Eng- 

*  lijb,  many  of  them  of  the  Munjler  Forces,  came 

*  to  us. 

*  Ormond  is  at  Kilkenny,  Inchiquin  in  Munftery 
e  Henry  O'Neal^  Owen  Roe's  Son,  is  come  up  to 
'  Kilkenny,  with  near  2000  Horfe  and  Foot,  with 
'  whom  and  Ormond  there  is  now  a  perfect  Con- 
'  junction  :    So   that  now,    I  truft,    fome  angry 
'  Friends  will  think  it  high  Time  to  take  oft"  their 
'  Jealoufy  from  thofe  to  whom  they  ought  to  exer- 
'  cife  more  Charity. 

'  The  Rendition  of  this  Garrifon  was  a  feafon- 
'  able  Mercy,  as  giving  us  an  Opportunity  towards 
'  Munjler,  and  is  for  the  prefent  a  very  good  Re- 

*  fremment  for  our  Men.     We  are  able  to  fay  no- 

VOL.  XIX.  P  '  thing 


November. 


226     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

thing  as  to  all  this,  but  that  the  Lord  is  ftill  plea- 
led  to  own  a  Company  of  poor  worthlefs  Crea- 
tures ;  for  which  we  defire  his  Name  to  be  mag- 
nified, and  the  Hearts  of  all  concerned  may  be 
provoked  to  walk  worthy  of  fuch  continued  Fa- 
vours. This  is  the  earned  Defire  of 

Your  mojl  bumble  Servant^ 

O.  CROMWELL. 

'  P.  S.  Col.  Norton  is  lately  dead  of  the  Coun- 
'  try  Difeafe,  leaving  a  Son  behind  him.  He  was 
6  a  Perfon  of  great  Integrity  and  Courage  :  His 
'  former  Services,  efpecially  that  of  the  laft  Sum- 
'  mer,  I  hope  will  be  had  in  Remembrance.' 

The  Houfe  ordered  the  foregoing  Letter,  with 
the  Articles  of  Surrender,  to  be  printed  and  pub- 
lifhed  ;  but  the  latter  are  rather  foreign  to  our 
Purpofe,  and  the  Subftance  of  them  is  given  in  the 
Letter  itfclf.  They  likewiie  referred  it  to  the 
Council  of  State  to  fend  over  Supplies  of  all  Kinds 
forthwith  to  the  Army  in  Ireland. 

In  the  Proceedings  of  this  Month,  as  Mr.  Whit- 
locke  informs  us,  '  "There  was  a  great  Peak  taken 
againft  the  Lawyers  ;  infomuch  that  the  old  Odium 
againft  them  was  revived,  and  it  was  laid  in  the 
Debate,  *  That  it  was  not  fit  for  Lawyers,  who 
were  Members  of  Parliament,  if  any  Lawyers 
ought  to  be  there  at  all,  to  plead  or  pra&iie  as 
Lawyers  during  the  Time  they  fat  as  Members  of 
Parliament  ;'  which  gave  Occafion  to  one  of  that 
Profeffion,  meaning  himfelf,  to  fpeak  as  follows  : 


Mr  Speaker  ', 

uV  T  Was  un 

-      JL  upon  this 
' 


ajjjff  again  to  have  troubled  you 
Argument,  had  I  not  been  again 


of  Lawyers  be-  , 

ing  ekaedMem-  call'd  up  by  the  Miftakes  of  the  worthy  Gentle- 
ment  °*  Parlia"man  tnat  fpo^e  ^ft?  to  give  a  true  Account  of  thele 
Matters,  and  to  vindicate  the  Honour  of  that  Pro- 


, 
feffion  whereof  I  am  an  unworthy  Member. 


The 


Of    ENGLAND        227 

4  The  Gentleman  was  pleafed  to  intimate,  That  inter- regnum. 
Lawyers  were  heretofore  excluded  from  being  Mem-        l649- 
bers  of  Parliament :  I  fiippofe  he  had  not  much    ^J'~v ~ 
frudied  the  Records  of  that  Matter,  and  therefore 
related  the  Difcourfes  of  others  by  hearfay  only  ; 
but  for  his  Conviction,  and  for  the  Satisfaction  of 
others,  I  fhall  acquaint  you  with  the  clear  Pafiages 
of  what  he  aimed  at,  as  I  fuppofe ;  and  as  I  find 
them  upon  Record,  which  is  much  more  authentic 
than  fome  (perhaps)  Table-Talk,  or  Difcourfes  at 
random. 

«  The  Statute  23,  Edw.  III.  call'd  the  Members 
of  Parliament  the  learned  Aden  \  whereof  many  were 
learned  in  the  Laws,  and  therefore  luppofed  to  have  / 
had  that  Title.  But  fhortly  after  this  the  great 
Men  degenerating,  in  the  old  Age  of  the  fame 
King,  into  feveral  Factions,  and  being  much  of- 
fended with  thofe  who  were  learned  in  the  Laws, 
becaufe  they  hindered  their  OpprefHons  by  plead- 
ing the  Right  of  Law  on  the  Behalf  of  theirClients, 
in  46  Edw.  III.  they  petition'd  that  Nul  Home  de 
Ley  purfuont  Befoignes  en  le  Court  le  Roy  ;  ne  Vif- 
count)  pour  le  Temps  qu'il  eft  Vifcount^fotent  retour- 
nez  ne  accepter  Chivaliers  des  Counts es  :  c  That  no 
4  Man  of  Law,  following  Bufmefs  in  the  King's 

*  Courts,  nor  Sheriffs,  be  returned  or  accepted  for 
*•  Knights  of  Shires.' 

'  To  this  the  King  anfwers,  Voet  le  Roy  que  Cbi~ 
lialiers^et  Serjeants  des  meauxVaultes  duPays^  folent 
retuurnez  dejore  Chivaliers  en  Parliaments,  et  qu'ils 
Jtlent  eleus  en  pleine  Count  e :  '  The  King  willeth 

*  that  Knights  and  Serjeants  (that  is,  Efquires) 

*  of  the  beft  Rank  in  the  County  be  from  hence- 

*  forth  returned  to  be  Knights  in  Parliament,  and 
1  that  they  be  chofen  in  full  County/ 

*  After  this  Ordinance,  and  purfuant  to  it,  a 
Claufe  was  inferted  into  the  Writ  for  chufing 
Members  for  the  Houfe  of  Commons,  5  Hen.  IV. 
to  this  Effect,  Nolumus  out  em  quod  tuy  feu  aliquis 
alius  Vlcecomes  Regni  noflri^  jive  aliquh  alius  Ho- 
mo adLegem^  a  li qua  liter  fit  elettus:  '  We  will  not 

*  that  you,  or  any  other  Sheriff  of  our  Kingdom, 

P  2  'or 


Inter-regnum 
1649.    . 


November. 


228     *rhe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  or  any  other  Man  of  Law,  by  any  Means  be 

*  cholen.' 

*  According  to  this  Ordinance  and  Claufe  of 
Nolumus,  the  Sheriffs  have  been  fince  excluded 
from  fitting  in  Parliament  as  Members,  during  the 
Time  of  their  Sherifaltyj  the  Debate  of  which 
Point  was  had,  and  full  of  Learning,  in  a  former 
Parliament,  in  the  Cafe  of  a  very  learned  and  wor- 
thy Perfon,  Sir  Edward  Coke,  whom  moft  of  us 
knew. 

'  He,  being  made  Sheriff  of  Bucks  upon  Dif- 
plcafure'  againft  him,  was  chofen  Knight  of  the 
Shire  for  Bucks,  and  fat  in  Parliament ;  and  I  had 
the  Honour  then  to  be  a  young  Parliament-Man, 
in  the  fecond  Year  of  the  late  King. 

*  The  Objections  againft  him  were  the  conjlant 
Ufage  not  to  permit  Sheriff's  to  fit  as  Parliament- 
Men  ;  their  Oath  to  refide  in  their  Counties,  the 
Cujlody  whereof  was  committed  to  them  ;  and  that 
their  Office  was  but  annual,  and  fo  the  Difability 
Was  but  for  that  Time  only. 

*  But  for  a  Man  to  be  difabled  from  being  a 
Parliament-Man,  in  regard  of  his  being  a  Lawyer, 
is  to  difable  him  during  his  Life,  or  his  Continu- 
ance in  his  Profeffion  by  which  he  gains  his  Live- 
lihood ;  and  they  are  not  public  Officers,  obliged 
to  another  Attendance  on  the  public  Affairs,  as  the 
Sheriffs  are. 

'  Yet  it  is  true  that  in  the  Parliament,  which  was 
held  6  Hen.  IV.  all  Lawyers  were  excluded,  and 
none  of  them  returned  to  ferve  in  that  Parliament ; 
and  perhaps  from  fome  general  Difcourfe  hereof 
by  others,  the  worthy  Gentleman  is  pleafed,  with 
Confidence,  to  vent  his  Doctrine  and  Motion  : 
But  in  cafe  he  did  read,  and  underftand  the  Re- 
cords of  this  Ordinance,  and  of  the  Claufe  of  No- 
lumus,  yet,  I  fuppofe  he  never  look'd  into  the 
Ground  of  this  Bufmefs,  nor  into  that  which  fol- 
lowed thereupon ;  wherein  I  fhall  hope  to  fatisfy 
him,  and  fo  as  to  alter  his  Opinion. 

'  King  Henry  IV.  being  in  great  Want  of  Mo- 
ney, fummon'd  that  Parliament,  and  cafufed  to  be 

inferted 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.     229 

inferted  in  the  Writ  this  Claufe  of  Nolumus  to  ex-  Inter-regn 
elude  the  Lawyers  ;  becaufe  he  doubted  that  they        l649- 
Would  oppofe  his  exceflive  Demands  which  he  was    ^""v~b~ 
to  make  to  the  Parliament. 

«  Thomas  Walfmgham  faith  %  That  all  the 
Lawyers  being  excluded,  the  Demands  of  the  King 
were  by  this  Means  obtained  ;  and  by  this  Parlia- 
ment was  granted  an  unufual  Tax,  and  to  the  People, 
triftabilis  &  valde  gravis,  '  a  Tax  full  of  Trouble 
'  and  very  grievous;'  whereof,  the  Hiftorian  faith, 
he  would  have  fet  down  the  Manner,  had  not  the 
Granters  and  Authors  of  the  fame  deiired  to  be 
conceal'd  for  ever  to  Pofterity,  by  caufing  the  Pa- 
pers and  Records  thereof  to  be  burnt  b. 

'  Mr.  Speaker,  This  is  the  Precedent  intimated 
by  the  worthy  Gentleman  ;  and  this  was  the  Oc- 
cafion  and  Iflue  of  that  Precedent,  the  like  where- 
of, I  prefume,  is  not  wifti'd  by  him. 

'  Walfmgham  ftyles  that  Parliament,  in  the  Mar- 
gin, Parliamentum  indoftorum,  c  the  Parliament  of 
'  unlearned  Men.' 

«  Speed,  in  his  Hiftory,  faith,  That  this  Parlia- 
ment was  called  the  Lack-learning  Parliament,  ei- 
ther for  the  Unlearnednefi  of  the  Perfons,  or  for 
their  Malice  unto  Learning. 

'  But  God  hath  blefs'd  this  Nation  with  fuch  an 
Age  of  learned  Men  at  this  prefent,  that  former 
Times  knew  not;  and  we  muft  acknowledge  that, 
though  the  Houfe  mould  lack  all  their  Members 
who  are  Lawyers,  yet  the  reft  are  of  fo  great  Abi- 
lities that  there  would  be  no  Lack  of  Learning  : 
Yet,  Sir,  I  am  fure  that  the  Addition  of  thofe  ma- 
ny learned  Gentlemen  of  our  Profeffion  hath  been, 
and  will  be,  fome  Help  in  your  Affairs,  and  will 
not  be  defpifed  by  any  prudent  Men. 

'  The  worthy  Gentleman  was  pleafed  flightly  to 

call  them  Gownmen,  who  had  not  undergone  the  Dan- 

gers and  .Hardjhips  that  Martial  Men  had  done: 

And  truly  it  might  lefs  become  the  Gentleman  that 

P  3  faid 


a  Hifl.  Ang.  Anno  1404,  p.  370.  t>  Tf^dlgma  NeuJIri*, 

Anm  1404.     See  alfo  our  fecoad  Volume,  p.  83,  rt  utra. 


Inter-  regnum. 
1649. 

<— - s~* 

November. 


230     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

faiil  it,  than  others,  to  make  that  Obfervation,  if 
it  had  been  fo. 

'  Tiie  ancient  Romans  were  Soldiers,  though 
Gownmcn  ;  nor  doth  that  Gown  abate  either  a 
Man's  Courage  or  his  Wifdom,  or  render  him  lefs 
capable  of  uling  a  Sword  when  the  Laws  are  filent, 
or  you  command  it. 

*•  You  ail  know  this  to  be  true  by  the  great  Ser- 
vices periorm'd  by  Lieutenant-  General  Jones,  Com- 
miflary  Ireton^  and  many  of  the  Members,  and 
other  Lawyers  ;  who,  putting  off  their  Gowns 
when  you  required  it,  have  ferv'd  you  ftoutly  and 
fucccisfully  as  Soldiers,  and  undergone  almoft  as 
many  and  as  great  Dangers  and  Hardfljips,  as  the 
Gentleman  who  fo  much  undervalues  all  of  them. 
But  we  are  now  fpeaking  of  their  Right  to  be  cho- 
len,  and  to  fit  as  Members  of  the  Parliament  ; 
which  doubtlels  is  as  much  and  the  fame  with  all 
other  the  Commoners  of  England. 

*vThe  Hiftorian  laft  mentioned  faith,  That  the 
Commons  of  England,  who  have  Liberty  in  the 
Choice  of  their  Knights  and  Burgefles,  would  not 
be  debarred  thereof  by  the  Ordinance  of  Edw.  III. 
nor  by  the  Claufe  of  Nolumus  inferted  in  the  Writ 
by  Hen.  IV,  but  have  made  a  conftant  Choice  of 
fome  of  them  to  ierve  for  them  in  all  Parliaments. 

*  The  Lord  Coke^  4.  Inftit.  p.  48,  holds,  That  the 
Ordinance,  46  Edw.  III.  by  the  general  Words  of 
5.  Ricb.ll.  Stat.  2.  Cap.t^.  and  7.  Hen.lV.  Cap.  15. 
was  repealed  :  However,  we  read  not  of  any  Par- 
liament, except  that;  unhappy  one  6  Hen.  IV.  in 
which  the  Lawyers  were  excluded  ;  and  after  not 
3  few  confiderable  Services,  both  Civil  and  Mili- 
tary, perform'd  by  fome  of  them  for  you,  it  was 
fomewhat  an  ungrateful  Motion  now  to  have  ex- 
cluded them. 

*  We  may  lay  afide  the  Claufe  of  Nolumus,  left 
other  Claufes  of  Nolumus ,  which  we  find  in  the 
Writs  of  Summons,  do  come  as  near  home  to  others. 
Sometime  Claufes  were  inferted  in  the  Writs  for 
Election  of  Commoners,  to  this  Purpofe,  Nolumus 
Gutem  quod  aliquis  de  Retinentia  Domini  nojlri  Re- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      231 

gis  aliqualiter  fa  eleflus  :  c  We  will  not  that  any  Inter- regnum. 
*  the  Retinue  of  our  Lord  the  King,  in  any  wife,  be       l64-9- 
'  chofen.'  *— ^~—> 

*  Tho',  Sir,  I  acknowledge  that  worthy  Gen- 
tleman, and  many  others  who  have  been  the  King's 
Servants  and  Courtiers,  have  been  very  faithful  to 
you,  and  done  you  acceptable  Services  ;  and  fo 
fome  of  them  have  done  in  former  Parliaments, 
and  I  hope  you  all  do  think  fo  ;  yet  the  Underva- 
luing of  our  Profeffion  to  be  Members  of  Parlia- 
ment, hath  lefs  Strength  coming  from  fuch  Gentle- 
men, than  from  others  j  becaufe  of  them,  fome 
from  abroad  will  be  apt  to  fay,  though  fcandaloufly, 
That  Courtiers  and  King's  Servants  ufed  to  fit  in 
Parliament  rather  to  promote  their  Mafter's  Ends 
than  their  Country's  Rights  j  but  fuch  Objections 
are  now  out  of  Doors. 

*  The  like  Paffage  with  this  we  are  now  deba- 
ting is  related  in  the  Roman  Story,  when  the  Law 
Cinna  was  made,   whereby  it  was  provided,  That, 
for  pleading  of  Caufes^  no  Man  Jbould  take  either 
Money  or  Gift ;  and  this  Law  was  endeavoured,  up- 
on the  like  Grounds,  to  be  fet  on  Foot  prefently 
after  the  Death  of  Tiberius  Cafar. 

*  But  when  fome  alledged  that  this  would  caufe 
the  want  of  Counfellors  and  Advocates,  whereby 
the   Poor  would  be  opprefs'd  by  the  Rich  and 
Mighty;  that  Eloquence  did  not  come  by  Chance, 
or  gratis^  without  Study  and  Labour  i  that  the 
Care  of  a  Man's  own  Family  w£s  negleited,  whilft 
he  attended  other  Men's  Affairs ;  that  fome  main- 
tained their  Life  by  War,  fome  by  tilling  the  Earth, 
yet  no  man  laboured  in  thefe  Callings,  or  to  at- 
tain Knowledge,  but  for  the  Commodity  arifmg 
thereby ;  that  the  meaneft  of  the  People  endea- 
voured what  they  could  to  better  their  Eftates, 
and  that  if  the  Reward  of  Studies  fhould  be  ta- 
ken away,  Studies  alfo  would  decay,  as  having 
neither  Glory  nor  Honour.     Upon  thefe  Reafons 
the  Senate  thought  it  not  juft,  and  I  hope  this  Se- 
nate will  be  of  the  fame  Judgment*  to  take  away 


November. 


232      'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

the  Honorarium  of  Advocates  ;  but  limited  the 
fame  to  1000  Sefterces,  which  fome  compute  to 
be  about  787.  of  our  Money. 

*  Neither,  faith  Tacitus,  Annal.  lib:  u,  did  that 
Law  continue  or  gain  Compliance  to  it.     Neither 
do  I  think  that  fuch  a  Law  amongft  us  would  be  to 
any  Effect,   or  have  any  Compliance  to  it. 

'  But  I  hope  this  honourable  Engiijh  Senate,  and 
that  worthy  Gentleman,  a  Member  of  it,  will  be 
iatisfied  with  the  Reafons  given  in  the  Roman  Se- 
riate, who  were  very  wife  Men ;  and  not  trouble 
themfelves  about  fuch  new  Laws,  which  will  be 
ineffectual,  prejudical  to  many,  ami  good  to  none. 

*  But  the  Gentleman  objected,  and  it  is  much 
urg'd  in  thefe  Times,  againft  the  Profefiion  of  the 
Law  and  the  Profeflors  of  it,  That  they  are  the  Oc- 
cafion  of  Multiplicity  of  Suits,   and  of  Delays  in 
them  ;  and  therefore,  after  the  Example  of  fome 
foreign  Countries,  not  to  be  permitted. 

'  f  have  obferved  to  you  before  that  thofe  in 
Power  have  moft  Reafonto  be  difpleaied  with  this 
Profeflion,  as  a  Bridle  to  their  Power ;  but  that 
the  Profelfion  occafions  Multiplicity  of  Suits,  is  as 
improbable  as  any  other  of  his  Reafons  or  his  Ar- 
guments. 

'  Mr.  Speaker,  the  Reafon  of  the  Multiplicity  of 
Suits  and  Law  Caufes  amongft  us,  is  the  Great- 
nefs  of  our  Trade,  which  caufeth  a  Multitude  of 
Contracts,  and  thefe  occalion  a  Multitude  of  Law 
Suits. 

'  In  thofe  Countries,  mentioned  by  that  worthy 
Gentleman,  there  is  not  one  of  his  Profeflion,  one 
Merchant,  or  one  Contra&er,  for  a  hundred  in 
England;  that  is  the  Caufe  they  have  fo  few  Law 
Suits  and  we  fo  many. 

*  And  give  me  Leave,  Sir,  to  tell  him,  that  in 
the  Netherlands,   and  Countries   where   there   is 
much  Trade,  there  are  proportionably  as  many 
Law  Suits  as  there  are  in  England. 

'  Another  Ground  of  what  I  affirm,  is  that,  in 
foreign  Countries,  every  Man's  Eftate  is  difpofed 

of 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       233 

of  by  their  Law,  after  a  certain  Rule  and  Propor-  Inter-regnum. 
tion,  which  the  Pofleflor  cannot,  either  by  Con-  l649' 
veyance  or  by  his  Teftament,  afterwards  alter.  As  '^j^^T 
•when  one  dies,  his  Eftate  is  thus  divided  by  the 
Law;  his  Wife  hath  a  Part  fet  out  for  her,  the 
eldeft  Son  hath  a  double  Portion,  and  all  the  other 
Sons  have  equal  Portions,  and  every  two  Daugh- 
ters have  as  much  as  one  Son,  of  the  whole  Eftate 
of  their  Father  thus  divided  by  Law.  Whereas, 
with  us,  every  PoiTeflor  of  an  Eftate  hath  Power 
to  difpofe  of  it  by  his  Deed,  or  by  his  Will,  as  he 
pleafes,  which  muft  necefTarily  occasion  the  more 
Differences  and  Suits  at  Law,  upon  Conftruclions 
of  thofe  Deeds  and  Wills,  and  Contefts  of  Parties 
claiming,  than  where  the  knov/n  Law  gives  a  cer- 
tain Rule  and  Diftribution  of  Eftates,  which  none 
can  alter. 

'  Another  Ground  of  what  ITay  is  the  Freedom 
of  our  Nation,  where  every  one  hath  equal  Right 
and  Title  to  his  Eftate,  and  there  is  as  full  Pro- 
perty to  the  meaneft  as  to  the  greateft  Perfon  ; 
which  caufeth  our  Countrymen  to  infift  upon  their 
Right  and  Privileges,  and  to  conteft  for  them  with 
the  greateft  Men,  or  the  Prince  himfelf,  if  the 
Right  of  Law  be  on  their  Side. 

'  This  occafions  many  more  Law  Suits  than  do 
arife  in  thofe  Countries  where  the  Boors  and  Pea- 
fants  do  wholly  depend  upon  the  Will  of  their 
Lords-,  to  whom  they  are  Slaves,  and  dare  not  dif- 
pute  any  Matter  of  Right  with  him,  but  tamely 
fubmit  unto  their  Lord's  good  or  bad  Pleafure. 

*  And  though  in  fome  of  thefe  Northern  Coun- 
tries they  have  no  Counfellors  at  Law,  as  a  public 
Profeflion,  becaufe  the  Smallnefs  of  their  Law  Bu- 
finefs  will  not  maintain  them,  and  the  great  Lords 
are  oft-times  there  Parties  and  Judges  themfelves  ; 
yet  \nGermany ,  France^  Spain,  and  other  Countries, 
the  Doctors  and  Profeflbrs  of  the  Law  are  in  great 
Numbers  and  Credit,  and  gain  vaft  Eftates,  tho* 
by  fmall  Fees,  yet  often  taken,  and  long  continu- 
ing; whereof,  particularly  in  France,  there  are  ma- 
ny 


2 J4  T^e  Parliamentary  HISTORY" 
ny  Precedents.  And  if  we  look  fo  far  as  the  Times 
of  the  antient  Romans  and  Grecians^  their  Lawyers 
will  be  found  numerous,  and  of  Efteem  amongi 
ovcm  er.  t]]em  .  an(j  vvnen  tjiejr  Commonwealth  enjoyed 
the  grea,eft  Freedom,  this  Profeflion  was  in  the 
bigheft  Reputation. 

'  Sifjthe  worthy  Gentleman  was  pleafed  to  men- 
tion one  Thing  with  fome  Weight,  That  Lawyers 
were  permitted  to  counfel  and  plead  for  Men  in  Mat- 
ters touching  their  Ejlates  and  Liberties  ;  but  in  the 
greatejl  Matters  of  all  others^  concerning  a  Man's 
Life  and  Pofterity,  Lawyers  were  not  permitted  to 
plead  for  their  Clients. 

'  I  confefs  I  cannot  anfwer  this  Objection,  That, 
for  a  Trefpafs  of  a  Sixpence  Value,  a  Man  may 
have  a  Counfellor  to  plead  for  him  j  but  where  his 
Life  and  Pofterity  are  concern'd,  he  is  not  admitted 
this  Privilege  and»Help  of  Lawyers.  A  Law  to- 
seform  this,  I  think,  would  be  juft,  and  give  Right 
to  the  People. 

*  What  is  iaid  in  Defence  or  Excufe  of  this 
Cuftom  is,  That  the  Judges  are  of  Counfel  for  the 
PrifoncrS)  and  are  to  fee  that  they  have  no  Wrong. 
And  are  they  not  to  take  the  fame  Care  of  all  Caufes 
that  (hall  be  tried  before  them  I 

'  To  that  Part  of  the  Gentleman's  Motion,  That 
Lawyers^  being  Members  of  the  Houfe,  Jbould,  du- 
ring that  Time^  forbear  their  Practice  and  Pleading^ 
I  fhall  only  give  this  Anfwer,  That,  in  the  A<£t 
which  he  may  be  pleafed  to  bring  in  for  this  Pur- 
pofe,  it  may  likewife  be  inferted,  that  Merchants 
ihall  forbear  their  Trading,  Phyficians  from  viftt- 
ing  their  Patients,  and  Country-Gentlemen  for- 
bear to  fell  their  Corn  and  Wool  whilft  they  fit 
as  Members  of  this  Houfe ;  which  hath  the  fame 
Reafon  as  to  debar  Lawyers  from  their  Practice. 

*  But  I  doubt,  Sir,  I  have  held  you  too  long. 
My  Profeflion,  and  the  Subjeft  Matter  of  the  De- 
bate, will  plead  in  my  Excufe ;  and  I  hope,  Sir, 
by  your  Prudence,  fuch  Motions  as  thefe  will  be 
lefs  frequent  among  us.' 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       235 

We  prefume  the  foregoing  Arguments  put  a  Inter-regmim. 
Stop  to  this  Attack  upon  the  Gentlemen  of  the        l649- 
Long  Robe ;  for  we  hear  no  more  of  it.  ~ 

December.  Bufmefs,  material  enough  for  thefe  En- 
quiries, now  grew  very  flack  in  the  Houfe ;  they  did 
not  lit  above  four  Days  in  a  Week,  conftantly  ad- 
journing themfelves  from  Friday  till  Tuefday  follow- 
ing ;  and  when  they  did  meet  their  Numbers  were 
fo  few,  as  frequently  to  divide,  in  all  under  forty. 
We  may  fuppofe  then  that  the  molt  important  Af- 
fairs of , the  Nation  were  tranfac.~r.ed  by  the  Council 
of  State;  which  is  out  of  our  Sphere,  theCompafsof 
our  Delign  obliging  us  only  to  follow  this  Fag-end 
of  a  Parliament  through  all  its  various  Revolutions, 
and  the  Tranfadlions  relative  to  them. 

Cromwell  went  on  purfuing  his  Victories  in  Ire- 
land with  great  Rapidity  ;  and,  in  a  ftiort  Time 
after  this,  made  himfelf  Mailer  of  the  whole  King- 
dom. The  dreadful  Execution  at  Drogbeda  opened 
all  before  him,  few  Places  daring  to  refift,  for  fear 
of  being  ferv'd  in  like  Manner ;  fo  that  that  poor 
Nation  was  now  harrafs'd  and  torn  up  to  the  very 
Roots.  On  the  I2th  of  this  Month  the  following 
Letter  from  him  was  read  in  the  Houfe  : 

For  the  Honourable  WILLIAM  LENTH ALL,  Efa 
Speaker  of  the  Parliament  of  England. 

Mr.  Speaker ', 

*  r  i  SHE  Enemy  being  quartered  between  the  General  Crm- 

«     |_     two  Rivers  of  Noer  and  the  Barrow,  and  ^f^f^J* 
'  Matters  of  all  the  Paflages  thereupon,  and  giving  o^  his3 ukbgVf 

*  out  their  Refolution  to  fight  us ;  thereby,  as  vitEniftery,Carrickf 

*  conceived,  labouring  to  get  Reputation  in  the 
<  Countries,  and  Acceflion  of  more  Strength ;  it 

*  was  thought  fit  our  Army  ftiould  march  towards 

*  them,  which  accordingly,  upon  Tuefday  the  151!! 
'  Inftant,  was  done. 

'  The  Major- General  and  Lieutenant-General 

*  (leaving  me  very  fick  at  Refs>  behind  them)  with 

'  two 


236      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regmim.  '  two  Battering  Guns,  advanced  towards  Emjlery^ 
1649.        «  a  little  walled  Town,  about  five  Miles  from  Rojs, 

*• *•--*-'    *  upon  the  Noer,  on  the  South- Side  thereof,  which 

nber<  «  was  poflcfled  by  the  Enemy  ;  but  a  Party  of  our 
'  Men,  under  the  Command  of  Col.  Abbot,  the 
'  Night  before  approaching  the  Gates,  and  at- 
'  tempting  to  fire  the  fame,  the  Enemy  ran  away 
'  through  the  River,  leaving  good  Store  of  Provi- 
'  fions  behind  them.  Our  Commanders  hoped,  by 

*  gaining  of  this  Town,  to  have  gained  a  Pafs, 
'  but  indeed  there  fell  fo  much  fudden  Wet,   as 
'  made  the  River  unpaflable  by  that  Time  the  Ar- 

*  my  was  come  up ;  whereupon,  hearing  the  Ene- 

*  my   lay    about    two    Miles   off,    near   Thomas 
'  Town,  a  pretty  large  walled  Town,  upon  the 

*  Noer,  the  North  Side  thereof  having  a  Bridge 
'  over  the  River,  our  Army  marched  thither;  but 

*  the  Enemy  had  broken  the  Bridge,  and  garrifon'd 
'  the  Town,  and  in  the  View  of  our  Army  march'd 

*  away  to  Kilkenny;  feeming  to  decline  an  Engage  - 
'  ment,  although,  I  believe,  they  were  double  our 
'  Numbers,  which  they  had  Power  to  have  necef- 
6  fitated  us  unto,  but  was  no  ways  in  our  Power 
'  (if  they  would  ftand  upon  the  Advantage  of  the 
'  Paflage)  to  engage  them  unto;  nor  indeed  to  con- 

*  tinue  out  two  Days  longer,  having  almoft  fpent 

*  all  the  Bread  they  carried  with  them. 

'  Hereupon,  feeking  God  for  Direction,  they 
'  refolved  to  fend  a  good  Party  of  Horfe  and  Dra- 
'  goons,  under  Col.  Reynolds,  to  Carrick,  and  to 
'  march  the  Refidue  of  their  Army  back  towards 
'  Rofs,  to  gain  more  Bread  for  the  Profecution  ot 

*  that  Defign,  if,  by  the  Blefling  of  God,  it  mould 
'  take.      Col.    Reynolds,    marching   with   twelve 
'  Troops  of  Horfe  and  three  Troops  of  Dragoons, 
'  came  betimes  in  the  Morning  to  Carrtck,  where 

*  dividing  himfelf  into  two  Parties,  whilft  they- 
'  were  amufed  with  the  one,  he  entered  one  of  the 
8  Gates  with  the  other ;  which  the  Soldiers  per- 
'  ceiving,  divers  of  them  and  their  Officers  efcaped 
«  over  the  River  in  Boats;  about  100  Officers  and- 

4  Sol- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       237 

*  Soldiers  taken  Prifoners,  without  the  Lofs  of  one 

*  Man  on  our  Part.     In  this  Place  is  a  very  good 

'  Caftle,  and  one  of  the  antienteft  Seats,  belong- 

f  •  Tin  j     •      T     i       i       L      r  December, 

c  ing  to  the  Lord  Ormond,  in  Ireland;  the  fame 

e  was  rendered  without  any  Lofs  alfo,  where  was 
'  good  Store  of  Provifions  for  the  refreshing  of  our 
'  Men.  The  Colonel  giving  a  fpeedy  Intelligence 

*  of  God's  Mercy  in  this,  we  agreed  to  march, 
'  with  all  convenient  Speed,  the  Refidue  of  the 
'  Army  Up  thither,  which  accordingly  was  done 
4  upon  Wednefday  and  Thurfday^  the  2 1  ft  and  22d 
c  of  this  Inftant,  and,  thro'  God's  Mercy,  I  was 

*  enabled  to  bear  them  Company.     Being  come 

*  thither,  we  did  look  at  it  as  an  efpecial  good 

*  Hand  of  Providence  to  give  us  this  Place,  inaf- 
'  much  as  it  gives  us  a  PafTage  over  the  River  Sewer 
'  to  the  City  of  Waterford,  and  indeed  into  Mun- 
'Jler,    to  our    Shipping   and  Provifions,    which 
'  before  were  beaten  from  us  out  of   Waterford 

*  Bay,  by  the  Enemy's  Guns.     It  hath  given  us 

*  alfo  the  Opportunity  to  befiege  or  block  up  Wa- 
c  terford\    and  we  hope  our  gracious  God  will 
'  therein  dire<5i  us  alfo.     It  hath  given  us  alfo  the 
'  Opportunity  of  our  Guns,  Ammunition,  and  Vic- 
'  tuals,  and  indeed  Quarter  for  our  Horie,  which 

*  could  not  have  fubfifted  much  longer:  So  fweet 

*  a  Mercy  was  the  giving  of  this  little  Place  unto 
<  us. 

'  Having  refted  there  a  Night,  and  by  Noon  the 
'  next  Day  gotten  our  Army  over  the  River,  lea- 
'  ving  Col.  Reynolds  with  about  1 50  Foot,  his  own 
'  fix  Troops  of  Horfe,  and  one  Troop  of  Dragoons, 

*  with  a  very  little  Ammunition,  according  to  the 
'  Smallnefs  of  our  Marching-Store,  we  marched 
'  away  towards  IVaterford  upon  Friday  the  23d, 
4  and  on  Saturday  about  Noon  came  before  the 
'  City.     The  Enemy  not  being  a  little  troubled  at 
'  this  unfufpccled  Bufmefs,  (which  indeed  was  the 
c  meer  Guidance  of  God)   marches  down  with 
'  great  Fury  towards  Carrick^  with  their  whole 
'  Army,  revolving  to  fwallow  it  up ;   and,  upon 
'  Saturday  the  24th,    aflaults  the  Place  round, 

'  thinking 


Inter-regnum 
1649. 


238      The  Parliamentary  Hi  s T OR  Y 

4  thinking  to  take  it  by  Storm ;  but  God  had  other- 
4  wife  determined,  for  the  Troopers  and  the  reft 

*  of  the  Soldiers,  with  Stones,  did  fo  pelt  them, 
December,    e  tj^ey  continuing  very  near  four  Hours  under  the 

4  Walls,  having  burnt  the  Gates,  which  our  Men 

*  barricaded  up  with  Stones ;  and  likewife  dig- 

*  ged  under  the  Walls  and  fprung  a  fmall  Mine, 
4  which  flew  in  their  own  Faces  ;  but  they  left 
4  above  40  or  50  Men  dead  under  the  Walls,  and 
4  have  drawn  off,  as  fome  fay,  near  400  more, 

*  which  they  buried  up  and  down  the  Fields,  be- 
4  fides  what  are  wounded  ;  and,  as  Inckiquin  him- 

*  felf  confefled  in  the  Hearing  of  fome  of  their  Sol- 

*  diers  lately  come  to  us,  hath  loft  him  above  1000 
'  Men.  The  Enemy  were  drawing  off  their  Dead 
4  a  good  Part  of  the  Night.     They  were  in  fuch 

*  Hafte  upon  the  Affault,  that  they  kill'd  their  own 

*  Trumpet  as  he  was  returning  with  an  Anfwer  to 
4  a  Summons  fent  by  them.     Both  in  the  taking 

*  and  defending    of  this    Place,    Col.   Reynolds'1* 
4  Carnage  was  fuch  as  deferves  much  Honour. 

4  Upon  our  coming  before  Waterford,  I  fent 
4  the  Lieutenant -General  with   a  Regiment  of 

*  Horfe  and  three  Troops  of  Dragoons,  to  endea- 
'  vour  the  reducing  of  PaJJage-Fort,  a  very  large 

*  Fort,  with  a  Caftle  in  the  Midft  of  it,  having  five 

*  Guns  planted  in  it ;  and  commanding  the  River 

*  better  than  Duncannon^  it  not  being  much  above 

*  Mulket-fhot  over  where  this  Fort  ftands,  and  we 

*  can  bring  up  hither  Ships  of  300  Tons,  without 

*  any  Danger  from  Duncannon.     Upon  the  At> 
4  tempt,  though  our  Materials  were  not  very  apt 
4  for  the  Bufinefs,  yet  the  Enemy  call'd  for  Quar- 
4  ter,  and  had  it,  and  we  the  Place  :  We  alfo  pof- 
4  fefTed  the  Guns  which  the  Enemy  had  planted  to 
4  beat  our  Ships  out  of  the  Bay  two  Miles  below. 
4  By   the   taking   of    this    Fort  we   fhall   much 
4  ftraiten  Duncannon  from  Provifions  by  Water, 
4  as  we  hope  they  are  not  in  a  Condition  to  get 
4  much  by  Land ;  befides  the  Advantage  it  is  of  to 


us,  to  have  Provifions  come  up  the  River. 


4  It 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        239 

.    c  It  hath  pleafed  the  Lord,  whilft  thefe  Things  Inter-rcgnum. 

*  have  been  thus  traniacting  here,  to  add  to  your        1649. 

*  Interetl,  mMunftertBandon-Bridge-%  the  Town,    u — v— — ^ 

*  as  we  hear,  upon  the  Matter,  thrufting  out  young     Deambcr» 
'  "Jepfon,  who  was  their  Governor,  or  elfe  he  de- 

'  lerted  it  upon  that  Jealoufy  :  As  alfo  Kingfale  and 
«  the  Fort  there,   out  of  which  Fort  400  Men 

*  marched  upon  Articles  when  it  was  furrendered  ; 

*  fo  that  now,  by  the  good  Hand  of  the  Lord,  your 

*  Intereft  in  Munfter  is  near  as  good  already  as 
'  ever  it  was  fince  the  War  begun.     I  fent  a  Party 
'  about  two  Days  ago  to  my  Lord  Broghill^  from. 

*  whom  I  expert  to  have  an  Account  of  all. 

*  Sir,  what  can  be  faid  to  thefe  Things  ?  Is  it  an 
(  Arm  of  Flefli  that  doth  thefe  Things  ?  Is  it  the 

*  Wifdom  and  Council,  or  Strength  of  Men  ?  It  is 

*  the  Lord  only;  God  will  curfe  that  Man  and  his 
'  Houfe  that  dares  to  think  otherwife.     Sir,  you 

*  fee  the  Work  is  done  by  Divine  Leading;  God 

*  gets  into  the  Hearts  of  Men,  and  perfuades  them 
'  to  come  under  you. 

6  I  tell  you  a  confiderable  Party  of  your  Army  is 

*  fitter  for  an  Hofpital  than  the  Field  :  If  the  Ene- 
'  my  did  not  know  it  I  fhould  have  held  it  impo- 
c  litic  to  have  writ  it :  They  know  it,  yet  they 
4  know  not  what  to  do. 

4  I  humbly  beg  Leave  to  offer  a  Word  or  two. 

*  I  beg  of  thofe  that  are  faithful,  that  they  give 
'  Glory  to  God ;  I  wifh  it  may  have  Influence  up- 
'  on  the  Hearts  and  Spirits  of  all  thofe  that  are  now 

*  in  Place  of  Government  in  the  greateft  Truft, 
'  that  they  may  all  in  Heart  draw  near  unto  God  -y 

*  giving  him  Glory  by  Holinefs  of  Life  and  Con- 
'  verfation,  that  thefe  unfpeakable  Mercies  may 

*  teach  dilTenting  Brethren  on  all  Sides  to  agree,  at 

*  leaft  in  praifing  God :  And  if  the  Father  of  the 
'  Family  be  fo  kind,  why  Ihould  there  be  fuch  Jar- 

*  rings  and  Heart-burnings  amongft  the  Children  ? 

*  And  if  it  will  not  yet  be  received  that  thefe  are 

*  Seals  of  God's  Approbation  of  your  great  Change 
'  of  Government,  (which  indeed  was  no  more  yours 
'  than  thefe  Vi&ories.  and  Succeffes  are  ours)  with 

«us 


240     The  Parliamentary  Hi  STORY 

Inter-regnum.  «  us  fay  even  the  moft  unfatisfied  Heart,  That  both 
«  are  the  righteous  Judgments  and  mighty  Works 

'  of  God,  that  he  hath  pulled  down  the  Mighty 
r  i-c  L  u  A  a     J 

4  from  his  beat,  that  calls  to  Account  innocent 

'  Blood  ;  that  he  thus  breaks  the  Enemies  of  his 
4  Church  in  Pieces  j  and  let  them  not  be  fullen, 
'  but  praife  the  Lord,  and  think  of  us  as  they 
4  pleafe,  and  we  (hall  be  fatisfied  and  pray  for 
4  them,  and  wait  upon  our  God  ;  and  we  hope  we 
4  mall  feek  the  Welfare  and  Peace  of  our  native 

*  Country  ;  and  the  Lord  give  them  Hearts  to  do 

*  fo  too.     Indeed  I  was  conftrained  in  my  Bowels 

*  to  write  thus  much  :  I  alk  your  Pardon,  and  reft 

Your  moft  bumble  Servant^ 

O.   CROMWELL. 

For  which  a        Thefe  repeated  Succefles  produced  an  Order  for 
Thankfgiving     public  Thanks  to  be  given  to  Almighty  God,  on 

Day  is  appoint-  ,      - 


and  about  the  City  of  London  ;  where  the  Lord- 
Lieutenant  of  Ireland's  Letter  was  to  be  publickly 
read  to  the  Congregations. 

Notice  has  been  already  taken  of  the  heavy  Tax 
continued  upon  the  Public  in  the  laft  Month  :  In 
this  the  Houfe  was  as  bufy  in  framing  an  A6t  for 
laying  an  Import  or  Excife  on  all  foreign  Commo- 
dities imported  into  this  Nation  ;  and  on  the  I4th 
the  Bill  was  reported  to  the  Houfe,  when  fome 
Regulations  were  made,  and  a  Refolution  of  Parlia- 
ment pafs'd,  c  That  the  Houfe  do,  in  the  firft 
Place,  confider  who  fhall  pay  the  Excife  on  Com- 
modities imported  :'  And  the  Queftion  being  put, 
That  thefe  Commodities  fhould  be  accounted  for 
and  paid  by  the  firft  Importer  of  them,  the  Houfe 
divided,  when  it  was  carried  in  the  Negative  by  35 
againft  1  5  ;  and  ordered  to  proceed  in  the  Debate 
on  the  particular  Rates  imported,  another  Day  ; 
and,  in  the  mean  Time,  to  refer  it  to  the  Com- 
mittee of  Excife,  to  confider  of  the  beft  Way  of 
collecting  this  Impoft  on  Goods  imported. 

The 


Of    ENGLAND,       241- 

Dec.  14.  An  Act  was  read  a  third  Time  and  inter-regntittt« 
piaffed,  For  dijabling  divers  P  erf ons  from  being  ele£i-        1649. 
ed  Lord  Mayor,  Alderman,  or  other  Officer  of  Trujt,    ^- — \^~- *J 
within  the  City  of  London,  for  one  tear.     Hereby      De««"ber. 
it  was  enacted,  '  That  no  Perfon  who  had  been 
impriibned,  or  had  his  Eftate  fequeftered,  for  De-  A£b  parted  fat 
linquency  ;  aflifted  the  late  King  againft  the  Par-  dibbling  divers 

liament ;  fubfcribed   to   the   treasonable  Enease-  *erf?ns  {ror* 

.    '    ,  1,1  .  •  .  •  i    •      P"T    fervina  any  Of* 

rnent  m  1647  ;  had  been  concern  d  in  bringing  in  fice  in  London,, 
the  Scots  Army  under  the  Duke  of  Hamilton,  or 
abetting  the  Tumults  in  London,  Kent,  EJJex,  &c. 
in  1648,  (hould  be  elected  Lord  Mayor,  Alder- 
man, Common-Council-Man,  or  any  other  Offi- 
cer of  Truft,  nor  be  capable  of  voting  at  any  fuch 
Election  ;  nor  any  one  who  promoted  the  Perfonal 
Treaty  with  the  late  King  at  London,  in  1648  ;  or 
that  fhould  refufe  to  fubfcribe  the  Engagement  to 
be  true  to  the  Commonwealth  of  England,  as  efta- 
blimed  without  a  King  or  Houfe  of  Lords,  upon 
Penalty  of  200  /.' 

Dec.  1 8.  Another  Act  was  pa/Ted,  For  difabling 
fill  Perfons  within  the  la  ft  mentioned  ReJlriflionS) 
from  being  elected  Con/tables,  ghiejlmen,  or  other 
fubordinate  Officers  in  the  City  of  London,  or  the 
Liberties  thereof* 

Several  Days  more  were  employed  in  debating  .Another  for  Jay* 
the  Bufmefs  of  Excife,  and  many  Divifions  of  the  J."ftaa^ 
Houfe  thereupon,  till  Dec.  21,  when  it  was  finally  dities. 
brought  to  a  Conclufion,  arid  pafled.     The  feveral 
Rates,  impofed  on  Goods  by  this  Aft,  are  particu- 
larly fpecified  in  the  'Journals  of  this  Month,  to 
which  thofe  may  recur  who  would  compare  them, 
with  the  Duties  laid  on  the  fame  Commodities  in 
our  own  Days. 

Mention  has  been  made,  in  this  Volume,  of  the 
famous  Col.  Lilbourne,  and  his  Commitment  to  the 
Tower  by  the  Council  of  State.  Having  been  tried 
by  a  fpecial  Commiflion  at  the  Guild-Hall,  but 
acquitted  by  his  Jury  j  and,  foon  after,  elected  a 

VOL,  XIX.    "  Q.  Common- 


242     tte  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  Common- Council-Man  of  the  City  of  London;  on 

l649-        the  26th  of  this  Month  a  Petition  was  prefented  to 

^— -v-^    the  Houfe,  from  feveral  Aldermen  and  the  Sheriffs 

of  the  fame,  againft  him,  on  which  they  refolved, 

Col  Litioume's  That  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Lilbourne  was,  by 

Election  as  a      the  late  A<Sl  of  Parliament,  For  difabling  the  Elec- 

CommonCoun-  ^  Of  Divers  Perfons  to  any  Office  or  Place  ofTrufi 

t'™™°\™r  within  the  City  of  London,  difabled  to  be  chofen  a 

void  by  Parlia-   Common-Council-Man  ;    and  his  Election  (be- 

ment.  jng  on  fae  2ift  Inft.  the  A£t  taking  Place  on  the 

I4th)  was  void.     So  great  Apprehenfions  had  the 

Houie  of  the  Influence  of  Lilbourne's  Popularity. 

Afls  for  banifh-  The  laft  Things  which  end  this  Month,  and  this 
ing  of  Papifts,  Calendar  Year,  worth  Notice  in  the  Journals ,  are, 
MdlbTReUrf ofan  Act  for  banifhing  from  the  City  of  London^ 
infolvent  Debt-  and  twenty  Miles  round  it,  all  Papifts,  Officers  or 
ore.  Soldiers  of  Fortune,  and  other  Delinquents  ;  but 

at  the  fame  Time,  to  (hew  a  little  Commiferation 
-  for  fome  of  their  Fellow  Creatures,  another  Act 

was    parted  for   the  farther   Relief  of  Infolvent 

Debtors,  being  a  Kind  of  Supplement  to  that  pafs'd 

in  September  foregoing. 

Eflimate  of  the  January.  This  Month  begins  with  an  Eftimate 
charge  of  the  of  the  Charge  of  fitting  and  letting  out  a  Fleet  of 

simmer's &r-    44  Mcn  °f  Wal"  and  28  Merc.hant  ShiPs>  Hiann'd 

via-  for  1^65^.  with  8082  Men,  to  ferve  for  eight  Months  on  the 
narrow  Seas,  as  a  Summer's  Guard  for  the  Year 
1650.  The  Houfe  approved  of  this  Eftimate,  a- 
mounting  to  886,220  /.  and  ordered  the  Commif- 
iions  of  their  three  Admirals  to  be  renewed  for  one 
whole  Year.  The  Names  of  all  the  Ships  intend- 
ed for  this  Summer's  Guard  are  enter'd  on  the 
Journals;  three  of  which  being  there  ftyled  the 
Prince^  the  Charles,  and  the  Mctry,  the  Houfe  or- 
dered that  it  be  referred  to  the  Council  of  State  to 
give  other  fit  Names  to  thofe  Ships  :  So  intent  were 
they  upon  eftablifhing  their  new  Republic,  and  ex- 
tinguifhing  all  Remains  of  Monarchy,  that  they 
would  not  hear  the  Mention  even  of  the  Names  of 
the  late  King,  or  any  of  his  Family. 

Jan. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       243 

Jan.  2.    All  that  is  entered  in  the  Journals  to  Inter-regnant 
be  done  this  Day,  was  reading  a  third  Time  and        l649> 
pafting  an  Adi  for  fubfcribing  the  late  Engagement.       iz^^ 
The  Preamble  to  which  runs  thus,  «  Whereas  di- 
vers difiafrected  Perfons  do,  by  fundrv  Ways  and  x 

r  J  '.          ,}        .      An  Ad  requi- 

Means,  oppofe  and  endeavour  to  undermine  thenng  all  Perfonij 
Peace  of  the  Nation  under  this  prefent  Govern- being  *8  Years 
ment ;  fo  that  unlefs  fpecial  Care  be  taken,  a  newf  .^ge'  '°  fubi 

_,_       •     )•»     i  i_        j    r       i         r>         i  .        lenbe an  Engage* 

War  is  likely  to  break  forth  :  r  or  the  preventing  ment  to  be  true 
thereof,  and  alfo  for  the  better  uniting  of  this  Na-  to  a  Common- 
tion,  as  well   againit  all  Invafions  from  abroad,  J^1*  Gevern' 
as  the  common  Enemy  at   home  ;  and  to  the 
end  that  thofe  who  receive  Benefit  and  Protec- 
tion from   this  prefent  Government,  may  give 
Aflurance  of  their  living  quietly  and  peaceably 
under  the  fame,  and  that  they  will  neither  direct- 
ly nor  indirectly  contrive  or  practice  any  Thing 
to  the  Difturbance  thereof:' 
Then   it  proceeds  to  enact,  '  That  all  Men 
whatfoever,  of  the  Age  of  eighteen  Years  or  up- 
wards, (hall  take  and  fubfcribe  the  following  En- 
gagement :   /  do  declare  and  promife  that  I  will  be 
true  and  faithful  to  the  Commonwealth  of  England, 
as  it  is  now  eftablifbed^  without  a  King  or  a  Houfe 
of  Lords.' 

And,  in  order  the  more  effectually  to  enforce 
the  Taking  of  this  Engagement  by  the  whole  Na- 
tion, it  was  further  enacted,  '  i,  That  if  any  Perfon 
enjoying  any  Office,  Place,  or  Employment,  did 
not  fubfcribe  the  fame  before  the  20th  of  February 
enfuingS  he  fhould  not  only  be  depriv'd  of  fuch 
Office,  &c.  but  alfo  forfeit  double  the  Value  of  the 
Profits  thereof  by  him  received. 

2.  *  That  in  cafe  any  Perfon,  being  Plaintiff  or 
Demandant  in  any  Suit  before  the  Courts  at  JVeJl- 
minjler^  or  before  any  other  Court,  in  any  County* 
City,  or  Town  Corporate,  (hould  not  have  taken 
the  faid  Engagement,  the  Defendant  might  move 
in  Arreil  of  Judgment,  or  for  a  Superfedeas  to  flop 
Q_2  all 

'  The  Time  for  fubfcribing  this  Engagement  was,  afterwards, 
txtended  to  the  loth  of  April  following  :  But  it  was  entirely  re- 
pealed by  Crwuitll  and  his  Council,  the  igth  of  January,  1653. 


244     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jmer-rcgnum.  all  further  Proceedings,  untill  the  Plaintiff  or  De- 
l649-        mandant  fubfcribe  the  fame. 

4  All  Subfcriptions  were  to  be  taken  before  the 
Commiflioners  of  the  Great  Seal,  or  Juftices  of 
the  Peace  for  the  County,  City,  or  Town  where 
the  Parties  dwelt;  their  Names  and  Places  of 
Abode  to  be  enter'd  in  a  Book  for  that  Purpofe  by 
the  Juftices  of  Peace,  to  be  by  them  certified  to 
the  refpeclive  Sheriffs,  and  delivered  to  the  Clerk 
of  the  Parliament,  whenever  fo  required  by  the 
Houfe  or  the  Council  of  State.' 

The  Homo  re-        Jan.  8.  The  Parliament  having  received  Letters 

foivethat  Gen.  from  General  Cromwell,  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ire- 

^edTcomede"  ^a"^  Major-General  Ireton,  and  the  Lord  Broghil^ 

home.0  CC          dated  at  Cork  the  i8th  and  igth  ult.  it  was  refolv'd 

that  the  faid  Lord -Lieutenant  be  defircd  to  come 

over,  and  give  his  Attendance  in  Parliament:  And 

that  the  Council  of  State  do  prepare  a  Letter  to  be 

fent  to  him  for  that  Purpofe,  to  be  fign'd  by  the 

Speaker  ;  and  at  the  fame  Time  to  render  him  the 

Thanks  of  the  Houfe  for  his  great  Service  and 

Faithfulnefs  to  the  Commonwealth. 

The  fame  Day  a  Bill,  which  had  been  fome 
Time  dep'ending,  for  fettling  certain  Lands  upon 
Cromwell  and  his  Heirs,  was  reported  to  the  Houfe, 
and  ordered  a  fccond  Reading. 

"Jan.  9.  All  this  Time  we  hear  no  further  of  the 
intended  Adjournment  of  this  Parliament,    than 
Tvhat  has  been  before  mentioned  ;  but  now  the 
Hcufe  was  upon  a  higher  Point,  which  feemed  to 
tend  to  their  own  JDifipliitioffi,  with  a  ftrong  Refe- 
rence to  the  Manner  of  electing  future  Parliaments. 
There  had  been  a  Committee  appointed,  the  I5th 
port  from  theof  frjay  }aft  p^  to  conuder  of  this  Affair ;  and 
poimTd  ttTconH-th'8  ^SY  Sir*Kw»rjr  lP<Mi*,  Jim.  made  the  Report 
dcrof  the  Man- from  them,  by  which  it  appears  to  have  been  the 
futur°ef  pe^ing  Opinion  of  that  Committee,  firft  that  the  feveral 
ineot«.    *     '    Counties,  Cities,  Boroughs,  and  Places  within  the 
Commonwealth  of  England,  fhould  have  the  re- 
fpeclive  Numbers  hereafter  expreiied,    to  be  by 

them, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       24$ 

them,  from  time  to  time,  elected  to  fit  and  ferve  in  Jnter-regnum. 
Parliament ;  to  confift,  in  the  whoJe,  of  400,  viz. 

Bedfordjhire,     and  1  Northumberland,^.  8 

all    the    Places  >     6  Nottingham/hire, &c.  6 

within  the  fame,  3  Oxfordjhire,  &c.   —  6 

Buckingham/hire,  &c.    9  Rutlandjhire,  &c.  —  2 

Berkjhire,  &c. 6  Sta ford/hire,  &c.  —  6 

Cornwall,  &c. 10  Sakf3*8&     8 

Cumberland^  &c.  —     4  Surrey,  &c.   7 

Ca?nbridgejhire,    &c.      8  Southamptonjfhire,&c..  13 

Chcjhire,  &c. 5  £«/*#,  &c.      1 6 

Derby foire^  &c.     —      5  So?nerfetjhire^  &c. —  14 

Devonjhire>  &c.    —  20  <%fcv,  fee.    14 

Dorfetjhire,  &C.    —     8  Weftmoreland,  &c.  -  3 

Durham^  &c.    4  Wiltjhire,  &C.  13 

J&^JT,  &c.    -    14  Warwickjhlre^  &c.  -  7 

Glocejlerfilre^  &c.—     8  Wore  eft  erjhire^  &c.  -  7 

Hertfordjhire,  &c.  -     6  Torkjhire^  &c.   24 

Hereford/hire^  &c.  -     6  Anglefey,  &c.    I 

HuntingdonJhtre^&CC.     4  Brecknockjhire^  &c.  -  2 

.&?«/,  &c.     •   1 8  Cardigan/hire^  &c.  -  2 

Leicejhrjhire,  &c. —      6  Carnarvonshire,   &c.  I 

Lincolnshire,  &c.   —   15  Denbighjhire,?x,c. —  2 

Lancajhire,  &c.     —   12  Flintjhire,  &c.  —  I 

Middlefex,  (except  7      /-  Glamorgan/hire,  &c.  3 

London)     5  Merioneth/hire,    &c.  I 

London,  and  Liber-  7  Monmoutb/bire,   &c.  3 

ties  thereof,  —  J      '  Montgomeryjhirefac.  2 

Norfolk,  &c.     14  Pembrokejhire,  &c.  -  3 

Northampton/hire,  &c.  8  Radnorjhire,  &c.  c  —  2 

The  Committee  were  alfo  to  know  the  Pleafure 
of  the  Houfe,  whether  there  fhould  be  a  particular 
Diftribution  of  the  foregoing  Proportions,  upon  fe- 
veral  Places  in  each  refpe£Hve  County. 

The  other  Heads  of  this  Report  related  to  the 
Rights  and  Privileges  of  electing  and  fending  of 
Members  to  Parliament ;  the  Time  of  the  Conti- 
nuance of  each  Parliament;  the  Manner  of  elect- 
ing the  fame ;  with  the  Qualifications  of  the  Elec- 
tors and  Elecled.  This 

c  The  Total  hereof  amounts  only  to  386 :  But  the  Numbers 
ftand  fo  in  the  J<3urntlst 


2.i6     72>*  P  arliamentary  HISTORY 

This  Report  having  been  read,  by  Parrs,  all 
that  the  Houfe  refolved  upon  was,  That  the  Num- 
ber of  Perfons  to  be  eledted  to  ferve  in  Parliament 
U!ary*  for  tliis  Nation,  {hall  not  exceed  400.  The  De- 
bate on  this  great  Affair  took  up  many  Days  this 
Month  in  a  Grand  Committee ;  but  they  adjourn'd 
from  Time  to  Time  without  coming  to  any  farther 
Refolutions  upon  it. 

Jan.  10.  The  Houfe  ordered  their  Attorney- 
General  to  prepare  a  Patent  to  be  parted  under  the 
Great  Seal  of  England^  appointing  Major-General 
Jreton  to  be  Prefident  of  the  Province  of  Munjhr^ 
he  obferving  fuch  Jnitructions  as  fhould  be  given 
him  by  the  Parliament,  Council  of  State,  or  the 
Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland  for  the  Time  being. 
As  Cromwell's  Commiflion  to  the  lart-menticned 
Poft  was  granted  for  three  Years,  this  Advance- 
ment of  his  Son-in-Law,  Ireton^  mufi  have  been 
a  prodigious  Addition  to  his  Influence  and  Autho- 
rity in  that  Kingdom. 

Jan.  29.  The  Parliament  refolved  that  every 
Friday  in  the  Week  they  would  take  into  Confi- 
deration  the  beft  Ways  and  Means  to  advance  the 
Gofpel  of  Jefus  Chrift  and  Piety ;  and  ordered  that 
the  Speaker  do  put  them  in  Mind  thereof.  In 
confequence  of  this  Order  Bills  were  afterwards 
brought  in  for  providing  a  Maintenance  for 
Preachers  in  different  Parts  of  the  Nation,  for  en- 
forcing the  Obfervation  of  the  Lord's  Day,  for  the 
more  fevere  Puniftiment  of  profane  Curfing  and 
Swearing,  and  for  fuppreflmg  the  deteftable  Sins 
of  Inceft,  Adultery,  and  Fornication.  Of  thefe 
Acls  of  Reformation  Notice  will  be  taken  in  their 
proper  Order  of  Time. 

The  Houfe  re-  Jan'  3°-  Upon  the  Lord  Grey's  Report  from  the 
folvc  upon  a  Style  Council  of  State,  That  they  had  agreed  that  the 
of  Addrefs  to  Style  to  be  ufed  in  all  Tranfa&ions'  with  foreign 
Powers  £hould  run  thus,  Reipublic*  Anglican* 
Ordines,  unlefs  the  Parliament  thought  fit  to 

appoint 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       247 

appoint  any  other :   After  Debate  it  was  refolved,  Inter-regnum. 
«  That,  in  all  Negotiations  and  Tranfa£ttons  with        J 
foreign  States,  the  Style  or  Title  to  be  ufed  fliould    ^^ruaT"' 
be  P arliamentum  Reipublicts  Anglits  :    That  the 
Lords  Commiflioners  of  the  Great  Seal  be  requir'd 
to  pafs,  under  the  Great  Seal  of  England,  feveral 
Commifiions  in  common  Form,  mutatis  mutandis, 
to  the  two  Agents  appointed  by  the  Council  of 
State,  to  be  employed  to  Spain  and  Portugal :  And 
that  the   Style   and   Title   of  every  Addrefs   to 
the  Parliament  from  foreign  Princes  and  States, 
{hall  be  The  Portion. ent  of  the  Commonwealth  of 
England,  and  no  other  Style  or  Title  whatfoever.' 

Jan.  31.  The  Houfe  received  Letters  from  the  Several  Garri- 
Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland,  at  Cork,  dated  the  ad  fons  in  Munjter 
and  loth  Inftant,  advifmg  that  feveral  Garrifons p^^^ 
in  Munfter  had  furrendered  to  the  Parliament's  Forces. 
Forces  without  Blood,  or  finking  a  Stroke ;  and 
that  the  Army  was  in  fo  good  Health  that  Regi- 
ments which  lately  marched  only  400  Men,  now 
inarched  8  or  900 ;  and  that  the  Horfe  were  dif- 
pofed  of  into  Garrifons.     Thefe  Letters  were  re- 
ferred to  the  Council  of  State. 

February  2.  Mr.  Anthony  Afcham  having  been 
appointed  by  the  Parliament  to  go  as  their  Agent 
into  Spain,  Mr.  Charles  Fane  to  Portugal,  and 
Mr.  Richard  Bradjhaw  to  Hamburgh,  the  Houfe 
ordered  the  Commiflioners  of  the  Great  Seal  to 
iflue  out  Commiflions  accordingly.  And  this  Day 
the  Lord-Commiffioner  IVbitlocke  reported  a 
Draught  thereof  from  the  Council  of  State,  which, 
after  fome  Amendments,  was  agreed  to  by  the 
Houfe  as  follows : 

P  Arliamentum  Reipublicte  Angliae,  Omnibus  6f  The  Form  of  * 
Singulis,  ad  quos  prafentes  ha  noftr<s  Liter<ec°m™m°n  to 
•          07  x>          /»  •  ft  their  Agents  a- 

•pervenerint,  oalutem.     Lum  Annum  jam  pojt  recu-  broad, 

peratam  Libertatem,  fc?  reftitutam,  favente  Deo, 
Angliae  Rempublicam,  a  Parliament!)  deer-stum,  nee- 


248     The  Parliamentary  HISTORV 

Jnter-rcgnum.  )ion  E ditto  edito  promuhatum  fit,  velle  atque  admo~ 
*649-  dum  cupere  Populum  Anglicanum,  fcf,  quod  ad  j'e 
VK— —  v—  fJ  pttinet,  Operam  daturum,  ut  qua  fibi  Amicitia  cum 
!ar^'  extern  quibujcunque  Nutionibus  vel  antiquitus  vel 
recent  intercedit,  farta  tefia  confervetur,  vel  ettam 
redintegrato,  Ji  opus  ejjet,  Feeder e  renovetur :  Nos 
idarco,  ne  Incept  urn  tarn  bonum^  tamque  $acipcnm\ 
Flnem  fperatum  non  affequeretur^  cmnes  Status, 
PrincipeS)  Civitates,  ac  Populos^  &  prafertim  Se- 
renijjimum  Hifpaniarum  Regem^  hoc  de  re  certiorem 
faciendum  effe  decrevimus.  Sciatis  igitur,  quod  Nos y 
DUlgentlee^  Solertles^  Fidel,  ac  Probitati  leflijjirni 
Viri  Antonii  Afcami  plurimum  tribuentes,  ipfum 
prtsnominatum  Antonium  noflrum  verum  &  indubi- 
tatum  Comtniffarium,  Procuratorem,  Agentem,  tjf 
Deputatum,  ad  prcediftum  Negotlum  fccimus,  con- 
Jlituimus,  ordinavimus,  ^  deputavimus,  acperPra:- 
fentes  facimus,  conjlituimus,  ordinamus,  iff  depu- 
tamus ;  dantes  eldeyi  &  committentes  plenam  Pctef- 
tatem  &  Autborltatem,  Nomine  nojlro,  cum  pree- 
ditto  Serenijfimo  Hifpaniarum  Rege,  ejufque  Procu- 
ratoribus,  Deputatis,  ac  Nuntiis,  ad  hoc  fufficien- 
tem  Authoritatem  &  Potejlatem  habentibus,  comtnu- 
nicandi,  traftandi,  &  tranfigendi  ea  omnia,  ques  ad 
Atjiicitiam,  &  liberum  ac  antiquum  Commcrcium  in- 
ter Anglos  &  Hifpanos,  &  qnafcunque  fub  eorum 
Ditione  pofito?,  promovendum  &  ftabiliendum  ton- 
ducunt  &  faciunt,  fecundum  ea  Mandata,  quee  vfl 
a  Par.liatnentO)  vel  a  Concilia  Status  Parliamenti 
Author itate  conjlituto,  jam  accepit,  out  per  Literaf 
accept  urns  eft;  promittentes,  bona  Fide,  nos,  qucs  in- 
ter prcsdiftum  Hifpaniarum  Regem,  ejufque  Prscu- 
ratores,  Deputatos,  ^3*  Nuntios,  atque  preEnom\na~ 
turn  Antonium  Afcamum,  noflrum  Commijfarium, 
Agentem,  tf  Deputatum,  tranfacla  &  conclufa  fue- 
rint,  mcdo  illo  quo  fupradicium  eft,  ea  omnia  ra.ta 
(ic  firma  habituros,  &  ex  ncjira  Parte  obfervaturos. 
In  cujus  Rei  Tejl'umnium,  hifce  Literis,  quibus 
Manus  Prolocutoris  no/hi  fubfcribitur,  Magnum 
Reipubiicee  Sigillum  apponi  fecimus.  Datum  in  Pa- 
lat'w  Weftmonafterienfl. 

Fib. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        249 

Feb.  4,  The  Houfe  were  inform'd  of  the  Death  inter-regnum. 
of  Philip  Herbert,  Earl  of  Pembroke  and  Montgo-        l649- 

mery,  and  Knight  of  the  Garter. We  (hall  not    *~^^J 

meddle  with  the  Character  of  this  Noble  Peer, 
who  condefcended  to  take  a  Seat  amongft  the  Com- 
mons, as  one  of  the  Representatives  or  the  County 
of  Berk*)  it  being  amply  drawn  by  Lord  Clarendon 
and  others.  But  no  doubt  the  Houfe  where  he  laft 
fat  had  a  great  Regard  for  him  ;  fince  it  was  this 
Day  ordered,  That  all  the  Members  mould  attend 
his  Corpfe  out  of  the  Town  the  tfadnefday  fol- 
lowing. 

Complaint  having  been  made  of  feveral  Books 
being  lately  publifhed,  containing  many  horrid 
Blafphemies  and  damnable  and  deteftable  Opini- 
ons, and  particularly  one  call'd  A  Fiery  jly ing  Roll, 
compofed  by  one  Coppe ;  all  the  Copies  thereof 
were  ordered  to  be  feized  upon  by  the  Serjeant  at 
Arms,  and  burnt  by  the  Hands  of  the  common  ( 
Hangman.  The  Houfe  alfo  refolved  to  appoint 
the  laft  of  this  Month  to  be  obferved  as  a  Day  of 
folemn  Humiliation,  Fading,  and  Prayer ;  the 
Grounds  and  Reafons  whereof  were  ordered  to  be 
publifhed  in  the  following  Terms,  which  as  it 
tends  to  fhew  the  particular  Turn  of  thefe  Times, 
we  fhall  give  from  the  original  Edition  in  our  own 
Collections.  b 

'  r  |"^HE  Lord  who  ruleth  over  Nations,  who  A  Faft-Day  ap- 

*  1     difpofeth  and  ordereth  all  Things    accord-^— b- 

'  ing  to  the  good  Pleafure  of  his  own  Will,  nathij/hing  certain 
<  in  our  Ao;e  (as  well  as  in  former  Generations)  blafphemous 

*  exceedingly  glorified   his  Wifdom,  Power,  andBooks'^ 

*  Mercy,  that  he  might  warn  and  awaken  theln- 
'  habitants  of  the  Earth  unto  a  diligent  Inquiry  after 
'  him,  a  faithful  and  fruitful  living  before  him ;  his 

«  Voice 

b  Printed  by  Edward  Hu/bands  and  Jzbn  Field,  Printers  to  the 
Parliament  of  England,  1649. 

Hitherto  the  feveral  A£ls  and  Proceedings  of  this  Parliament 
have  run  thus,  printed  by  John  Field  for  Edward  Hujbands  :  But 
on  the  zfth  of  January  the  Houie  voted  that  Mr.  Field,  upon 
the  Nomination  of  the  Speaker,  be  Joint-Printer. with  Mr.  //»/- 
bands.,  for  the  future,  and  have  an  equal  Share  of  the  Ptotits. 


250      T/je  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-rffgnum.  c  Voice  and  his  Hand  hath  been  heard  and  feen 
1649.  <  in  this  Land  moft  eminently,  in  refcuing  us  out 

*— — v— • '  *  of  the  deftroying  Hands  of  Tyranny,  Popery,  and 
fchiuary.  <  Superftition :  Which  Experience  of  the  Lord's 
'  wonderful  Goodnefs  and  Mercy  towards  this  Na- 
'  tion,  might  have  wrought  an  anfwerable  Return 
'  of  Duty  ?nd  Obedience  ;  and  the  Senfe  of  the 
'  Want  hereof  ought  to  fill  us  with  Shame,  Afto- 
'  nifhrnent,  and  Confufion  of  Face,  efpecially 
«  when  (inftead  thereof)  we  find  in  the  Midft  of  it 
'  fuch  crying  Sins,  hideous  Blafphemies,  and  un- 

*  heard-of  Abominations,  (and  that  by  fome  under 

*  Pretence  of  Liberty,    and  greater  Meafure  of 

*  Light)  as,  after  all  our  wonderful  Deliverances, 

*  do  manifeft  themfelves  to  the  exceeding  Diftio- 

*  nour  of  God,    and  Reproach  of  our  Chriftian 
'  Profefiion  :  To  the  End  therefore  that  this  Na- 

*  tion  in  general,  and  every  one  in  particular,  may 
'  have  an  Opportunity  to  know  and  acknowledge 
'  their  Sins  in  the  Sight  of  God,   and  be  truly 

*  humbled  for  them  ;  and  that  earneft  Prayer  and 
'  Supplication  may  be  put  up  on  behalf  of  this 

,  '  Commonwealth,  for  the  Advancement  of  the 
'  Kingdom  of  Chrift,  and  Propagation  of  his  Gofpel 
'  throughout  the  fame,  and  all  the  Dominions 

*  thereof;  that  the  good  Hand  of  God  may  be  con- 
'  tinued  with  us  in  perfecting  his  great  Works, 

*  which  have  been  carried  on  to  fo  good  a  Degree 

*  in  England  and  Ireland;    that  all  Differences 

*  among  Brethren  might  be  reconciled  in  Love ; 
'  that  the  Defigns,  Combinations,  and  Confpira- 

*  cies  of  all  wicked  Men  (whether  within  or  with- 
'  out  us)  to  embroil  this  Nation  in  a  new  War, 

*  may  be  difcovered  and  prevented ;  and  that  whilft 
'  ungodly  Men  do  make  the  Arm  of  Fielh  their 

*  Confidence,  we  may  teftify  (from  an  abundant 
'  Experience  of  the  Lord's  Goodnefs)  that  our 

*  Strength  is  only  in  the  living  God  :  Be  it  there- 

*  fore  enacted  and  declared,  That  Thurfday  the 

*  laft  Day  of  February -,  1649,  be  appointed  and 
'  kept  as  a  folemn  Day  of  Fafting,  Prayer,  and 

*  Humiliation,  for  the  Ends  aforeiaid.' 

Feb. 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      251 

Feb.  12.  The  Time  appointed  for  the  Conti-  Inter-regnum. 
nuance  of  the  preient  Council  of  State  being  up  the      . J  4^* 
Middle  of  this  Month,  the  Houfe  proceeded  to    ^^~ 
the  Election  of  a  new  one  for  the  next  Year  •,  and 
firii  agreed  That  the  Number  of  Perions  to  act  in  A  Council  of 
this   Hi"-h   Station  fhould  not  exceed  forty-one.  State  ekfted  for 
They  next  read  over  a  Lift  of  the  Names  of  thethe 
prefent  Council,  and  proceeded  to  vote  every  fingle 
Peribn  into  the  Office  or  reject  them,  by  putting 
the  Queltion  upon  each  ;  when  they  were  all  re- 
elected  except  the  Earl  of  JMulgrave,  Lord  Grey 
of  IVarke,    and   Sir  John  D'Anvers.     The  two 
firft  were  rejected  without  a  Diviiion,  the  laft  by 
a  Majority  of  40  Voices   againft  34 :  And  there 
being  only  37  Perfons  agreed  upon,  the  Houfe  re- 
folved,  That  it  be  referred  to  a  Committee  to  con- 
fider  of  the  beft  Way  of  electing  four  Perfons 
more  to  be  of  the  Council  of  State  for  the  Year 
enfuing,  in  the  room  of  the  three  who  had  been 
rejected,  and  the  Earl  of  Pembroke^  deceas'd.  * 

The  next  Day,  Feb.  13,  the  Powers  given  to 
the  Council  of  State  by  their  former  Instructions, 
palled  the  1 3th  of  February,  1648,  were  read  and 
agreed  to,  with  this  Addition,  '  You  have  alfo 
'  hereby  Power  to  appoint  Committees,  or  any 
'  other  Perfon  or  Perfons,  for  Examinations,  re- 
'  ceiving  of  Informations,  and  preparing  of  Bufi- 
*  nefs  for  your  Debates  and  Refolutions.'  The 
other  Articles,  being  already  given  under  their  pro- 
per Date,  are  unneceflary  to  be  repeated  here. 

The  filling  up  the  four  Vacancies  in  the  Council  , 
of  State  gave  Occahon  to  much  Debate  and  many 
Divifions  of  the  Houfe.  At  length,  on  the  2Oth 
of  this  Month,  it  was  refolved  to  elect  five  Per- 
fons to  be  of  this  Council a  j  when  Mr.  Thomas 
Chaloner^  Mr.  John  Gourdon,  Col.  Herbert  Mor- 

ley 

a  The  Manner  of  this  EJeftion  is  very  minutely  described  in 
the  Journals  j  but  there  feems  to  be  a  Miftake  as  to  five  Perfons 
being  reported  to  have  the  greateft  Number  of  Subfcriptions,  and 
then  giving  the  Names  of  feven  ;  nor  do  thefe  Authorities  afiign 
any  Reafon  for  electing  five  inflead  of  four. 


252       The  Parliamentary  Hi  s  T OR  Y 

Inter-regnum.  hy,  Sir  Peter  Wentwortb,  and  Lord  Howard,  were 
1649-         chofen.   Sir  Henry   Vane,  fen.  was  rejected   by  a 
V-— \^-— /    Majority  of  54  againft  44,  and  the  new  Earl  of 
Pembroke  without  a  Divifion  b. 

Feb.  25.  Notice  has  been  already  taken,  that 
the  Parliament  had  defired  Lieutenant-General 
Cromwell  to  come  over  into  England;  and  this 
Day  it  was  ordered,  That  his  Excellency  have  the 
Ufe  of  the  Lodgings  call'd  the  Cockpit ,  the  Spring- 
Garden,  St.  James's  Houfe,  and  the  Command 
of  St.  James's  Park. 

Although  the  Parliament  had  fet  apart  every 
Wedncfday  in  the  Week  to  go  on  with  their  Pro- 
ceedings in  the  A<5r.  for  an  equal  Reprefentative 
and  the  Regulation  of  Elections,  nothing  more  was 
concluded  on  than  what  we  have  already  men- 
tioned. 

March.  The  Proceedings  of  the  Houfe  iri  this 
Month  ran  chiefly  on  private  Affairs,  few  Matters 
of  Moment  coming  before  them. 

A  Book,  aflfert-      On  the  8th  Complaint  being  made  of  a  Book 

ing  the  Obferva- lately   publifhed,    intitled,    The   Doftrine   of  the 

SVabbat^or- Fourtb  Commandment  as  deform  d  by  Popery,   re- 

^r'dtobcburnt./5''^'^  and  rejior'd  to  its  primitive  Purity,   &c. 

which  afcertained  the  Oblervation  of  the  jewijb 

Sabbath  :   It  was  refolved  that  the  faid  Book  is 

erroneous,  fcandalous,  and  profane ;  contrary  to 

the  Practice  of  the  Apoftles,  and  of  all  Chriftian 

Churches ;  that  all  the  printed  Copies  thereof  be 

burnt ;  that  the  Author  be  apprehended  ;  and  the 

Printer  and  Publifher  punifhed  according  to  Law. 

ABAftforerdft-      Th    f         D  Aa  por  fh    better  ^avance_ 

ing  a  new  Col-  /.     i     ^    r     t         ,     r  T  •        -Tt        i 

Jege,  fife,  at     ment  fij  the  (jojpel  and  oj  Learning  in  IreJand,  was 
Dublin,  read  a  third  Time,  pafs'd,  and  ordered  to  be  print- 

ed.    Hereby  it  was  enabled,  '  That  all  Manors 

and 

b  He  was  ele£ted  for  Glamorganjhire  at  the  Beginning  of  this 
Parliament,  and  continued  to  fit  among  the  Commons  after  his  Fa- 
ther's Deceafe  ;  whereupon  the  Houfe  appointed  him  to  fucceed  to 
the  Offices  of  C-jJlos  Raulorum  for  the  Counties  of  Derby  and  Wilts, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      253 

and  Lands,  lately  belonging  to  the  Archbifhoprick  Int«--regnum« 
of  Dublin,  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Patrick's,    ^     ' 
and  the  Biihoprick  of  Meath,  mould  be  fettled  in    '^JJJch.    ' 
Truftees,  for  the  Ufe  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin ; 
alfo  for  creeling  another  College  and  a  Free  School 
in  that  City  ;  and  for  Maintenance  of  a  Mafter, 
Fellows,  public  Profeflbrs,  Scholars,  We.  in  fuch 
Manner  as  by  the  faid  Truftees  fhould  be  thought 
proper,  if  approv'd  of  by  the  Lord-Lietenant  of 
Ireland,  who  was  authorized  to  place  or  remove 
all  the  refpedtive  Officers  thereof ;  to  allow  them 
fuch  Stipends  out  of  the  Premifles  as  he  fhould 
think  fit ;  and  to  make  Rules  and  Orders  for  the 
Government  thereof,  fubject  to  fuch  Alterations 
as  the  Parliament  of  England  fhould  think  proper. 

The  Houfe  having  received  Advice  that  their 
late  Acl  for  laying  an  Excife  upon  Beer  and  Ale, 
by  being  extended  to  private  Families,  had  given 
Occafion  to  great  Difcontents ;  the  Speaker  was 
ordered  to  write  Letters  to  the  Judges  who  were 
to  go  the  Circuits  at  the  Lent  Affizes,  to  take  Care 
for  fuppreffing  all  Tumults  ariling  thereby,  and  a 
new  Method  was  agreed  on  for  collecting  the  Duty. 

On  the  nth  of  this  Month  an  Act  was  pafs'd,  For  felling  the 
For  felling  all  the  Fee-Farm  Rents  belonging  to  //^Fee-Farm  Rents 
Crown,  in  order  to  the  better  carrying  on  the  War°f  theCrown» 
in  Ireland,  and  other  emergent  Affairs  of  the  Com- 
monwealth ;  for  which  Purpofe  thefe  Eftates  were 
vefted  in  Truftees,  who  were  impowered  to  fell 
the  fame  at  eight  Years  Purchafe,  but  not  under ; 
nor  was  any  Truftee  to  be  admitted  as  a  Purchafer 
of  any  Part  of  the  Premifles. 

A  Bill  had  been  ordered  to  be  brought  in,  ForAnA  eftablifting 
eftablijking  a  Court-Martial  within  the  Cities  of3-  High  Court  of 
London  and  Weftminfter,  and  the  late  Lines  fl/Mice' 
Communication  ;   which  being  read  twice  on  the 
I4th,  it  was  refolved,  That  the  Court,  to  beeredt- 
ed  by  this  A61,  fljould  bear  the  Name  of  an  High 
Court  of  Jujlice.     The  Bill  was  then  committed  ; 

and 


254     tte  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intsr-reghum.  and  the  Committee  were  to  have  Power  to  confider 
1650.         Of  fuch  Perfons  as  were  Judges  in  the  Trial  of  the 
L~VT~     Duke  of  Hamilton^  &c.  and  fuch  others  as  they 
fhould  think  fit,  and  prcfent  them  to  the  Houfe. 

March  21.  This  Day  the  Houfe  refumed  the 
Debate  on  the  foregoing  Aft,  when  fome  Amend- 
ments were  made  to  it,  and  fome  Commiffioners 
named,  and  ordered  it  to  be  cngrofled  ;  but  it  was 
not  finally  concluded  till 

March  26.  When  being  read,  and  a  Provifo 
added,  *  That  this  Adi,  nor  any  Thing  therein 
contained,  (hould  extend  to  the  diminifhing  or  lef- 
fening  any  Power  or  Authority  formerly  given  to 
the  Lord-General  or  his  Council  of  War,  or  to 
the  Admirals  at  Sea,  by  Authority  of  Parliament, 
for  executingof  Martial  Law,'  the  Aft  patted 
without  any  Divifion. 

TheEftates  of  Towards  the  latter  End  of  this  Month  a  Report 
5dinnqlE!d  ie"was  macle  to  the  Houfe  from  the  Council  of  State, 
ordered  to° be' fe-Tnat  ^  appeared,  by  Letters,  that  Sir  Chriftopber 
cured.  Hattcn,  called  the  Lord  Hatton^  was  beyond  the 

Seas,  with  the  late  Queen  and  her  Son,  and  is  ac- 
tive there  againft  this  Commonwealth,  and  yet  en- 
joys his  Eftate  here  by  Compofition.  After  fome 
Debate  en  this  Matter  the  Houfe  rcfolved,  on  the 
Queftion,  *  That  the  Eftate  of  Sir  Cbrijlopbcr 
Hatton  be  forthwith  fequeftred  :'  And,  to  carry 
this  Blow  farther,  it  was  at  the  fame  Time  refolved, 
'  That  all  fuch  Perfons  as  had  compounded  for 
their  Delinquency,  and  were  then  beyond  the  Seas 
without  Leave,  their  Eftates,  Real  and  Perfonal, 
fhould  be  forthwith  fecured.'  And  it  was  referr'd 
to  the  Sequeftrating  Committee,  who  had  long  fat 
at  Goldfmitbs-Hall)  to  fee  this  Vote  fpeedily  put  in 
Execution. 

We  {hall  end  this  Month  with  obferving  that,  by 
a  Report  made  to  the  Houfe  from  the  Committee 
of  the  Army,  it  appeared  that  the  Monthly  Charge 
thereof  in  England  and  Ireland,  amounted  to 
101,578 /. 

April 


O/   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.     255 

April.  The  State  the  Nation  was  in  at  this  Time  Inter-regnunu 
under  this  new  Republic,  was  far  from  being  ferene        l65°- 
and  profperous.     The  Jealoufy  of  the  Royal  Fa-    u"~~v""~'-' . 
mily,  and  Infurre&ions  in  their  Favour  j  the  late 
great  Difturbance  by  the  Levellers,  whom  indeed 
they  had  crufh'd,  but  not  flain  ;  and  new  Seels  of 
Principles,  equally  dangerous  to  them,  every  W^ek 
fpringing  up.     Add  to  thefe,  the  Wars  in  Ireland^ 
and  the  Expectancy  of  another  Invafion  from  Scot- 
land\  all  which  muft,  together,  make  this  Govern- 
ment uneafy  on  all  Sides. 

However,  this  Fragment  of  a  Parliament  had  af-  The  Parliament 
fumed  to  themfelves  not  only  all  the  LegiuVive  Sentence  fix  Per- 
Powers  that  were  ever  enjoyed  by  the  other  twoj°hnes  Ja^^t 
more  antient  States  of  the  Kingdom,  but  they  even  Forgery. 
abforbed  and  exercifed  the  Jurifdiction  of  the  more 
ordinary  Courts  of  Juftice,  by  trying  and  giving 
Sentence,  to  the  Pillory  or  otherways,  againft  Per- 
ibns  convened  before  them,  fecundum  Arbitrium^ 
as  Mr.  Whltlocke  exprefly  tells  usa;  fome  Inftances 
of  which  now  lie  before  us :  For  this  very  Day, 
April  i,  fix  Perfons  were  adjudged  to  be  fet  in  the 
Pillory,  and  lofe  both  their  Ears  ;  alfo  to  be  com- 
mitted to  the  Houfe  of  Correction,  there  to  be 
kept  to  hard  Labour  for  one  Year,  for  forging  Bills 
of  Exchange,  and  counterfeiting  Warrants,  where- 
by they  had  defrauded  the  Government  of  3000 /. 

The  Debate  on  the  Bill  for  regulating  Elec- 
tions, and  making  an  equal  Reprefentative,  ftill 
continued  every  Wednefday;  and  this  Day,  April 3, 
it  was  again  refumed  in  a  Grand  Committee  of 
the  whole  Houfe,  without  concluding  any  Thing. 
Adjourned  the  Debate  to  the  fame  Day  Se'nnight. 

Ordered,    *  That  all  Patents  for  creajting  o  rAU  Titles  of  Ho- 
granting  any  Titles  of  Honour  to  any  Perfon  or  "our  6rante.d 
Perfons  whatfoever,  after  the  carrying  away  the  ^GreatSS  to 
Great  Seal  to  Oxford,  be  annulled  and  made  void:  Oxford,  declare* 
And  that  no  Perfon  prefume  to  give  them  the  faidvoid< 
Title  of  Honour ;  nor  the  faid  Perfon  or  Perfons, 
to  whom  fuch  Title  is  fo  granted,  do  take  the  faid 

Title 

»  Memorials,  p.  424. 


256      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum.  Title  upon  him.     The  Lords  Commiffioners  to 
1650.         bring  in  an  A61  accordingly. 

The  fame  Day  feveral  Aldermen  of  the  City  of 
London  prefented  a  Writing  to  the  Houle,  intitled, 
e  bumble  and  thankful  Acknowledgment  of  the 
refolvc  to  Lord  Mayor i  Aldermen^  and  Commons  of  the  City  of 
fupport  the  Par-  London }  giving  Thanks  to  the  Parliament  for  their 
Gift  of  Richmond  New  Park  to  the  City;  and  that 
they  do  declare  and  refolve,  (thro5  God's  Afliftance) 
•with  the  Hazard  of  their  Lives  and  Eftates,  to  frand 
and  fall  with  the  Parliament  againft  all  wicked  Prac- 
tices and  oppofite  pretended  Powers  whatfoever. 
Which  being  read,  the  laid  Aldermen  were  again 
called  in,  and  the  Speaker,  in  the  Name  of  the 
Houfc,  returned  them  Thanks. 

The  King's  April  9.  This  Day  the  Houfe  refolved  that  the 

Arms  ordered  to  A  f  h    j  t    £•      fhould  be  taken  down  in  all 

be  taken  down  jn  „    .  111?  i  •     /~i 

ell  Churches,      ohips  of,  and  belonging  to,  this  Commonwealth ; 

Ships,  &c.  as  alfo  of  all  Merchants  or  others  inhabiting  with- 
in the  fame ;  and  that  the  Admirals  at  Sea  be  re- 
quired to  fee  the  fame  done  accordingly.  Alfo  that 
all  Juftices  of  the  Peace  in  the  refpedtive  Counties, 
and  all  other  public  Magifr.rat.es  and  Officers, 
Churchwardens,  and  Wardens  of  Companies,  be 
authoriz'd  and  requir'd  to  caufe  the  Arms  of  the  late 
King  to  be  taken  down  and  defaced  in  all  Churches, 
Chapels,  and  all  other  public  Places  within  Eng- 
land, Wales,  and  the  Town  of  Berwick.  This 
Order  to  be  forthwith  printed  and  publimed;  and, 
confonant  to  it,  the  King's  Arms  were  taken  down 
every  where,  and  the  States  Arms  put  up  in  their 
Stead. 

April  12.  The  Houfe  having  received  a  Letter 
from  Col.  Heivfon^  Governor  of  Dublin^  with  Ad- 
vice of  the  Surrender  ofi  the  City  and  Caftle  of 
gilkemy  furren-  Kilkenny,  in  Ireland,  the  Speaker  was  ordered  to 
write  him  a  Letter  of  Thanks,  as  an  Acknow- 
ledgment of  his  good  Services  therein. 

The  reft  of  this  Month  was  taken  up  in  deba- 
ting and  voting  fmall  Matters  in  regard  to  this  Hif- 

tory, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      257 

tory,  and  therefore  we  omit  them.  Abftradls  from  Inter- regnuih; 
fome  particular  Ac"ts  paffed  in  it,  will  fall  in  the  l650i 
Sequel.  A  Bill  for  fupprefling  Adultery,  Inceft,  ^~~~^mJ 
and  Fornication,  was  carrying  on  at  this  Time,  Apn  ' 
under  very  fevere  Penal  ties:  For  this  Day,  April  12, 
the  following  Claufe  was  agreed  upon  to  be  added 
to  the  Bill :  That  in  cafe  any  married  Woman  foall, 
from  and  after  ,  be  carnally  known  by  any  Man 
but  her  Hufband^  except  in  cafe  of  Ravi/hrnent^  and 
of  fuch  Offence  be  convitfed,  it  flail  be  adjudged 
Felony :  And  every  fuch  Man  or  Woman  offending 
therein^  and  confejjing  the  fame ',  or  being  conviffed  by 
VerdiSl^  /hall  fuffer  Death ,  as  in  cafe  of  Felony^ 
without  Benefit  of  Clergy.  Provided,  That  this 
flail  not  extend  to  any  Man  tuho,  at  the  Time  of 
fuch  Offence  committed^  is  not  knowing  that  the  Wo- 
man is  then  married :  And  that  this  Act  do  not  ex- 
tend to  Women  wbofe  Hujbands  are  beyond  the  Seas  j 
or  who  abfent  themfelves  from  their  Wives  for  the 
Space  of  five  Tears ,  when  there  is  a  common  Fame 
that  their  Hujbands  are  dead.  This  Act  took  up 
ftill  more  Time  in  perfecting  ;  for,  April  26,  the 
Time  to  be  limited,  as  to  a  Hufband's  Abfence,  ei- 
ther for  five  or  three  Years,  being  put  to  the  Que- 
ftion,  it  was  carried  for  the  latter,  by  22  againft  14. 

The  Acts  pafled  this  Month,  worth  ou  r  Notice, Afts  Paffed  f<** 
(of  which  it  will  be  fufficient  to  give  the  moft  ma-  ^/c^f0? 
terial  Claufes)  were,  one  For  Provijion  for  Mini-  °r 
Jlers^  and  other  pious  Ufes.     Hereby  it  was  enacted, - 
'  That  out  of  the  Impropriations,Tythes,  &c.  late 
belonging  to  Bifhops,  Deans  and  Chapters,  an 
Augmentation  be  made  to  the  Stipends  of  preach- 
ing Mlnifters;  that  2OOO/.  per  Ann.  be  paid  to  the 
Matters  and  Heads  pf  Houfes  in  the  two  Univer- 
fities,  not  exceeding  ioo/.  to  any  one  of  them; 
and  80 /.  per  Ann.  to  the  Lady  Margaret's  Profef- 
for  of  Divinity  at  Oxford,'  with  feveral  Claufes  and 
Provifoes  reciting  former  Acts  on  this    SubjecT:. 
Another  Acl  was  pafled,  For  inflifling  certainPe-7or!ifil'l&er^b" 
nalties  for  Breach  of  the  Lord's  Day  and  other  ^jjjjjjf  ^ff.the 
lemn  Days.     By  which  it  was  enabled,  *  That 

VOL,  XIX.  R  Goods 


258     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-rccnum.  Goods  cried  or  put  to  Sale  on  the  Lord's  Day,  o'r 
1650.  Days  of  public  Humiliation  or  Thankfgiving, 
be  feizcd  :  Travellers,  Waggoners,  &c. 
not  obferving  thofe  Days,  to  forfeit  los.  Any 
Writ,  Warrant,  £sV.  executed  on  thofe  Days,  to 
be  of  no  Effect,  and  the  Perfon  offending  to  forfeit 
5/.  No  Perfon  to  ule  or  travel  with  Boat,  Horfe, 
Co;-r_h,  or  Sedan,  except  to  Church,  upon  Pain 
of  iOf.  The  like  Penalty  for  being  in  a  Tavern, 
Ale-houfe,  &c.  Dancing  or  profanely  Singing  on 
any  of  thofe  Days.  Where  Diftrefs  could  not  be 
found  fufficient  to  fatisfy  the  refpeclive  Penalties, 
the  Ofren-der  to  fit  in  the  Stocks  fix  Hours.'  This 
Ac}  was  ordered  to  be  yearly  read  in  all  Churches 
the  firft  Lord's  Day  in  Mortb, 

The  Parliament,      May.  The  Houfe  continued  jealous  of  the  De- 
being  apprchc-n-  figns  of  t}ie  Scots  anc|  tne  great  Armament  they 
f!on°hoaminSl  were  raifing;    for,    on  the  Receipt  of  a  Letter 
land,  make  an    from  Edinburgh,  the  Qth  of  laft  Month,  they  or- 
^ddition  to  their  der'd  it  to  be  referr'd  to  the  Council  of  State ;  who 
were  impovvered  and  required,   by  all  Ways  and 
Means  that  they  fliould  think  fit,  to  prevent  all  In- 
vafions  from  abroad,  and  to  preferve  the  Peace  of 
this  Nation  from  all  Tumults  and  Infurrections 
at  home. 

May  7.  In  purfuance  of  this  Order  Col.  Morley 
reported  from  the  Council  of  State,  that  they  found 
it  neceflary,  for  anfwering  the  laid  Ends,  that,  be- 
fides  the  prefent  Forces,  there  be  yet  this  Addition 
made  to  them,  viz.  That  the  eight  Regiments  of 
Horfe  of  the  {landing  Army,  being  now  480  Men, 
•be  made  up  600  each :  That  two  new  Troops  of 
Dragoons  be  added  to  the  eight  now  in  being;  and 
all  the  ten  Troops  to  confift  of  100  Men  each  : 
That  two  Troops  of  the  faid  Dragoons  be  arm'd 
and  paid  as  Horfe,  for  fuch  Time  as  the  Council 
of  State  fhall  think  neceflary  :  That  a  Troop  of 
Horfe,  to  confift  of  80,  be  raifed  for  the  Safety  of 
the  Ifle  of  Wight :  That  three  Troops  of  Horfe, 
of  zoo  each,  be  raifed  for  the  Service  of  the  Gar- 

rifons 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       259 

rifons  of  Newcajile*  Berwick,  and  Carlljle :  That  Inter-regnumf 
there  be  alfo  two  new  Regiments  of  Foot  raifed,        *     '"^ 
each  to  confift  of  1200  Men,  to  be  paid  only  for        Mayi" 
fo  long  Time  as  the  Council  of  State  fliall  find  it 
neceflary  for  the  Service  of  the  Commonwealth. 
And  that  this  Increafe  of  the  Army  will  be  an  ad- 
ditional Charge  of  8259 /.  IOS-  %d.  per  Men  fern. 

After  reading  this  Report  the  Houfe  refolved 
that  thefe  additional  Forces  fliall  be  raifed  in  the 
Manner  as  above  propofed,  and  be  paid  by  the 
Committee  of  the  Army  as  they  receive  Significa- 
tion thereof  from  the  Council  of  State. 

It  may  be  remembered  that,  under  the  Tranf- 
aclions  of  Auguft,  1648  a,  we  took  Notice  of  a 
Charge  of  High  Treafon  being  prefented  to  the 
Houfe  of  Lords  againft  General  Cromwell  by  Ma- 
jor Huntington  ;  but  that  failing  in  his  Attempt  to 
lay  it  before  the  Commons,  he  threw  up  his  Com- 
miffion,  and  publifh'd  a  Narrative  of  his  Reafons 
for  fo  doing.  From  that  Time  we  hear  no  more 
of  this  Affair  till  this  Day,  May  7  ;  when  the  Ma- 
jor having  applied  for  Payment  of  the  Arrears  due 
to  him  from  the  Parliament,  the  Houfe  not  only 
ordered  them  to  be  ftopp'd,  but  referred  it  to  a 
Committee  to  confider  and  examine  the  feditious 
Practices  of  the  faid  Major,  againft  the  Parliament 
and  Commonwealth  of  England^  at  the  Time  when 
the  Scots  invaded  this  Nation. 

May  10.  The  Act  for  fupprefling  the  deteftable* 
Sins  of  Inceft,  Adultery,  and  Fornication,  was 
read  a  third  Time,  and  fome  Provifoes  were  added 
to  it,  as, 

1.  c  That  no  Party's  Cohfefllon  fhould  be  taken 
as  Evidence,  within  this  Adi,  againft  any  other  but 
only  fuch  Party  fo  confeffing. 

2.  '  Nor  any  Hufband  to  be  a  Witnefs  againft 
his  Wife,  nor  any  Wife  againft  her  Hufband. 

3.  *  Nor  any  Servant  againft  his  or  her  Mafter 
er  Miftrefs,  for  any  Offence  punifhable  by  this  Act.' 

R  2  But 

«  In  our  i  yth  Volume^  p.  359, 


260      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  But  the 'latter  Provifo  being  put  to  the  Queftion, 
1650.  it  was  carried  in  the  Negative;  as  was  alfo  ano- 
— >*•"•  "^  ther  for  continuing  it  only  for  three  Years ;  after 
AiJ'  which  the  whole  A61,  being  put  to  the  Queftion, 
paffed  without  any  more  Divifion  about  it.  The 
ro.nwft  material  Claufes  thereof  were  thefe  ;  <  That 
ft,  Adultery,  all  Perfons  guilty  of  Inceft  mall  fufFer  Death,  as  in 
and  Fornication,  cafe  of  Felony,  without  Benefit  of  Clergy ;  that 
inceftuous  Marriages  (hall  be  void,  and  the  Chil- 
dren illegitimate :  That  Adultery  fhall  alfo  be 
deem'd  Felony,  and  punimed  with  Death ;  but 
this  (hall  not  extend  to  any  Man  who,  at  the  Time 
of  committing  fuch  Offence,  did  not  know  the 
Woman  to  be  married  ;  nor  to  any  Woman 
whofe  Hufband  mail  be  three  Years  abfent  from 
her,  fo  as  fhe  did  not  know  him  to  be  living.  In. 
cafe  of  Fornication,  both  Parties,  for  the  firft  Of- 
fence, were  to  fufFer  three  Months  Imprifonment 
without  Ball,  and  alfo  give  Security  for  their  good 
Behaviour  for  one  whole  Year  after.  Every  com- 
mon Bawd,  for  the  firft  Offence,  to  be  openly 
whipp'd,  fet  in  the  Pillory,  and  there  mark'd  with 
a  hot  Iron  in  the  Forehead  with  a  B;  alfo  to  be 
committed  to  the  Houfe  of  Correction  for  three 
Years  without  Bail,  and  untill  fufficient  Security 
be  given  for  good  Behaviour  during  Life  :  And  the 
Perfons  a  fecond  Time  found  guilty  of  the  laft  re- 
cited Offences  were  to  fuffer  Death.  All  Profe- 
cutions  to  be  commenced  within  twelve  Months. 
Mr.  JVkitlocke  tells  us  h,  «  That  Mr.  Henry  M&r- 
iin  declared  his  Opinion,  That  the  Severity  of  the 
Punifhment  by  this  Act,  being  Death,  would  caufe 
thefe  Sins  to  be  more  frequently  committed,  be- 
caufe  the  People  would  be  more  cautious  in  com- 
mitting them  for  Fear  of  the  Punifhment ;  and,  be- 
ing undifcovered,  would  be  embolden'd  the  more  in 
the  Commitment  of  them.' 

May  1 6.  The  Houfe  ordered  a  competent  Num- 
ber of  the  Acts  againft  Adultery,  and  for  the  bet- 
ter Obfervation  of  the  Lord's  Day,  &c.  to  be  forth- 
with 

t>  Materials,  p.  440. 


•  Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      261 

with  printed  at  the  Public  Charge ;   and  that  the  Inter-regnum. 

Council  of  State  take  Care  to  fend  them  to  every 

Parilh  in  the  feveral  Counties.  juT"*"^ 

The  Council  of  State  had  made  divers  Reports 
on  the  Order,  of  the  gth  of  April  laft,  for  fecuring 
the  Peace  of  the  Nation,  which  were  all  agreed 
to  by  the  Houfe  :  And  on  the  i5th  of  this  Month 
another  Report  being  made  from  that  Council,  on 
occafion  of  raifing  Money  to  pay  the  additional 
Forces  neceflary  for  that  Purpofe ;  and  the  Acl: 
pafs'd  in  December  laft,  touching  the  Monthly  Af- 
iefTment    expiring    at  Midfummer    enfuing,   theT}ie  Montfjj 
Houfe  refolv'd,  on  the  2ift  of  this  Month,  to  con-  Affeflment,  for 
tinue  the  fame  to  Chriftmas,  at  the  Rate  of  90,000  /.  Maintenance  of 
per  Men/em  for  the  firft  Quarter,  and  60,000 /.  for  JJ 
the  fecond,  for  Maintenance  of  the  Forces  raifed 
for  the  Service  of  England  and  Ireland. 

The  fame  Day,  May  21,  the  Houfe  appointed 
the  1 3th  of  June  next  for  a  Day  of  public  Failing 
and  Humiliation,  in  an  Adi:  parted  for  that  Purpofe. 
The  Preamble  to  which,  expreffing  the  Occafion, 
we  deliver  from  that  Authority. 

'  Altho' this  Nation  hath  enjoyed  many  Bleflings,  A  Faft  appointed 

*  and  great  Deliverances  from  the  Hands  of  God  ;  for  the  Succefs  of 

<  yet  have  the  People  thereof  multiplied  their  Sins,  rhj^afrliament'3 

*  as  God  hath  multiplied  his  Bleflings  upon  them, 
'  efpecially  the  Sins  of  Unthankfulnefs  and  Un- 
'  fruitfulnefs,  under  fuch  Gofpel  Means  and  Mer- 

*  cies ;  which  may  moft  juftly  provoke  the  Lord 
'  to  multiply  his  Judgments  upon  this  Nation  : 
'  The  Parliament  taking  the  fame  into  ferious 
6  Confederation,  as  alfo  the  pernicious  Defigns  of 
'  the  Enemies  of  this  Commonwealth,  to  engage 
'  the  fame  in  a  new  and  bloody  War ;  and  being 
c  truly  fenfible  of  their  own  Inability  to  prevent  or 

*  difappoint  the  fame  ;    and  to  teftify  that  their 
'  whole  Dependence  is  upon  the  Lord  alone,  and 
'  upon  the  Freenefs  of  his  Grace  in  Chrift,  do 

<  enacl:  and  ordain  thztTburfday  the  1 3th  of  June 

*  next  enfuing,  be  obferv'd  and  kept  in  all  Churches 

R  <  «  and 


262     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

$nter-regnum.  '  and  Chapels  in  England  and  Wales,  and  the 
1650.  «  Town  of  Berwick  upon  Tweed,  as  afolemn  Day 

\r**~**~*  "J  «  of  Fafting  and  Humiliation  for  the  foremention- 
jMa)'  '  tion'd  Sins,  and  for  all  other  the  Tranfgreflions 

*  whereof  this  Nation  is  guilty  ;  and  for  imploring 
'  the  Favour  of  God  for  a  Blefiing  upon  the  Coun- 

*  fels  and  Endeavours  of  the  Parliament,  and  upon 

*  their  Forces  by  Land  and  by  Sea  ;  and  that  our 

*  gracious  God  would  be  pleafed  to  give  the  People 

*  of  this  Nation  a  Heart  to  ferve  him  in  Sincerity ; 

*  and  to  unite  them  againft  all  Combinations  and 

*  Practices  of  foreign  or  domeftic  Enemies  to  this 
«  Caufe  of  God,  (which  the  Parliament  hath  and 

*  fhall,  by  his  Blefling  and  Afiiftance,  maintain  to 

*  the  End)  that  fo  at  laft,  through  the  Goodnefs 

*  and  Mercy  of  God,  this  Commonwealth  may 

*  be  eftablifh'd  in  all  Truth  and  Peace,  to  the 

*  Glory  of  God,  ana  the  Happinefs  of  this  Nation. 

*  And  the  Minifters  of  the  refpedlive  Churches 

*  and  Chapels  aforefaid,   are  hereby  required  to 

*  give  Notice  hereof  on  the  Lord's  L)ay  next  pre- 

*  ceding  the  faid   1 3th  of  June ;  at  which  Time 
<  alfo  the  faid  Minifters  are  required  to  publilh  this 

*  prefent  AcV 

The  reft  of  this  Month  was  chiefly  taken  up  with 
making  more  Preparations  for  withftanding  the  ex- 
peeled  Invafion  from  the  Scots ;  in  which  great  Care, 
was  taken  by  placing  Forces,  Garrifons,  &c.  in  aH 
fufpedted  Counties,  to  hinder  any  Infurredlions,  at 
that  Time,  which  might  favour  fuch  Attempts. 
The  Militia  was  alfo  regulated  by  Orders  and  Or- 
dinances for  that  Purpofe. 

We  ihall  conclude  the  Tranfaclions  of  this 
Month  with  mentioning  a  Piece  of  State  the  Houfe 
put  on,  in  refufing  to  accept  a  Letter  from  the  Lord 
Gerard  Schaep,  fent  over  as  a  Commifiioner  from 
the  States  of  Holland  and  IJSeJl-FrieJland,  direded, 
A  Monf.  Monf.  William  Lenthall,  Orateur  de  la. 
Republique  ^'Angleterre,  ^Weftminfter;  and  or- 
dered three  of  their  Members  to  wait  on  him,  and 
fell  him,  That  they  can  admit  of  no  Addrefs  to 

thema 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       263 

them,  by  any  foreign  State  or  Prince  whatfoever,but  Inter-n-gnum. 
in  the  Style  already  enacted  and  declared,  viz.  To        l65°- 
the  Parliament  of  the  Commonwealth  of  England.       *~~TV~'  J 

*  °  June}. 

June  4.  This  Day  Cromwell^  the  Parliament's  Gen.  Cromwtfl 
victorious  General  and  Lord-  Lieutenant  of  Ire-  returns  liol^e« 
land)  who  had  been  lent  for  over,  as  already  men- 
tioned, took  his  Seat  in  the  Houfe  ;  when  the 
Speaker,  by  Order,  gave  him  Thanks  (in  an  elo- 
quent Oration,  as  the  Journals  exprefs  it)  for  his 
faithful  Services  ;  fetting  forth  the  great  Providence 
of  God  in  thofe  great  and  ftrange  Works,  which 
God  had  wrought  by  him  as  the  Inftrument. 

June  6.  The  Parliament  having  refolved  to  ap-The  parjjament 
point  a  {landing  Council  for  the  Commonwealth,  appoint  their 
they  this  Day  agreed  upon  Sir  Thomas  Wlddrington  Ending  Cpunql. 
and  Serjeant  Green  for  that  Purpofe,  by  the  Title  of 
Serjeants  at  Law  for  the  Commonwealth)  and  Ro- 
bert Reynolds  ,  Efq;   to  be  their  Solluitor-General  ; 
And  the  Lords  Commiffioners  of  the  Great  Seal 
were  ordered  to  fign  Patents  for  them  accordingly. 

June  7.  We  have  already  taken  Notice  of  an 
A£t  being  pafs'd  far  the  fuppreffing  of  Inceft,  Adul- 
tery, and  Fornication,  with  feveral  other  piousA&s, 
which  gave  fuch  Encouragement  to  the  Reforming 
Members,  that  a  Bill  was  order'd  to  be  read  the  Fri-  A  Bj]j  onjered  ia 
day  enfuing,  againil  the  Vice  of  Painting,  wearing  againft  immodeft 
black  Patches','  and  immodeft  Drefles  of  Women  :  ^renffes  of  w°- 
But  no  Mention  is  made  of  it  in  the  Journal  of  that  ^"L  ^  does 
Day,  nor  in  ScoleFs  Jfls  ;  from  whence  it  feems 
the  Ladies  had  Intereft  enough  to  nip  this  Project 
in  the  very  Bud.     Probably  it  was  the  Cafe  then, 
as  in  more  modern  Times,  for  thofe  Women  who 
would  be  thought  modeft,  to  copy  their  Fafhions 
from  fuch  of  the  Sex  as  were  known  to  be  other  wife, 

"June  ii.  All  the  Members  having  been  requi-Gen.  Cromwell 


yed  to  give  their  Attendance  this  Day  by  Nine  inSive 
the  Morning,  General  Cromwell  ftanding  up  in  his  th^Stat"  of  /«. 
Place  in  the  Houfe,  made  a  Narrative  of  the  State  land, 

of 


264     Tfo  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Ir.t  .-r-rcrnum.  of  the  Garrifons  and  Forces  of  the  Enemy  in  Ire- 
'65°-  land,  and  their  Intereft  there  ;  and  likewife  of  the 
*• — v— ^  Parliament's  Forces,  in  Garrifon  and  in  the  Field, 
their  Condition,  in  what  Employment  they  were, 
and  under  what  Commands.  At  the  End  of  which 
it  was  reiblved,  That  it  be  referred  to  the  Council  of 
State  to  take  Care  of  fending  fuch  fpeedy  Supplies 
of  Money  for  Ireland^  as  (hall  be  neceflary  for  the 
carrying  on  of  that  Work;  and  to  fee  what  Money 
there  is  in  prefent  View  that  can  be  made  effec- 
tual for  that  Service,  and  how  the  Obftruclions 
againft  bringing  it  in  may  be  removed.  Alfo  to 
confider  by  what  Ways  and  Means  the  Reduction 
and  Settlement  of  Ireland  may  be  perfected  to  the 
beft  Advantage,  and  the  future  Eafe  of  the  Charge 
of  this  Commonwealth. 

A  Commiflioner     The  fame  Day  theCommiffioner  from  the  States 
Pf°™tje-5tatc!  of  Holland  vn&  IVeft-Friefland^  whom  we  men- 

pf  Holland  and.          .  .  .      •/          .,/.  •       i_  •      A  j  j      /• 

Wefi.FncJland  tioned  to  have  been  miltaken  in  his  Addrefs  to 
admitted  to  an  their  High  Mightinefles  at  Wejlminjler,  (having  al- 
his  Style  according  to  their  Order)  was  ad- 
mitted to  an  Audience  ;  where  he  delivered  in  his 
Credentials,  and  the  Defires  of  his  Matters,  in 
French i  by  word  of  Mouth.  Soon  after  the  Houfe 
refolved  to  give  an  Anfwer  to  this  Commiflioner 
on  a  Day*  appointed  ;  when  being  come  into  the 
Court  of  Wards,  and  the  Houfe  apprized  of  it, 
the  Serjeant  was  fent  to  attend  him,  together  with 
the  Matter  of  the  Ceremonies :  Being  come  with- 
in the  Door  uncovered,  he  came  up  to  the  Bar, 
the  Serjeant  at  Arms  attending  on  his  Right  Hand, 
and  the  Matter  of  the  Ceremonies  on  the  Left ; 
•where,  after  mutual  Compliments  between  him 
and  Mr.  Speaker,  all  the  Members  ftandino;,  he 
fat  down  in  a  Chair,  placed  at  the  ufual  Place,  on 
the  North  Side  of  the  Houfe  ;  and,  being  fet,  Mr. 
Speaker  delivered  this  Anfwer  unto  him  by  Word 
pf  Mouth,  viz. 

*  The  Parliament  of  the  Commonwealth  of 
e  England  have  taken  into  their  feripus  Confidera- 
'  tion  what  your  Lordmip  did  lately  deliver  unto 
^  them  in  Behalf  of  your  Superiors,  the  High  and 

«  Potent 


Of    ENGLAND       265 

«  Potent  Lords  the  States  of  Holland  and  Weft-  Inter-regnum. 

*  Friejland^  unto  which  I  am  commanded,  in  their 

«  Name,  to  return  this  Ani'wer  :  **~~\f~~**' 

4  The  Parliament,  both  from  the  Motives  re-        ^un< 

*  membered  in  your  Lordihip's  Paper,  and  from 
4  many  other  Reafons   and  Experiences  of  their 

*  own,  hath,  ever  imce  it  pleafed  God  to  reftora 
4  this  Commonwealth  to  its  juft  Freedom,  been  fo 
4  apprehenfive  of  the  common  Benefits  apparently 

*  redounding  to  this  Nation,  together  with  the 
4  High  and  Mighty  Lords  the  States  of  the  United 

*  Provinces,   by  a  ftridl  Alliance  between  them, 

*  that  they  thought  fit  long  fince  to  employ  for  that 
4  Purpole  Walter  Strickland,  Efq;  a  Member  of 
4  Parliament,  with  Addrefles  as  well  to  the  States 
'  General,  as  to  the  High  and.  Potent  Lords  the 

*  States  of  Holland  and  Weft-FrieJland\    which 

*  Proceeding  of  theirs  doth  give  a  fufficient  Tefti- 

*  mony  on  their  Behalf,  that  the  Fault  hath  not 

*  been  in  them  if  fo  defirable  an  Union  and  Friend- 
4  fhip  b*etween  the  two  Commonwealths  hath  not 
4  been  attained. 

e  And  although  the  Applications  made  by  our 
4  faid  Refident  to  the  States  General,  on  fo  friend- 
4  ly  a  Subject,  and  for  fo  good  an  End,  have  been 

*  hitherto  neglected,  and  not  fo  much  as  an  Audi- 
4  ence  yet  given  to  him ;  which  the  Parliament  can- 
4  not  but  take  Notice  of,  as  not  underftanding  why 

*  the  Friendmip  of  this  Commonwealth  fhould  be 
4  of  fo  fmall  Confideration  with  them :  Yet  the 

*  Parliament  are  fo  well  fatisfied  with  the  De- 

*  portment  of  the  HigTi  and' Mighty  Lords  the 
4  States  of  Holland  and  Weft-Friefland  towards  this 
4  Commonwealth  and  their  faid  Refident  Walter 
4  Strickland,  in  the  Applications  which  he  hath 
4  made  on  their   Part,    and   of  the   Endeavours 
4  which  the  faid  High  and  Potent  Lords,  from, 
4  Time  to  Time,  have  ufed  with  the  other  Pro- 
4  vinces,  not  only  to  prevent  any  Mifunderftand- 
4  ing,  but  to  maintain  all  friendly  and  good  Cor- 
4  refpondency  between  the  two  States,  that  they 
4  do  the  more  chearfully  and  readily  entertain  what 

<hath 


266      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

hath  been  propundcd  to  them  by  your  Lordfhrp  ; 
and   do  refolve   to  anfwer  thole  AfTurances  of 
Friendfhip  and  neighbourly  Commerce  which 
your  Lordfhip  doth  give  on  the  Behalf  of  your 
Superiors,  with  moft  real  Returns  of  good  Ac- 
'  ceptancej  defiring,  as  an  happy  Refult  from  the 
'  fame,  that  this  Commonwealth  and  the  States  of 

*  Holland  and  IVeft-FrieJland  may  not  only  corre- 
4  fpond  together  in  a  neighbourly  and  friendly  Com- 

*  merce,  but  may  at  laft  grow  up  to  fo  ftri6l  an 

*  Union  and  Alliance,  as  may  be  found  necefiary 
'  for  the  Good  of  both. 

'  And  as  there  fhall  be  Occafion  for  your  Lord- 
'  fhip  to  reprefent  any  further  Particulars  concern- 
'  ing  the  Intereft  of  that  Province,  or  of  any  Mem- 
'  ber  thereof,  whereunto  there  is  no  proper  Reme- 

*  dy  applicable  in  the  ordinary  Courfe  of  Juftice, 

*  the  Parliament  hath  empowered  the  Council  of 

*  State  to  receive  the  fame,  and  give  fuch  Anfwers 

*  from  Time  to  Time  as  fhall  be  requifite,  and 

*  may  witnefs  the  Regard  which  this  Common- 

*  wealth  hath  to  the  Friendfhip  of  thofe  by  whom 

*  your  Lordfhip  is  deputed/ 

This  being  ended,  Mr.  Speaker,  by  the  Ma- 
tter of  the  Ceremonies,  delivered  the  fame  Anfwer 
to  the  Commiilioner  in  Writing,  fign'd  by  the 
Clerfc :  Which  having  received,  he  return'd  a 
Reply  to  this  Effea  : 

Here  follotvs  an  Hiatus  in  the  Journals,  and  we 
are  left  in  the  Dark  as  to  the  dnfwer  made  by 
the  Cotnmiflioner* 


The  Houfe  ha-  June  J2.  The  Houfe  voted  that  the  Lord-Ge- 
linrdrS>A*hatneral  Fatrfax  and  Lieutenant-General  Cromwell, 
and  Gen.  c>cw-(^or^'^'ieuteriant  °f  Ireland)  {hould  both  be  com- 
ivell  ffiould  manded  to  go  upon  the  Northern  Expedition, 
march  with  an  ^nd  that  the  Council  of  State  do  acquaint  them 

Arrny^uito    M   ^.^  .^    ^  ^  Q^  ^  ^^  ^^  ^^^  ^ 

wajrds  Scotland. 

June  14.  Sir  Gilbert  Pickering  reported  from  the 
Council  of  State,  that  they  had  communicated  the 

Order 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        267 

Order  of  the  Houfe  to  the  two  great  Officers  of  jnter-regnum. 
the  Army  ;   that  both  of  them  expreflfed  their  Rea-        1650. 
dinefs  for  this  Employment;  and  alfo  that  Things    ^— -v—- ' 
were  put  in  fuch  a  Courfe,  that  the  Army  will  be        June. 
ready  to  march  in  a  fhort  Time.     But 

yune  25.  The  Lord-Commiffioner  Wbltkcke  And  Lord  F«/V- 
reported  from  the  Council  of  State,  That  they  b**%?£™*  ^~ 
ing  acquainted  by  the  Lord-General  Fairfax,  that  JhTcomSTii 
ibme  Difficulties  were  upon  him  concerning  the  that  Expedition, 
undertaking  of  the  Service  required  of  him  by  the 
new  Commiffion  lent  to  him  from  the  Parliament ; 
thereupon  the  Council  had  appointed  a  Committee 
to  confer  with  his  Lordmip  for  his  Satisfaction, 
which  was  endeavoured  by  them,  upon  a  long  De- 
bate with  his  Lordmip  :  The  Refult  upon  which 
Conference  was  to  this  Efte£r, ;  That  the  Lord- 
General  doth  conceive  that,  upon  the  new  Com- 
miffion coming  to  him,  the  former  Commiffion  of 
General  is  at  an  End,  and  he  freed  from  that 
Charge  ;  and  in  regard  of  his  own  Infirmities  and 
want  of  Health,  and  want  of  Freedom  to  under- 
take this  Service  as  a  new  Employment,  and  the 
Greatnefs  and  Weight  of  the  Charge,  he  kumbly 
defired  to  be  excufed  ;  and  for  that  Purpofe  in- 
tended to  fignify  his  Mind  herein  >unto  the  Parlia- 
ment. 

Here  follsvjs  another  Hiatus  in  the  Journals, 
where,  mo/l  probably ',  the  Lord  Fairfax'*  real 
Reafons  for  refigning  his  Commiffion  were  en- 
tered:  But  this  Deficiency  is  amply  made  up  by 
J-fr.Whitlocke  in  his  Memorials,  who  has  alfo 
given  us  a  Narrative  of  the  whole  Conference 
on  this  very  remarkable  Occafion  between  Lord 
Fairfax  and  the  Committee  from  the  Council  of 
State i  of  which  himfelf  was  one.  This  there- 
fore we  Jhall  give  in  his  own  Words. 

'  The  Junfto  of  the  Council  of  State  with  whom  A  Committee  of 
Cromwell  confulted,    having  Intelligence  of  the?6  Cou"cil  of 

_,..       ,     T>    r  i      •         r       r.  i        r    \      r  L         State  endeavour 

King  s  Refolution  for  Scotland,  of  the  Laws  there  to  pcrfiiade  him 
made,  and  of  Forces  to  affift  him  in  his  intended  to  it, 
Jnvalion  of  England^  whereof  they  had  more  than 

Ofdinary 


268     'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

ordinary  AITurance  ;  they  therefore  thought  it  not 
prudent  to  be  behind-hand  with  their  Enemy,  nor 
to  be  put  to  an  After-game,  to  ftay  till  they  fhould 
fa&'mvzAt  England -.  but  rather  to  carry  the  War, 
from  their  native  Country,  into  Scotland. 

4  As  to  the  Objection,  That  their  Invading  of 
Scotland  would  be  contrary  to  the  Covenant,  they 
were  fatisfied  that  the  Covenant  was  broken  and 
diflblved  before  by  the  Scots,  and  was  not  now 
binding  betwixt  the  two  Nations :  That  the  levy- 
ing Forces  in  Scotland,  and  marching  fome  of  them 
to  the  Borders  of  England,  with  the  hoftile  Acts 
done  by  them  formerly,  were  fufficient  Grounds 
for  the  Parliament  to  provide  for  the  Security  of 
themfelves  and  Countrymen;  the  which  could  not 
be  fo  effectually  done,  as  by  carrying  the  War, 
which  they  defigned  upon  us,  unto  their  own 
Doors. 

4  Upon  thefe  and  many  other  weighty  Confide- 
rations,  it  was  refolved  here,  That  having  a  form'd 
Army,  well  provided  and  experienced,  they  would 
march  it  forthwith  into  Scotland;  to  prevent  the 
Scots  marching  into  England,  and  the  Miferies, 
accompanying  their  Forces,  to  our  Countrymen. 

'  The  Lord-General  Fairfax  being  advifed  with 
herein,  feemed  at  firft  to  like  well  of  it;  but  after- 
wards being,  hourly,  perfuaded  by  the  Prefbyte- 
rian  Minifters  and  his  own  Lady,  who  was  a  great 
Patronefs  of  them,  he  declared  himfelf  unfatisfied 
that  there  was  a  juft  Ground  for  the  Parliament 
of  England  to  fend  their  Army  to  invade  Scotland: 
But  that  in  cafe  the  Scots  fhould  invade  England, 
then  he  was  forward  to  engage  againft  them  in  De- 
fence of  his  own  Country. 

4  The  Council  of  State,  fomewhat  troubled  at 
his  Excellency's  Scruples,  appointed  Cromwell, 
Lambert,  Harrifon,  St.  John,  and  Whitlocke,  to 
be  a  Committee  to  confer  hereupon  with  him ;  and 
to  endeavour  to  fatisfy  him  of  the  Juftice  and  Law- 
fulnefs  of  this  Undertaking. 

*  Accordingly  this  Committee  met  Lord  Fair- 
fax^ and  being  Ihut  up  together  in  a  Room  in 

Whitehall,, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      269 

Whitehall,  they  went  firft  to  Prayer,  that  God  inter-regnwn, 
would  direct  them  in  this  Bufmefs  ;  and  Cromwell       l65°- 
began.     Moft  of  the  Committee  alfo  prayed,  after    v— "v*-*, 
which  they  difcourfed  to  this  Etfeft  :  June* 

CROMWELL.  My  Lord-General,  we  are  com-  An  Account  of 
tnanded}  by  the  Council  of  State ,  to  confer  with  your  ^e  Conference 
Excellency  touching  the  prefent  Defjgn  (whereof  you°n{  fioa* 

have  heard  fame  Debate  in  the  Council)  of  marching 
the  Army  under  your  Command  into  Scotland  ;  and 
becaufe  there  jeemed  to  be  fame  Hejitation  in  yourfelf 
as  to  that  Journey,  this  Committee  were  appointed 
to  endeavour  to  give  your  Excellency  Satisfaction  in 
any  Doubts  of  yours  which  may  arij'e  concerning  that 
Affair,  and  the  Grounds  of  that  Refolution  of  the- 
Council  for  the  Journey  into  Scotland. 

Lord-General  FAIRFAX.  /  am  very  glad  of 
the  Opportunity  of  conferring  with  this  Committee* 
where  I  find  fo  many  of  my  particular  Friends,  as 
well  as  of  the  Commonwealth,  about  this  great  Bu- 
finefs  of  our  March  into  Scotland ;  wherein  1  d& 
acknowledge  my f elf  not  fully  fatisjied  as  to  the, 
Grounds  and  Juftice  of  our  Invafion  into  Scotland, 
and  I  Jhall  be  glad  to  receive  Satisfaction  therein  bj 
you. 

LAMBERT.  Will  your  Excellency  be  pleafed  ta 
favour  us  with  the  particular  Caufes  of  your  Diffa- 
tisfaftion  ? 

Lord-General.  1  Jhall  very  freely  do  //;  and  I 
think  I  need  not  make  to  you^  or  to  any  that  know  me, 
any  Proteftation  of  the  Continuance  of  my  Duty  and 
Affection  to  the  Parliament^  and  my  Readinefs  to 
ferve  them  in  any  Thing  wherein  my  Conscience  will 
give  me  Leave. 

HARRISON.  There  cannot  be  more  dejired  nor  ex- 
pected from  your  Excellency. 

WHITLOCKE.  No  Man  can  doubt  of  the  Fide- 
lity and  Affeftion  of  your  Excellency  to  the  Service  of 
the  Commonwealth  ;  you  have  given  ample  Tejlimony 
thereof,  and  it  will  be  much  for  the  Advantage  of 
their  Ajfairs  if  we  may  be  able  to  give  you  Satisfac- 
tion 


270      Tlie  Parliamentary  HISTORV 

Inter-rfgnum.  tion  (as  I  hope  we  Jhall)  touching  the  particular 

1650.        Points  ^uherein  your  Doubts  arife. 
*"— ~v~— '         ST.  JOHN.    I  pray ,  my  Lord,  be  pleafed  to  ac- 
quaint us  with  your  particular  Objections  againjl  this 
Journey. 

Lord- General.  My  Lords,  you  will  give  we 
Leave  then,  with  all  Freenefs,  to  fay  to  you,  That 
I  think  it  doubtful  whether  we  have  a  jrijl  Caufe  to 
make  an  Invafion  upon  Scotland. 

With  them  we  arc  joined  in  the  National  League 
and  Covenant ;  and  now  for  us,  contrary  thereunto r, 
and  without  fufficient  Caufe  given  us  by  them,  to  en- 
ter into  their  Country  with  an  Army,  and  to  make 
War  upon  them,  is  that  which  I  cannot  fee  the  Juf- 
ticc  of,  nor  how  w'e  Jhall  be  able  to  jujiify  the  Law- 
fulnejs  of  it  before  God  or  Man. 

GROMWELL.  I  confefs,  my  Lord,  that,  if  they 
have  given  us  nv  Caufe  to  invade  them,  it  will  not  be 
juftifiable  for  us  to  do  it ;  and  to  make  War  upon 
them  without  a  fufficient  Ground  for  it,  will  be  con- 
trary to  that  which  in  Confcience  we  ought  to  do,  and 
dijpleafmg  both  to  God  and  good  Men. 

But,  my  Lord,  if  they  have  invaded  us,  as  your 
Lordfiip  knows  they  have  done,  fence  the  National 
Covenant,  and  contrary  to  it,  in  that  Action  of  the 
J)u£e  of  Hamilton,  ^vhith  was  by  Ordzr  and  Au- 
thority from  the  Parliament  of  that  Kingdom,  and 
fo  the  Aft  of  the  whole  Nation  by  their  Represent  a- 
tives :  And  if  they  now  give  us  too  much  Caufe  of 
Sufpicion  that  they  intend  another  Invafion  upon  us^ 
joining  with  their  King,  with  whom  they  have  made 
a  full  Agreement,  without  the  AJJent  or  Privity  of 
this  Commonwealth,  and  are  very  bufy  at  this  pre- 
fent  in  raifing  Forces  and  Money  to  carry  on  their 
Deftgn  :  If  thefe  Things  are  not  a  fufficient  Ground 
and  Caufe  for  us  to  endeavour  to  provide  for  the 
Safety  cf  cur  own  Country,  and  to  prevent  the  Mi~ 
Jeries  which  an  Invajion  of  the  Scots  would  bring 
upon  us,  I  humbly  fubmit  it  to  your  Excellency's 
'Judgment. 

That  they  have  formerly  invaded  us,  and  brought 
a  War  into  the  Bowels  of  our  Country ',  is  known  to 

all 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       271 

<?//,  wherein  God  was  pleafed  to  blsfs  us  with  Sue-  Inter-regnurm 
tefs  againfl  them ;  and  that  they  now  intend  a  new 
Invafion  upon  us  I  do  as  really  believe,  and  have  as 
good  Intelligence  of  it,  as  we  can  have  of  any  Thing 
that  is  not  yet  afied. 

Therefore  I  fay,  my  Lord,  that,  upon  thefe  Grounds^ 
I  think  we  have  a  mo  ft  juji  Caufe  to  begin,  or  rather 
to  return  and  requite  their  Hojiility  firjl  begun  upon 
us  ;  and  thereby  to  free  our  Gauntry  (if  God  /hall 
be  pleafed  to  afjift  us,  and  I  doubt  not  but  he  will) 
from  the  great  Mifery  and  Calamity  of  having  an 
Army  of  Scots  within  our  Country. 

That  there  will  be  a  War  between  us,  I  fear  is 
unavoidable*  Tour  Excellency  will  foon  determine 
whether  it  be  better  to  have  this  War  in  the  Bowels 
of  another  Country  or  of  <rur  own  ;  and  that  it  will  be 
in  me  of  them,  I  think  it  is  without  Scruple. 

Lord-General.  It  is  probable  there  will  be  a  War 
between  us,  but  whether  we  Jhould  begin  this  War+ 
and  be  on  the  offenfive  Part,  or  only  ftand  upon  our 
Defence,  is  that  which  I  fcruple.  And  although 
they  invaded  us  under  the  Duke  of  Hamilton,  who 
pretended  the  Authority  of  the  Parliament  then  Jit- 
ting  for  it,  yet  their  fucceeding  Parliament  difown'd 
that  Engagement,  and  punijhed  fame  of  the  Promo-* 
ters  of  it. 

WHITLOCKE.  Some  of  the  principal  Men  in  that 
Engagement  of  the  Duke  of  Hamilton'*,  are  now  in. 
great  Favour  and  Employment  with  them,  especially 
in  their  Army  fence  raifed,  and  now  almojl  ready  to 
advance  into  England  ;  and  I  believe  your  Excel- 
lency will  judge  it  more  Prudence  for  us  (who  have 
an  Army  under  your  Command  ready  formed,  and 
experienced  Soldiers,  whom  God  hath  wonderfully 
prospered  under  your  Conduft)  to  prevent  their 
coming  into  England,  by  viftting  of  them  in  their  own 
Country. 

Lord-General.  If  we  were  affur'd  of  their  coming 
with  their  Army  into  England,  /  confefs  it  were 
Prudence  for  us  to  prevent  them,  if  we  are  ready 
to  advance  into  Scotland  before  they  can  march  into 
England  ;  but  what  Warrant  have  we  to  fall  upon. 

them, 


272     *Tbe  Parliamentary  HISTORV 

Inter- regnum.  them,  unlefs  we  can  be  affured  of  their  Purpose  ta 

l65°-        fall  upon  us  ? 

*— •"•*—— '  HARRISON.  I  think,  under  Favour,  there  cannot 
be  greater  AJJiirance  or  human  Probability  of  the  In- 
tentions of  any  State,  than  we  have  of  theirs  to  in- 
vade our  Country  ;  clfe  what  means  their  prefent 
Levies  of  Men  and  Money,  and  their  quartering 
Soldiers  upon  our  Borders  ?  It  is  not  long  fin'ce  they 
did  the  like  to  us,  and  we  can  hardly  imagine  what 
other  Defign  they  can  have  to  employ  their  Forces. 

Lord-General.  Human  Probabilities  are  not  fuf- 
ficient  Grounds  to  make  M/ar  upon  a  Neighbour  Na- 
tion, efpecially  our  Brethren  of  Scotland,  to  whom 
•we  are  engaged  in  a  Solemn  League  and  Covenant. 

ST.  JOHN.  But,  my  Lord,  that  League  and  Co- 
venant was  firji  broken  by  themfelves,  and  fo  dif- 
folved  as  to  us ;  and  the  difowning  of  the  Duke  of 
Hamilton'*  Attion,  by  their  latter  Parliament,  can- 
not acquit  the  Injury  done  to  us  before. 

CROMWELL.  /  fuppofe  your  Excellency  will  be 
convinced  of  this  clear  'Truth,  that  we  are  no  longer 
abliged  by  the  League  and  Covenant  which  themfeives 
did  fir  ft  break. 

Lord-General.  /  am  to  anfwer  only  for  my  own 
Confcience,  and  what  that  yields  unto  as  jujl  and 
lawful,  I  Jhall  follow  ;  and  what  feems  to  me,  or 
what  I  doubt  to  be  otherwije,  I  mu/i  not  do. 

WHITLOCKE.  Tour  Excellency  is  upon  a  very 
right  Ground,  and  our  Bufmefs  is  to  endeavour  your 
Satisfaction  in  thofe  Doubts  you  make :  If  we  Jhall 
Jtay  till  they  firjl  invade  us,  we  Jhall  Juffer  much 
Mifery  to  come  among  us,  which  probably  we  may 
prevent  by  fending  firft  to  them  ;  and  furely,  by  the 
Law  of  Nations,  if  an  Ally  enter  in  an  hojlile  Man- 
ner into  his  Neighbour  Nation,  contrary  to  the  Al- 
liance, and  be  beaten  out  again,  that  Nation  thus 
invaded  may  lawfully  afterwards  invade  the  other, 
to  requite  the  former  Wrongs  done  unto  them :  But 
beftdes  this  we  cannot  but  Jee  their  prefent  Prepara- 
tions to  be  again/I  us,  for  they  are  in  Amity  with  all 
others ',  and  their  Conjunction  now  with  the  King's 

Party, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       273 

Party,  may  plainly  enough  difcovcr  their  Dcfigns  Inter-regnut 
again/I  this  Commonwealth.  l65°- 

Lord -General.    7  can  but  fay-,  as  I  faid  before,    ^— —v—— 
That  every  o:ie  mujl  jiand  or  fail  by  his  uwn  Con-         •' 
Science :  Thofe  who  are  fatiijied  of  the  JuJJice  of  this 
lVar,  may  chearfully  proceed  in  it ;  thoje  vuho  jcruple 
it  (as  I  confefs  1  do)  cannot  undertake  any  Service  in. 
it. 

I  acknowledge  that  which  hath  been  faid  to  carry 
much  height  and  Reafon  with  it ;  and  none  can  have 
more  Power  upon  me  than  this  Committee,  nor  none 
he  more  ready  to  ferve  the  Parliament  than  myfclfy 
in  any  Thing  wherein  my  Confcience  foall  be  fatisfied. 
Jn  this  it  is  not ;  and  therefore,  that  I  may  be  no  Hin- 
der ance  to  the  Parliament 's  Dejigns,  I  foall  willingly 
lav  down  my  Commijfton,  that  it  may  be  in  their 
Hands  to  chafe  Jome  worthier  Perfon  than  myfelf^ 
and  who  may,  upon  clear  Satisfaction  of  his  Con- 
ference, undertake  this  Bnf;nefs,  wherein  I  defire  to 
be  excufcd. 

CROMWELL.  /  am  very  ferry  your  Lord  flip 
foould  have  Thoughts  of  laying  down  your  Commif- 
Jion,  by  which  God  hath  blejjed  you  in  the  Perfor- 
mance of  fo  many  eminent  Services  for  the  Parlia- 
ment. I  pray^  my  Lord,  confider  all  your  faithful 
Servants^  us  who  are  Officers,  who  have  ferved 
under  you,  and  defire  to  ferve  under  no  other  Ge- 
neral. It  would  be  a  great  Difcouragement  to  all  of 
m,  and  a  great  Difcouragement  to  the  djfairs  of 
tbe  Parliament,  for  our  Noble  General  to  entertain 
any  Thoughts  of  laying  down  his  CommiJJion.  I  hope 
your  Lordjhip  will  never  give  fo  great  an  Advantage 
to  the  public  Enemy,  nor  fo  much  dijheartcn  your 
Friends,  as  to  think  of  laying  down  your  Commif- 
fton. 

LAMBERT.  If  your  Excellency  Jhould  not  receive 
fo  much  Satisfaction  as  to  continue  your  Command  in 
the  Parliament's  Service,  I  am  very  fearful  of  the 
Mifchiefs  which  might  enfue,  and  the  Dijlraclioa. 
in  the  public  Affairs,  by  your  laying  down  your  Com- 
mijjion ;  but  I  hope  that  which  hath  been  offered  unto 
you  by  this  Committee,  upon  your  ferious  Confidera- 

VOL.  XIX.  S  //,», 


274     ^:'e  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  ticn,  will  fo  far  prevail  with  your  noble  and  pious 
l65°-  Difpofition,  and  with  your  Affettion  to  this  Caufc 
wherein  we  are  fo  deeply  engaged,  as  that  you  will 
not)  efpecially  at  this  Time,  leave  your  old  Servants 
and  Officers,  and  the  Conclufion  of  the  moji  glorious 
Caufe  that  ever  Men  were  engaged  in. 

HARRISON.  It  is  indeed ',  my  Lord,  the  mojt 
righteous  and  the  mojl  glorious  Caufe,  that  ever  any 
of  this  Nation  appeared  in ;  and  now  when  we 
hope  that  the  Lord  will  give  a  gracious,  IJfue  and 
Ccnclufion  to  it,  for  your  Excellency  then  to  give  it 
over,  will  fadden  the  Hearts  of  many  of  God's 
People. 

Lord-General.  What  would  you  have  me  do? 
As  far  as  my  Conjcience  will  give  Way  I  am  willing 
to  join  with  you  Jl  ill  in  the  Service  of  the  Parlia- 
ment ;  but  where  the  Confcience  is  not  fatisjied,  none 
of  you,  I  am  fure,  will  engage  in  any  Service ; 
that  is  my  Condition  in  this,  and  therefore  I  muji 
defire  to  be  excufed. 

Thus  far  the  Conference  between  Lord  Fairfax 

and  the  Committee  from  the  Council  of  State. 

Upon  which  Mr.  Whitlocke  remarks  b,  '  That  tho' 
none  of  them  were  fo  earneft  to  perfuade  his  Lord- 
fliip  to  continue  his  Commiffion  as  Cromwell  and 
the  Soldiery,  yet  there  was  Reafon  enough  to  be- 
lieve they  did  not  over-much  defire  it.'  But  Mr. 
Ludlow's  Account  of  the  Lieutenant-General's  Be- 
haviour on  this  Occafton  goes  farther.  This  Me- 
morialift  informs  us  c,  '  That  Cromwell,  upon 
Lord  Fairfax's  Unwillingnefs  to  march  into  Scot- 
land, prefs'd  that,  notwithftanding  this,  the  Par- 
liament would  yet  continue  him  General ;  pro- 
felling,  for  his  own  Part,  that  he  would  rather 
chufe  to  ferve  under  his  Lordfhip  in  his  Poft, 
than  to  command  the  greateft  Army  in  Europe.' 
He  adds,  '  That  at  the  Meeting  of  the  Committee 
of  the  Council  of  State,  which  had  been  appoint- 
ed upon  Cromwell's  own  Motion,  he  adtcd  his 

Part 

b  Memorials,  p.  446.      c  Memoirs,  Vol.  I.  p.  315. 


Of    ENGLAND.     275 

Part  fo  to  the  Life,  that  our  Author  really  thought  Inter-regnuts, 
him  in  earneft  ;  which,  fays  he,  obliged  me  to  itep        l65°- 
to  him  as  he  was  withdrawing,  with  the  reft  of  the    '     ju^T"1 
Committee,  out  of  the  Council-Chamber  ;  and  to 
(iefire  him  that  he  would  not,  in  Compliment  and 
Humility,  obftruft  the  Service  of  the  Nation  by 
his  Refufal :  But  the  Confequence  made  it  fuffici- 
ently  evident  that  he  had  no  fuch  Intention.' 

The  fame  Day  that  Mr.  JWritlocke  had  reported  The  Parliament 
to  the  Houfe  Lord  Fairfax's  Defire  of  refigning  his  Pal's  a  Vote  of 
Commiffion,  they  refolved,  That  a  Committee  be  J^/f^ 
appointed  to  go  to  his  Lordfliip,  and  let  him  know  Faithful  Services* 
the  Parliament's  high  Efteem  and  good  Accepta- 
tion of  thofe  eminent  and  faithful  Services,  which 
have,   by  the  Blerfing  of  God  upon  his  Endea- 
vours, been  by  him  performed  for  the  Common- 
wealth, to  which  they  are  perfuaded  of  his  con*- 
tinued  Fidelity  and  Affedtion. 

It  was  alfo  ordered,  That  all  the/Records  be- 
Jonging  to  the  late  Houfe  of  Peers,  be  delivered  to 
Air.  Scobell)  the  prefent  Clerk  to  the  Parliament. 

The  next  Day,  June  26,  the  firft  Thing  refol- 
ved on  was,  That  all  the  Members  of  Parliament 
be  called  out  of  Weftminfter-Hall;  that  the  out- 
ward Room  be  cleared,  and  the  Door  of  the  Houfe 
fhut.  Then  the  Lord  Commiflioner  Whitlocks- 
made  another  Report  from  the  Council  of  State, 
That,  in  purfuance  of  the  Order  of  Parliament  of 
the  9th  of  April  laft,  they  had  put  an  Army  in  Rea- 
dinefs,  and  had  given  them  Orders  to  march 
Northward:  And  that,  upon  mature  Confideration 
of  what  was  required  by  the  faid  Order,  it  was  the 
Opinion  of  that  Council,  That  they  cannot  pre- 
vent an  Invafion  from  Scotland?  but  by  the  march- 
ing of  an  Army  into  that  Kingdom  :  The  Juilice 
andNeceflity  of  which  Expedition  was  fet  forth  in  a 
Declaration ;  a  Draught  whereof  was  offered  to 
the  Confideration  of  Parliament. 

The  faid  Declaration  being  read  by  Parts,  and 

every  Part  put  to  the  Queflion,  it  was  with  fomc 

S  2  Amend" 


276     Tbe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnirm.   Amendments  afTented  unto,  nem.  con.    Afterward 

1650.         it  was  refolded ,  upon  the  Queftion,  nem.  con.  '  That 
*-— "v — — '     it  was  jufr  and  neceflary  for  the  Army  of  England 
•  -  to  march  into  Scotland  forthwith.'     The  Decla- 

ration was  alfo  ordered  to  be  printed  and  publifhed, 
farfan  Army  ^*h  Several  other  Papers  annex'd  thereto,  (which 
into  Scotland  '  we  have  already  given  in  their  proper  Order  b)  un- 
iorthwith,         der  the  Infpe&ion  of  the  Council  of  State ;  to  whom 
it  was  referred  to  take  Care  for  the  flopping  of  all 
Correfpondency,   Intelligence,   Traffic,   or  Com- 
merce,   between  England  and   Scotland,   as   they 
fhould  fee  Caufe. 

Neither  this  Declaration,  nor  fo  much  as  an 
Abftradl  of  it,  is  printed  in  Clarendon,  Whltlocke, 
or  any  other  Hiftorian  of  thefe  Times.  It  is  pre- 
ferved,  however,  in  our  Collection  of  old  Pam- 
phlets ;  and  fince  it  muft  be  now  a  Curiofity  to 
fee  the  Motives  that  induced  the  Parliament  of 
England  to  fend  an  Army  to  invade  their  Brethren, 
of  Scotland  at  this  Time,  contrary  to  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant  long  fmce  made  between 
them,  we  {hall  give  it  in  its  own  Words  c. 

A  DECLARATION  of  the  PARLIAMENT  of  Eng- 
land, upon  the  marching  of  their  Army  into  Scot- 
land. 

A!fo  publifh  a    «  A  •  \  H  E  Miferies  and  Evils  which  are  the  fad 
Declaration  of    «  and  inevitable  Confequences  of  every  War, 

the  Tultice  and  -^ *r 

Neceffity  there-     are  *°  great>  tnat  lC  ought  not  to  be  undertaken 
of,  *  or  profecuted  but  upon  Grounds  of  Juftice  and 

'  Neceffity ;  efpecially  between  thofe  with  whom 
'  no  Arguments  are  wanting  for  common  Defence, 
'and  where  Profeffion  of  the  fame  Religion  fhould 
'  be  a  ftronger  Bond  of  mutual  Union. 

'  This  Confideration  hath  long  held  back  the 

*  Parliament  of  England  from  making  Ufe  of  Force, 
'  in  reference  to  Scotland,  notwithftanding  the  Juf- 
'  tice  of  their  Caufe,  and  the  Greatnefs  of  their 

*  Provocation;  that  they  might  avoid  the  EfFufion 

'of 

b  In  this  Volume,   p.  40,  -47;    141,2,4. 
c  Printed  by  William  Duganl,  by  the  Appointment  of  the  Coun- 
cil of  State,  1650. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      277 

e  of  Blood,  and  thofe  other  Miferies  and  Calami-  Inter-regnum. 
6  ties  which  muft  in  common  involve  even  fuch  of        l65°- 
'  that  Nation,  who  may  have  kept  themfelves  free  *  <*— ~v— — ^ 
'  from  the  Guilt  of  thofe  Things  which  compel         ^une' 
'  this  War;  and  whofe  Principles  may  difpofe  them 
'  to  the  fame  Ends  with  us,  when  they  ihall  have 

*  difcovered  their  own  true  Intereft. 

*  And,  in  the  mean  time,  the  Parliament  hath 
e  not  been  wanting  in  the  Ofter  of  all  fair  and  ami- 

*  cable  Means  for  compofing  the  Difference  and 

*  obtaining  due  Satisfaction;  nor  fufrcred  their  juft 
'  Refentment  of  the  Slight  and  Rejection  of  thofe 

*  Offers,  to  carry  them  out  immediately  to  the  laft 

*  Remedy;  but  have  with  much  Patience  expected, 
*.  if  the  good  Providence  of  God  (hould  mercifully 

*  difcover  any  fit  Expedient,  whereby  they  might 
4  obtain  their  jult  Ends,  rather  than  by  Arms. 

'  But  by  all  the  Obfervations  we  can  make  of 
'  their  Actions,  and  out  of  their  Declarations,  and 
4  by  the  beft  Intelligence  of  their  prefent  Motions 
4  and  Defigns,  their  total  Averfenefs  to  Amity  and 

*  Friendfhip  with  this  Commonwealth  is  moft  ap- 
4  parent,  and  the  fame  hoftile  Difpofition  conti- 

*  nues,  notwithftanding  the  fignal  Hand   of  God 
4  againft  them  upon  their  late  Invafion. 

*  Their  Defign  is  ftill  carried  on,  and  they  have 
'  not  loft  their  Time  in  Preparations  to  execute 

*  it,  both  by  their  Treaties   and  Correfpondences 
4  abroad,  and  by  putting  all  Things  in  a  Pofture 
4  for  it  at  home. 

*  The  Parliament  of  England,  upon  ferious  Con- 
4  fideration  hereof,  and  of  their  Duty  to  this  Com- 
4  monwealth,  with  whofe  Good  and  Safety  they 
'  are  entruited,  have  judged  it  juft  and  neceflary, 

*  that  an  Army  be  forthwith  fent  into  Scotland : 
'  The  Juftice,  Neceflity,  and  Ends  whereof  they 
'  declare  in  the  Particulars  following  : 

4  Wherein,  not  to  infift  upon  many  Wrongs  and 

*  Provocations  from  the  Commiflioners  of  Scotland^ 

*  while  they  were  here  refident,  and  while  nothing 
'  but  Friendfhip  and  Unanimity  in  the  fame  Caufe 

*  was  pretended  by  them ;  their  Ufurpation  upou 

S  3  A6U 


278     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

<  A£ts  of  the  Legiflative  Power ;  their  frequent 
'  Pr-tenfions  to,  and  .Conteftations  about,  a  joint 

*  Intereft  in  fomc  Adts  of  it ;  their  feducing  the 

*  People  of  this  Commonwealth  from  their  Affec- 

*  tion  and  Duty  to  the  Parliament,  and  to  embrace 

*  and  promote  the  Intereft  of  the  late  King,  un- 

*  der  Pretence  of  the  Covenant ;  laying  among  the 

*  People  Foundations  of  Concurrence  with  their 
'  future  Invafion,  fufficiently  evidenced  by  the  ma- 

*  ny  Infurre&ions  breaking   forth  in  England  in 
'  the  Year  164.8,  when  they  invaded  this  Nation  : 
'  Which  Concurrence  of  Trouble  might  greatly 

*  have  endangered  the  Return  of  Tyranny  and  Mi- 

*  fery  upon  us,  had  not  the  Hand  of  Almighty  God 

*  mightily  manifested  itfelf  in  the  carrying  on  of 
'  that  Caufe,  which  he  hath  (till  own'd,  even  with 

*  very  great  Difadvantage  of  Numbers  and  Prepa- 

*  rations. 

*  We  fhall  let  thefe,  and  divers  other  Particulars, 
'  pafs,  and  come  to  that  which  demonftrates  the 

*  Juftice  of  this  prefent  Undertaking ;  the  late  Inva- 
'  fion  of  this  Nation,  authorized  and  commanded 
«  by  the  Parliament  of  Scotland:  All  of  them  con- 

*  curring  in  Defign  to  make  a  Prey  to  themfelves 

<  of  the  Engiijb)  tho'  fome  Difference  fell  amongd; 

*  them  who  fhould  have  the  greatcft  Power  of 

*  Command,  and  thereby  the  greateft  Opportunity 

*  of  advancing  the  Intereft  of  either  Party,  under 

*  the  fpecious  Pretence  of  the  Covenant. 

*  And  therein  may  be  remembered,  firft,  their 

*  taking  of  Berwick  and  Carlijle,  and  putting  Gar- 

*  rifons  into  them  in  the  Year  1648,  contrary  to 

*  the  Large  Treaty  in  the  Year  1640,  pafled  by 

*  the  Parliaments  of  both  Nations,  by  which  thofe 

*  Towns,  or  any  other  Frontier  Towns  of  either 

*  Nation,  were  not  to  be  garrifon'd  ;  and  accord - 

*  ingly  were  fo  left  by  the  Engltjh. 

'  By  that  Treaty  alfo  three  Months.  Warning 

*  was  to  have  preceded  War  ;  yet  this  Invafion 

*  was  made  by  the  Authority  of  the  Parliament  of 

*  Scotland,  while  that  Treaty  was  in  Force  ;  and 

*  that  without  any  previous  Declaration  of  War 

4  or 


O/    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       279 

c  or  Hoftility,  as  by  that  Treaty  ought  to  have   Inter- regnum. 
'been.     This  alfo  at  a  Time  when  the  Parliament        l65°- 
'  of  England  had  Commitfioners  at  Edinburgh,  of-  *""""*7V7""""*' 

*  fering  to  compofe  all  Differences   between  the 
'  Nations  by  a  Treaty,  which  they  refufed ;  and 
'  their  wicked  Defign  carried  on,  not  only  by  a 

*  Conjunction  with  the  late  King's  profefs'd  Party 

*  under  Langdale  ;    but  they  feduced  from  their 
'  Duty,  and  drew  from  their  Obedience,  feveral 
'  Forces  of  their  own  Nation,  and  fome  Englifa, 
4  who  were  in  the  Pay  of  the  Parliament  of  Eng- 
'  land,  to  come  over  out  of  Ireland,  and  treafonably 

*  to  affift  them  in  this  Invafion. 

'  When  it  plcafed  our  good  God  wonderfully  to 
c  appear  for  us,  in  fubduing  and  punifhing  our 
'  faithlefs  Invaders ;  the  Army,  by  our  Authority, 
'  and  by  the  Invitation  of  the  Committee  of  Eftates 
'  of  Scotland  fitting  at  Edinburgh,  (Sir  Andrew  Carr 

*  and  Major  Strachan  being  fent  by  them  with  Let- 
'  ters  of  Credence,  for  that  Purpofe,  to  the  Head- 
'  Quarters  of  our  Army,  then  near  Berwick)  did 
'  march  into  Scotland ;  and,  upon  further  Invita- 

*  tion  from  the  Committee  of  Eftates,  by  the  Mar- 

*  quia  of  Argyle,  Lord  Elcbo,  and  others,  a  great 

*  Part  of  our  Army  did  march  clofe  to  Edinburgh, 
'  the  better  to  countenance  and  encourage  their 
'  Army ;  they  being  then  in  Treaty  with  the  Earl 
'  of  Crawford  and  Lindfay,  the  Lord  Lanerk,  Sir 

*  George  Monroe,  and  the  reft  of  their  Enemies,  at 
'  Stirling  Bridge  ;  which  having  produced  the  de- 
'  fired  Effects,  our  Army  was  received  with  great 
'  Expreffions  of  Contentment  and  Rejoicing  for 
'  the  good  Succefs  which  God  had  given  them. 

'  The  Enemies  in  the  North  Parts  of  England 
t  not  being  fully  fubdued,  and  our  Army  ready  to 
'  return  into  England,  upon  the  further  and  ear- 
'  neft  Defire  of  the  Committee  of  Eftates,  a  con- 

*  fiderable  Part  of  it  was  left  in  Scotland,  untill  that 
'  Nation  was  fettled  in  a  peaceable  Condition,  and 
'  fuch  Forces  raifed  for  their  Defence  as  they  thought 
'  fit.     This  being  done,  our  Army  returned  into 

*  England^  having  been  Inftruments,  by  the  Blef- 

'  fing 


280     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY" 

'  fing  of  God,  of  fo  much  Good  to  that  Nation, 
1  and  fettling  them  in  the  Power  which  they  now 
4  enjoy;  then  highly  by  them  acknowledged,  own- 
'  ing  our  Army  for  their  Prcfervators,  as  indeed, 
4  under  God,  they  were  ;  and  profeffing  their  ear- 
*  neft  Defires  and  firm  Refolution  to  continue  a 
'  grateful  and  conftant  Amity  and  Friendfhip  with 


4  Vet  now,  laying  afide  all  Confideration  of  for- 
4  mer  Kindnertes,  and  of  their  Expreflions  and  En- 
4  gagements  of  Juftice  and  Treaties,  the  common 
4  Bonds  of  human  Society,  they  endeavour  to  exer- 
4  cife  their  Power  for  the  Deftru<5tion  of  thofe  by 
4  whofe  Means  they  did  receive  it ;  they  again  in- 
4  fift  upon  the  fame  Pretenfions  to  Matters  of  our 
4  Government,  and  take  upon  them  to  determine 

*  what  is  fundamental  here;  and  direct  and  threaten 
4  us,  if  we  change  not  what  is  now  eftablifhed,  and 
4  form  it  to  their  Mind,  or  accommodate  it  to  their 
4  Intereft. 

*  This  is  fufficiently  cleared  by  the  Proteftation 
4  made  and  fent  to  us  by  their  Commiflioners,  the 
4  Earl  of  Lothian,  Sir  John  Chie/ley,  and  Mr.  Glen- 
4  dinning,  upon  which  we  then  gave  our  Senfe  in 
4  a  flaort  Declaration ;  yet  thofe  Commiflioners 
4  were  owned  and  juftified  by  the  Parliament  of 
4  Scotland)  and  no  Cenfure  parted  on  them,  tho' 
4  defired  by  the  Parliament  of  England,  who  fent 
4  them  with  a  Guard  to  Berwick)  to  be  delivered 

*  to  fuch  as  the  Parliament  of  Scotland  fnould  fend 
4  to  receive  them. 

4  But  becaufe  real  Injuries  and  great  Provoca- 
4  tions  may,  and  ought  fometimes  to  be,  parted 
4  over  without  War,  though  the  Grounds  of  that 
4  War  be  juft,  if  it  be  not  alfo  neceflary,  Reafons 
4  both  of  Prudence  and  Chriftianity  requiring  and 

*  perfuading  it;  the  Parliament  of  England  doth 
4  hereby  declare  the  Neceffity  under  which  they  are 
4  concluded  to  make  this  preient  Expecliti&n,  which 
4  they  have  already  evidenced  to  be  juft. 

*  All   fair   and  amicable  Ways   of  procuring 

*  Reparation  of  thofe  great  Damages  which  this 


O/    ENGLAND.       281 

Nation  hath  fuftaincd  by  them,  and  by  Occafion  jnter-regnum, 
of  their  Invafion,  have  been  rejected  and  denied;        165°- 
and  that  by  the  prefent  Parliament  of  Scotland,    *— — v-— ' 
and  Power  now  ruling  there,  whereby  they  have        Jun** 
owned  the  Wrong  and  Damage  done  to  this  Na- 
tion by  that  Invalion  ;  which,  upon  due  Confi- 
cleration,  will  be  found  to  amount  to  vaft  Sums, 
if  all  fhould  be  put  upon  their  Account  which  this 
Commonwealth  hath  fuffered  by  them  and  their 
Influence,  both  in  refpect  of  Ireland,  the  Revolt 
of  Part  of  the  Fleet  appointed  for  that  Summer's 
Service  when  they  invaded,  the  feveral  Infurrec- 
tions  at  home,  and  their  Invalion. 

4  Their  Defign  and  Refolution  again  to  invade 
us,  will  be  the  more  evident,  if  we  remember, 

Firfti  c  That,  upon  Occafion  of  demanding  only 
a  Treaty  for  Satisfaction  for  their  former  Inva- 
fion, they  do,  in  exprefs  Terms,  declare  them- 
felves  Enemies  to  the  Government  of  this  Com- 
monwealth, and  all  that  adhere  thereto,  and  lay 
Foundations  of  Sedition,  and  new  Infurreclion, 
amongft  ourfelves. 

Secondly,  '  In  purfuance  of  thefe  Grounds,  they, 
who  cannot  claim  to  themfelves  the  leaft  Colour 
of  Authority  or  Dominion  over  us,  yet  have  ta- 
ken upon  them,  in  Scotland,  to  proclaim  Charles 
Stuart  .to  be  King  of  England  and  Ireland  ;  and, 
in  their  Treaty  fince  with  him,  have  promifed 
him  their  Afllftance  againft  this  Nation. 

Thirdly,  '  Before  the  late  Invafion  from  Scot- 
land^ the  Parliament  of  England,  upon  Forefight 
of  their  Difpofition  to  What  followed,  and  feeing 
their  Preparation,  and  the  Party  they  had  feduced 
in  order  thereunto,  believing  what  the  Event  was 
like  to  be,  fent  thither  Commiffioners  to  treat  for 
preventing  the  Effufion  of  Blood ;  but  the  Treaty 
was  refufed,  and  anfwered  only  with  the  imme- 
diate March  of  their  Army  into  England.  Having 
therefore  again  refufed  the  amicable  Offer  of  a 
Treaty  for  Peace,  we  have  reafon  to  expect  an- 
other Jnvafion. 

Fourthly, 


282      'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Fourthly-,  '  They  have  equally  declared  againft 
us  as  Sectaries,  as  they  have  againft  thofe  of 
Montrofe's  Party,  putting  us  into  the  fame  Rank 
'  with  Malignants  and  Papifts;  although  they  can- 
'  not  but  know  the  Faith  which  we  profefs,  who 
'  defire  to  worfhip  God  in  the  Spirit,  rejoicing  in 
'  Jefus,  and  have  no  Confidence  in  the  Flefti ;  ha- 

*  ving  our  Hope  of  Juftification  and  Remifiion  of 

*  Sins  in  the  Blood  of  Chrift,  and  Salvation  by  the 

*  free  Grace  of  God  ;  mourning,  from  our  very 

*  Souls,  that  any  turn  that  Grace  into  Wanton- 

*  nefs  j   being  ready  to  bear  our  Witnefs  againft 
'  them,  and  defirous  that  the  licentious  Practices 

*  of  thofe  who  do  fo,  fhould  be  punifhcd  by  the 
'  Magistrate.     We  cannot  but  think  that  an  Inte- 

*  reft  of  Dominion  and  Profit,  under  a  Pretence  of 

*  Prefbytery  and  the  Covenant,  is,  by  thefe  Men, 
«  of  more  Value  and  Efteem  than  the  Peace  and 
'  Love  of  the  Gofpel,  to  which  all  that  may  be 
«  called  Difcipline  or  Government  in  the  Church 

*  is,  and  ought  to  be,  fubordinate ;  and  for  which 

*  the  leaft  Violation  of  the  Love  and  Peace  before- 

*  mentioned  ought  not  to  be.      Their  Defign  and 
'  Purpofe  being  thus  evident,  a  Neceflity  is  upon 

*  us  to  ufe  our  befl  Endeavours,  with  God's  Af- 
«  fiftance,  to  prevent  them,  and  not  leave  them  to 

*  invade  us  at  their  chofen  Opportunity,  and  our 
«  sreateft  Difad vantage,  when  they  fhall  have  com- 
«  pleated  their  Defign  with  Foreign  States  for  their 
'  Aid,  and  with  their  Faction  and  Party  in  this  Na- 
'  tion  for  Correfpondence  and  Concurrence  in  their 
'  Attempts  upon  us ;  and  that  we  may  not  be  at 

*  the  infupportable  Charge  of  keeping  feveral  Ar- 
«  mies  in  our  own  Bowels,  and  fubje£t  ourfelves  to 
'  the  Contributions,   Plunderings,  and  barbarous 
'  Ufage  of  a  Scots  Army,  if  we  fuffer  them  again 
'  to  enter;   or  of  keeping  one  form'd  Army  con- 

*  flantly  upon  the  Borders,  for  preventing  or  re- 

*  fifting  thofe  Attempts  upon  us,  which  they  are 

*  waiting  an  Opportunity  at  their  beft  Advantage 

*  to  make.     A  Burthen  from  which  we  ought  to 

«  apply 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       283 

'apply  our  beft  Endeavours  to  free  the  People,  Inter-regn  im. 
'  who  have  fuffered   fo  deeply  already  by  their 

<  Means;  which  hath  been  Part  of  their  Defign, 
«  hereby  to  bring  the  People  to  a  Difcontent  with 
'  the  Government  from  the  Senfe  of  Charge,  with- 

*  out  confidering  the  Caufe  of  the  Continuance 

*  thereof,  that  fo  they  may  be  fitted  to  receive  their 
c  Impreffions,  and  carry  on  their  Faction  among  us, 

*  and  keep  it  ready  for  them  to  make  ufe  of  when 

*  they  (hall  fee  Caufe. 

'  And  although  the  Injuries  and  Provocations 
'  have  been  great  and  prefiing  above  Meafure, 

*  which  have  been  put  upon  us,  as  is  evident  by 
'  what  is  before  alledged  ;  and  that  the  Wrong- 

<  doers  have  left  us  no  other  Ways  of  Remedy  or 

*  Vindication,  faving  what  the  Sword  can  produce; 
'  which,  with  the  Bleffing  of  God,   fucceeding, 
'  might  invite  Returns  anfwerable  to  their  Defigns 

*  and  Attempts  upon  us,  if  we  mould  tread  in  their 
«  Steps :  Yet  the  Lord  is  our  Witnefs,  thatDomina- 

*  tion,  Revenge,  or  worldly  Gain  are  not  the  Mo- 
«  tives  of  our  Engagement  in  this  greatUndertaking; 
«  but  our  Ends  therein  are,  the  Advancement  of 
4  God's  Glory  ;  the  furthering  of  a  juft  Freedom, 

*  where  God  (hall  minifter  the  Opportunity ;  the 
'  procuring  of  a  fit  Satisfaction  for  what  is  paft  ; 
'  and  the  fettling  of  a  clear  Security  for  the  Time 

*  to  come,  againft  the  like  Injuries  and  Mifchiefs  ; 

*  which,  as  we  hold  it  moft  juft  and  neceflary  for 
'  us  to  feek  after,  for  Prevention  of  our  further 

*  Sufferings  by  them,  and  their  further  Guilt ;  fo 
'  we  mall  much  rejoice  if  it  may  be  attained  with- 
'  out  Blood  ;  and  that  thofe  who  fear  God  in  both 

*  Nations  may  be  led,  by  thefe  great  Shakings,  out 

*  of  all  carnal  Confidence  and  Expectations,  to 
'  meet  together  in  the  Power  of  true  Religion  and 

*  Holinefs,  to  ferve  and  worfhip  God  according  to 
'  his  Mind  reveal'd  in  his  Word ;  which  is  our 

*  Hearts  Defire  to  make  the  Rule  of  our  Ways  and 
«  Adions. 

HEN.    SCOBELL, 
Cleric.  Parliament. 

The 


284      7#*  Parliamentary  Hi  s  T OR  Y 

jnter-regnum.        The  fame  Day,  June  26,  the  Earl  of  Pembroke 

l65°-         reported  from  the  Committee  appointed  to  attend 

*•— -v— '    the  Lord-General  Fairfax  with  the  Vote  of  the 

Houfe  of  Yeilcrday,  That  they  had  accordingly 

attended  on  him ;  and  that  his  Lord(hip  return'd 

his  humble  Thanks  to  the  Parliament  for  their 

And  appoint     great  Favour  and  Rcfpecls  to  him.     The  Houfe 

Cromwell  Cap-  being  alfo  informed  that  Mr.  RuJJjzvortlj,  his  Lord- 

tain-Ocncral,  on      .    t>  •/ 

Lord  Fairfax's  ihip  s  Secretary,  was  at  the  Door,  he  was  called 
refigning  "his      in  ;  and  acquainted  Mr.  Speaker,  That  the  Lord- 
Commiffion.       General  had  commanded  him  to  prefent  to  the 
Parliament  the  laft  Commiflion  he  received  from 
them  ;  and  likcwife  his  firlt  Commiffion,  [which 
"was  granted  in  the  Name  of  both  Houfes]  if  they 
pleafed  to  command  it:  Accordingly  the  laft  Com- 
rniffton  was  delivered  in.     Next,  it  was  refolved 
,  that  Mr.  Rujhunrtb  do  likewife  deliver  in  the  fir  ft 

Commiflion,  which  was  done.  After  all  this  Ce- 
remony, an  A61:  for  repealing  the  Ordinance  and 
A61  of  Parliament  for  conflicting  Thomas  Lord 
Fairfax  Captain-General  and  Commander  in  Chief 
of  all  the  Forces  raifed  by  their  Authority,  was 
twice  read,  pafled,  and  ordered  to  be  forthwith 
printed  and  publiflied  ;  as  was  alfo  another  for  ap- 
pointing Lieutenant-General  Cromwell  to  fuccecd 
his  Lord  (hip  in  that  important  Station. 

Mr.  Whithcke  attributes  the  great  Expedition 
jnacle  in  palling  thefe  two  A6ts,  to  the  Contrivance 
of  Cromu'eirs  Friends,  who  urged  the  ill  Confe- 
quences  of  the  Army's  being  without  a  Head  ;  and 
adds,  *  That  great  Ceremonies  and  Congratula- 
tions of  the  new  General  were  made  to  him  from 
.all  Sorts  of  People  ;  and  that  he  went  on  roundly 
•with  his  Bufmefs.'  It  is  alfo  obfervable,  That 
though  Cromwell  (when  in  Ireland)  had  been  twice 
fent  to  by  Order  of  the  Houfe,  requiring  him  to 
give  his  Attendance  in  Parliament,  yet  he  always 
excufed  himfelf,  on  pretence  that  the  public  Ser- 
vice requir'd  his  Stay  there,  untill  he  was  inform'tl 
by  his  Friends  that  Fairfax  was  fully  determined 
rot  to  fight  the  Scots,  and  had  Aflurances  that  the 
Parliament  would  confirm  his  Appointment  of  his 

Son- 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        285 

Son-in-Law,  Ireton,  to  be  Deputy-Lieutenant  of  Inter-regnum. 
Ireland  in  his  Abfence.     Having  thus  fecured  the  °L» 

Government  of  one  Kingdom  in  his  own  Family,  jTjC^ 
he  was  left  at  Leifure  to  form  the  Conqueft  of  a 
fecond  ;  and,  by  his  Succefs  in  that  Attempt,  a  few 
Years  after,  arrived  at  the  abfolute  Command  of 
all  three.  And  indeed  it  appears  to  have  been 
Cram-well's  great  Mafterpiece  of  Policy  to  be  al- 
ways courted  to  accept  what  he  moft  ardently 
wilh'd  to  obtain. 

'June  28.  The  only  Aft  pafled  this  Month  worth  . 

•VT     •          i     r  j         I     r      I  •          \  An  Aft  pa  fad 

our  Notice,  befides  thofe  above-mentioned,  was,  again(t  profane 
For  better  preventing  and  fupprejffing  of  profane  Swearing. 
Sivearing  and  Curfmg ;  whereby  it  was  enacted, 
That  every  Perfon  ftyling  himfelf  a  Duke,  Mar- 
quis, Earl,  Vifcount  or  Baron,  (hould,  for  the  firft 
Offence,  forfeit  30*.  a  Baronet  or  Knight,  20  s. 
an  Efquire,  iQs.  a  Gentleman,  6s.  8;7.  and  all 
inferior  Perfons  3  j.  \d.  double  for  the  fecond,  £5V. 
to  the  ninth  ;  and  for  the  tenth  to  be  bound  to  the 
good  Behaviour.  The  like  Penalty  on  Women 
offending  ;  a  Wife  or  Widow  to  pay  according  to 
the  Quality  of  her  Hufband,  and  a  {ingle  Woman 
that  of  her  Father.  Penalties  to  be  recovered  by 
Diftrefs  and  Sale  of  the  Offenders  Goods;  and,  in 
Default  thereof,  the  Party,  if  above  twelve  Years 
of  A:j;e,  to  be  fet  in  the  Stocks  ;  if  under,  to  be 
publickly  whipt.  This  A6t,  which  repealed  the 
Statute  21.  Jac.  was  ordered  to  be  printed,  and 
alfo  pubiifhed  on  the  firft  Market-Day,  in  every 
Town,  after  the  Receipt  .thereof. 

July.  About  the  Middle  of  laft  Month  Mr.  Afchamt  Mr.  dicta*,  the 
whom  the  Parliament  had  fent  as  their  Agent  into  parK*Jn*s*'?  .A" 
Spain,  was  affaffinated  at  an  Inn  in  Madrid,  toge-  hiving" been 'af- 
ther  with  one  Signer  Riba,  his  Interpreter,  byfafii 
fix  Englifnmen  ;  who  inquiring  for  Mr.  Afcham^ 
and  being  admitted  to  his  Chamber,  as  he  rofe  to 
falute  them,  the  foremoft  laid  hold  on  him  by  the 
Hair  and  ftabb'd  him  ;  whereupon  the  Interpreter, 
endeavouring  to  make  his  Efcape,  was  ftabb'd  by 

another. 


286     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-repnum.  another.  The  Murderers  having  fled  for  Refuge 
1650.  to  tne  Venetian  Ambaflador's  Houfe,  who  refufed 
*—  •—  v—  —  '  them  Entrance,  they  took  Sanctuary  in  the  next 
Ju  y*  Church.  When  the  Parliament  was  inform'd  of 
this  Affair  by  Mr.  Fifoer,  their  late  Agent's  Secre- 
tary, they  firft  ordered  that  a  Letter  mould  be  writ- 
ten to  the  King  of  Spain,  and  fign'd  by  their 
Speaker,  to  demand  Juftice  on  the  Murderers  of 
Mr.  A  f  chain.  Next  Sir  Henry  Mildmay  having  re- 
ported from  the  Council  of  State,  That  (in  regard 
of  the  faid  horrible  Affaffination  and  Murder,  and 
alfo  of  feveral  late  Advertifements  they  had  receiv'd 
of  divers  Perfons  being  come  into  England  with  In- 
tention of  like  Murder  and  Afl'aflination  ;  and  that 
fome  faithful  Perfons  to  the  State  are  particularly 
defigned  to  be  attempted  upon)  it  was  the  faid 
Council's  Opinion  the  Houfe  (hould  be  moved  to 
take  intoConfideration  what  they  publimed,  in  their 
Declaration  of  the  i8th  of  May,  1649,  on  occafion 
of  the  Murder  of  Dr.  Dorljlaus  a  ;  and  give  Order 
,  that  fomething  may  be  done  effectually  in  purfu- 
ance  thereof,  to  difcourage  and  deter  fuch  bloody 
and  defperate  Men,  and  their  Accomplices,  from 
the  like  wicked  Attempts  for  the  future:  Hereupon 
the  Houfe  refolved  that  fix  of  thofe  Perfons  who 
have  been  in  Arms  againft  the  Parliament,  not  be- 
ing admitted  to  C'ompofition,  and  are  now  in  their 
Power  and  at  their  Mercy,  be  fpeedily  proceeded 
againft  to  Trial  for  their  Lives,  before  the  High 
Court  of  Juftice,  upon  their  former  Offences,  on 
occafion  of  the  horrid  and  execrable  Affaffination  of 
Mr.  Afcham,  Agent  for  the  Parliament  to  the  King 
of  Spain,  and  of  his  Interpreter.  Then  it  was  fur- 
The  Houfe  re-ther  refolved  that  Sir  John  Stawel,  Knight  of  the 
folve  that  fix  £at/j  David  Jenkins,  Efq;  a  Welch  Judge,  Col. 

RoyaJifts  be  tried  r»r  t        or      n  \  r>  r>  r>    n    /    i.     r 

^  and  Lapt.  Browne  Bufiel,  be  four 


of  juftke,  for  of  the  fix  ;  and  it  was  referred  to  the  Council  of 

^inft^h"?  a"^tate  to  confidcr  the  Cafe  of  the  feveral  Prifoners; 

monwellth.  °m"an^  to  pr^ent  Names  to  the  Parliament,  out  of 

which  they  "might  ele£l  two  more.     A  Committee 

was  alfo  appointed  to  confider  of  the  Powers  already 

a  In  this  Volume,  p.  124.  Sivcn 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      287 

given  to  the  High  Court  of  Juftice,  and  to  prepare  a  Inter-regnum; 
Draught  of  a  Supplemental  Act  to  impower  that        I  5°*. 
Court*  to  proceed  againft  the  faid  fix  Perfons  ac-        T^T" 
cordingly. 

July  3.  Purfuant  to  the  foregoing  Order  of  the 
Houfe,  tor  adding  two  more  Perfons  to  the  four 
already  named,  as  a  Sacrifice  to  the  Manes  of  their 
Agent  Afcham,  the  Committee  this  Day  prefented  . 
to  the  Houfe  the  Names  of  fix  Perfons  for  them  to 
chufe  two  out  of  them,  who  were  thefe  following: 

Sir  John  IVintour^  now  Prifoner  in  the  Tower  ; 
William  Davenavtj  called  Sir  William  Davenant ; 
Col.  Legge,  Prifoner  at  Exeter-,  Col.Gerrard,  Pri- 
foner in  Caernarvon  Caftle,  who  had  been  in  Arms 
againft  the  Parliament,  and  in  the  Rebellion  in 
Ireland  ;  Capt.  John  Randolph,  taken  in  the  Infur-. 
redtion  with  the  Earl  of  Holland;  and  Henry  Stan- 
ley^ for  endeavouring  to  carry  away  a  Frigate  be- 
longing to  the  Commonwealth.  Out  of  thefe  ths 
Houfe  firft  voted  Col.  Gerrard  for  one,  without  a 
Divifion;  then  Sir  William  Davenant,  the  famous 
Poet,  being  put  to  the  Queftion,  the  Houfe  di- 
vided, the  Yeas  and  Noes  each  27,  when  the 
Speaker  faved  him  by  his  fingle  Voice.  Henry 
Stanley  alfo  parted  in  the  Negative.  The  Houfe 
then  left  it  to  the  Council  of  State  to  name  one 
more  themfelves,  to  make  up  the  Number  of  fix 
Perfons  doomed  to  Trial ;  and  the  next  Day  they 
named  Capt.  Randolph,  but  the  Houfe  changed 
him  for  Sir  JJ^illiam  Davenant ;  and  foon  after  the 
Act  for  Trial  of  Sir  John  Stawell>  and  the  reft, 
palled  without  any  Divifion. 

July  9.    This  Day  the  Houfe  voted  that  no  Commiffion<?n 
Perfon,  employed  as  a  Commiflioner  of  Excife, of  E*cife  Proh'~ 

n        u  •  •  i  LI-     T7        i  bited  holding  an'/ 

ihould  continue  in  any  other  public  Employment other  Employ- 
for  which  he  fhall  receive  any  Salary  from  the  meat. 
Commonwealth  ;  nor  trade  or  traffic  in  any  Com- 
modity excifeable,  during  the  Time  he  fhall  con- 
tinue a  Commifiioner  of  Excife.     This  Vote  was 
not  carried  without  two  Divifions,  on  the  Queftion, 


Intcr-regnum. 
1650. 
— v- 

J«iy. 


288     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

in  the  Houfe,  and  run  fo  near  as  29  againft  24, 
and  27  againft  26. 

The  fame  Day  the  Parliament  received  Advice 
from  Ireland,  of  a  great  Victory  obtain'd  there 
againft  the  Rebels,  the  28th  of  "June  lafl,  with  a 
A  great  viftoryLift-  of  their  Commanders  flain  or  taken  Prifoners 
ParHanJen^s  thein  the  Adtion ;  for  which  a  Day  of  Thankfgiving 
Forces  com-  was  appointed  to  be  held  on  the  26th  Inftant, 
imnded  by  Sir  throughout  all  p.;  land,  Wales ^  and  the  Town  of 
C"'Jt>  ^  Berwick.  An  rtct  for  that  Purpofe,  with  a  Decla- 
ration expreffing  the  Grounds  and  Reafons  thereof, 
was  alfo  ordered  to  be  brought  in;  which  being  a 
Kind  of  Narrative  of  the  Action,  we  fhall  give 
from  that  Authority.  b 


A  Declaration 
fetting  /orth  the 
Particulars 
thereof. 


THE  mighty  Wonders  that  God  hath 
wrought  in  and  for  England,  and  the  Mul- 
titude of  Mercies  with  which  he  has  followed  the 
Parliament  throughout,  in  this  great  Caufe  which 
they  have  undertaken,  for  Afierting  and  Recovery 
of  their  juft  Rights  and  Liberties,  with  the  Efta- 
bliftiment  of  Truth  and  Righteoufnefs,  are  al- 
ways to  be  had  in  thankful  Remembrance  by  us 
and  ourPofterities,and  ought  to  endear  this  Com- 
monwealth, after  a  molt  peculiar  Manner,  to 
feek  the  Lord,  and  become  a  People  in  whom 
his  Soul  may  take  Delight :  For  he  it  is  that  hath 
removed  our  Shoulders  from  the  Burden,  and 
hath  delivered  us  from  Tyranny  and  Bondage  : 
He  hath  gone  forth  with  our  Armies,  nnd  the 
Weapons  that  have  been  form'd  againft  us  he 
hath  not  fuffered  to  profper. 
'  A  moft  eminent  Example  of  this  his  Grace  and 
Goodnefs  to  us,  we  have  Occafion  at  this  Time 
to  celebrate  in  refpect  of  Ireland;  where  God 
hath  not  only  begun  his  faving  and  delivering 
Work,  to  our  Admiration,  and  the  Aftoniftiment 
of  all  our  Enemies,  but  hath  almoft  made  an  End, 
and  that  in  a  moft  glorious  and  remarkable  Man- 
ner j  fo  that  we  may  truly  fay,  the  Lord  hath  foon 

«  fub- 

b  It  fecms  highly  probable,  from  the  Journals,  that  Sir  Hairy 
Vane,  junr.  was  the  Penman  of  this  Declaration. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      289 

'  fubdued  our  Enemies  in  that  Nation,  and  turned  Inter-regnum. 

*  his  Hand  againft  our  Adverfaries;  the  Haters  of  the        l65°- 

*  Lord  have  been  found  Liars,  and  have  not  been  <*""Tvr""<"'' 
'  able  to  ft  and  in  the  Day  of  Battle  ;  but  thofe  cruel         J"  y* 

'  and  Blood-thirfty  Men  have  had  his  juft  Ven- 
'  geance  fo  feafonably  poured  out  upon  them,  that 
'  the  innocent  Blood  of  the  many  thoufand  Pro- 
'  teftants  there  flain  fmce  this  Rebellion,  hath  been 

*  revenged  and  punifhed  upon  the  prime  and  emi- 

*  nent  Actors  of  it.     God,  that  is  unfearchable  in 

*  bis  Councils ,  and  in  his  Ways  pa/}  finding  out,  ha- 
'  ving  call'd  them  to  a  ftrict  Account,  and  given 
'  them  Blood  to  drink,  of  which  they  were  worthy, 
'  that  all  Nations  may  fear  before  him,  and  take 

*  heed  how  they  fet  themfelves  againft  him  and 
'  his  People. 

6  It  is  as  yet  very  little  more  than  twelve  Months 

*  when  Dublin  and  Londonderry  were  the  only  con- 

*  fiderable  Places  in  all  Ireland  that  remained  un- 
'  der  the  Power  of  the  Parliament;  and  thofe  were 

*  fo  ftraitly  block'd  up  and  befieged  by  powerful 
4  Armies  of  the  Enemy,  that  there  was  nothing 
'  left,  but  marvellous  and  extraordinary  Appear- 

*  ances  of  God,  whereby  to  fet  them  free,   and 

*  make  PafTage  and  give  Footing  unto  the  Army 

*  fent  laft  Year  from  hence  for  the  Reduction  of 

*  that  Dominion ;  whofe  Progrefs,  by  the  Blef- 

*  fing  of  God,  hath  been  fuch,  as  that,  neither  in 
'  Field  nor  Garrifon,  the  Enemy  is  much  confider- 
«  able. 

'  The  Particulars  of  this  laft  great  Mercy  given 

*  unto  the  Parliament's  Forces  under  Sir  Charles 

*  Coot,  Lord  Prefident  of  Connaugbt,  againft  the 

*  whole  Army  of  Irijh  Rebels  in  Ulfter,  command- 
e  ed  by  the  Popifh  Bifhop  of  Clogher,  have  been, 
4  by  an  Exprefs  from  thefaid  Lord  Prefident,  cer- 
'  tified  to  the  Parliament ;  and  are  fiimm'd  up  in 
c  the  Narrative  following,  and  the  Letters  and  Pa- 

*  pers  themfelves  herewith,  and  heretofore,  print- 

*  ed  and  made  public, 

Voi.XIX.  T  IT 


*The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  *  IT  having  pleafed  God  fo  to  blefs  our  Armies 
1650.  <  jn  Leinfter  and  Munfter,  that  the  Enemy  durft 

^-^ -v— ^  *  no  longer  keep  the  Field  in  thofe  Parts,  the  Irijh 
'  Rebels  (having  reduced  themfelves  into  a  Body 
c  meerly  Popifti,  putting  all  Proteftants,  of  what 

*  Quality  foever,   from  amongft  them  j  and,  till 
«  when,  they  thought  themfelves  lefs  capable  of 
'  Succefs  or  anyBleffing)  loolc'd  upon  the  Province 
'  of  Uljier  as  the  fitteft  Refuge  for  their  Prcfervation 
'  and  Subfiftence,  where  the  Parliament's  Forces  lay 
«  fcattered  in  fmalleft  Proportion,  and  (as  the  Na- 
'  ture  of  that  large  Country  required)  at  greateft 
'  Diftances  ;  and  where  the  Country  was  well  near 
4  wholly  at  their  Devotion,  the  Papifts  (which  in 
c  thofe  Parts  are  the  moft  zealous,  and  therefore 
'  the  firft  in  the  Rebellion,  and  moft  bloody  in  the 
«  Execution)  upon  their  own  Account  entirely,  and 

*  the  Scots  upon  their  King's,  by  whofe  Authority 

*  and  for  whofe  Service  this  Army  was  raifedj  and 

*  therefore  as,  by  the  laft  Year's  Experience,  they 

*  were  fure  of  the  Scots  upon  that  common  Intereft, 

*  fo,  for  their  Encouragement  now,  they  did,  by 
'  many  Declarations  difpers'd  among  the  Scots, 
'  aflure  them  of  Security  and  Protection,  if  they 

*  continued  to  own  the  laid  King's  Authority. 

«  Thefe  Forces  which,  upon  the  Death  of  Owen 
(  Roe  O'Neal,  were  deftitute  of  a  Commander, 
,'  were  fupplied  by  Ever  MacMahon^  Bifhop  of 
'  Clogber^  by  Commiffion  from  Ormond^  authoriz'd 
'  thereunto  by  Charles  Stuart^  eldeft  Son  to  the 

*  late  King,  into  whofe  Service  and  Protection 

*  they  were  taken,  by  a  Treaty  mention'd  in  the 

*  faid  Commiffion  itfelf  of  the  faid  OrmontFs,  here- 
'  with  printed. 

*  This  is  that  Army  which,  while  it  was  under 
'  the  Conduct  of  Ow en  Roe  the  laft  Year,  did  oc- 
c  cafion  fome  Jealoufies  and  Reproaches  upon  the 

*  Proceedings  of  this  prefent  Parliament,  as  if  they 
'  had  been  taken  into  their  Service ;  and  that  fuch 

*  bloody  Rebels  Ihould  have  been  made  Ufe  of 
'  againft  the  Proteftant  Pajty  of  Engttjb  and  Scots, 

*  then  under  the  Command  of  Ormond  and  Man- 


Of   ENGLAND.      291 

*  ro-e,  that  had  declared  themfelves  againft  the  Par-  Inter-regnum, 
6  liament  of  England,  as  Sectaries,  and  Murderers 

'of  the  late  King:    And  great  Ufe  was  made    *~~r£^' 
'  thereof  by  Minifters  and  others,  not  affected  to 

*  this  prefent  Government,  to  alienate  the  Minds 
6  of  Men  from  their  Duty  to  this  Parliament,  and 

*  foment  new  Diffractions  and  Divifions  amongft 

*  us  :  But  as  we  did  then,  in  the  Sight  of  God  and 
'  Sincerity  of  our  Hearts,  vindicate  our  Innocency 
'  in  reference  to  any  fuch  Defigns,  as  by  the  Votes 
'  we  then  patted  doth  appear ;  fo  the  vigorous  and 

*  conftant  Oppofition  all  along  maintained  againft 

*  them,  and  the  thorough  Execution  now  done  by 
'  our  Forces  upon  them,  gives  an  undeniable  Evi- 
4  dence  of  our  Clearnefs  therein,  and  leaves  to  fu- 
'  ture  Ages  the  Marks  of  our  juft  Indignation 

*  againft  them. 

'  This  Army,  provided  of  this  General,  about 
'  the  End  of  May  laft,  fell  down  into  Sir  Charles 

*  Coot's  Quarters,  and  prefently  took  by  Storm  a 

*  Place  upon  the  Frontier  of  Ul/Jart  called  Dunge- 
'  ven,  where  they  put  all  to  the  Sword,  except  the 

*  Governor,  whom  they  fent  dangeroufly  wounded 

*  to  Charlemont ;    from  •  thence  they  marched  to 
«  Bally  Caftle,  which  was  prefently  furrendered  to 

*  them  without  any  Oppofition,  by  the  Treachery 
'  of  fome  therein. 

'  Thefe  Succefles  exceedingly  puff'd  up  the  Re- 
c  bels,  and  made  them  considerable,  not  in  their 
4  own  Eyes  only,  but  to  the  Judgment  of  Ormofidj 

*  Clanrickard,  and  the  reft  of  their  Party,  who 
'  therefore  advife  their  General,  by  all  Means,  to 
'  keep  off  from  putting  Things  to  the  Hazard  of 
'  a  Battle  ;  having  Hopes,  upon  this  Foundation, 

*  and  by  the  well  managing  of  this  fo  well  begun 
'  Succefs,to  recover  again,  not  only  their  late  Inte- 
'  reft  in,  but  the  whole  Dominion  of  Ireland;  for 

*  tho'  the  Army,  in  effective  Force,  did  not  con- 
e  fift  of  above  600  Horfe  and  4000  Foot,  yet  they 
4  were  reckoned  fourteen  Regiments  of  Foot,  and 

*  had  Officers  of  all  Degrees  proportionable  to  that 
'  Number  i  which,  by  their  Intereft  in  the  Coun- 

T  2  «  try 


292     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  '  try  as  aforefaid,  and  by  the  Countenance  of  thefe 

*  fuccefsful  Beginnings,  they  might  reafonably  pro- 

*  mife  themfelves;  and  by  them  upon  the  Place  it 
'  is  believed,  that  within  a  very  few  Days  they 
'  would  have  gathered  in  a  Force  of  Soldiers  an- 
'  fwerable  to  thofe  Officers. 

4  In  the  mean  Time,  all  the  Force  that  the 

*  Lord-Prefident  of  Connaugbt  could  draw  into  the 
'  Field  to  rcfift  this  powerful  Inroad,  (leaving  the 
'  Garrifons  tolerably  provided  for)  was  but  1800 

*  Foot  and  6co  Horfe,  whereof  1000  Foot  came 
'  up  to  him  under  Col.  Fen-wick ',  but  three  Days 
'  before  he  engaged  the  Enemy :  But  England  may 

*  fay,  as  well  as  Ifrae!,  It  is  as  eafy  with  the  Lord 

*  to  fave  with  few  as  with  many ;  who  was  pleafed 

*  to  put  fuch  Zeal  and  Courage  into  the  Soldiers  of 

*  the  Parliament,  that,  on  the  2ift  of  June  laft> 
4  they  marched  up  towards  this  Army  (fo  exceed- 
'  ing  them  in  Number,  and  heightened  in  Refolu- 
'  tion  by  late  Succefles)  as  it  lay  encamp'd  neas 

*  Lftterkemyt  upon  the  Side  of  a  Mountain,  in- 
'  acceffible  either  for  Horfe  or  Foot ;  upon  Sight 

*  of  which  the  Enemy  drew  forth  upon  a  Piece  of 

*  Ground  (being  indeed  inticed  thereunto  by  the 

*  giving-back  of  fome  of  our  Forlorn-Hope,  or- 

*  dered  for  that  Purpofe  fo  to  do)  and  though  that 
'  Ground  was  extremely  bad,  yet  it  pleafed  God 

*  to  put  it  into  the  Hearts  of  our  Forces,  with  that 

*  fmall  Body  to  advance  towards  them,  where  they 

*  prefently  engaged  them;  and,  by  the  wonderful 

*  Bleffing  of  Gofl,  after  an  Hour's  hot  Difpute, 
'  even  to  Pufii  of  Pike,  with  great  Refolution  on 
'  both  Sides,  the  Enemy  was  totally  routed,  many 
'  of  them  killed  upon  the  Place,  and  the  Execu- 
'  tion  purfued  ten  cr  eleven  Miles  every  Way  that 
'  Night ;  fo  as  the  Number  computed  to  be  flain 
«  that  Day  in  the  Purfuit,  and  the  next  Day,  was 
'  3000  at  the  leaft ;  in  which  Action  were  flain 
«  and  taken  Prifoners  moft  of  their  Officers,  from 
'  the  higheft  to  the  loweft,   few  efcaping;    and 
',many  of  the  Heads  of  the  principal  Septs  orFa- 

*  jmilies  in  that  Country,  of  the  old  Irijb  Rebels  ; 

*  ibme 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D,       293 

*  fome  of  whom  are  fince  executed,  and  their  Inter-regnum. 

*  Heads  fet  upon  the  Walls  of  Londonderry  for  l65°- 

*  the  Terror  of  others,   and  as  Monuments  of  v— "v*-^ 

*  God's  Goodnefs  in  their  Overthrow ;  the  moft  ^  y* 

*  confiderable  of  all  which,  fo  far  as  they  were 

*  then  difcovered  and  known,  are  fet  forth  in  a 
'  Lift  herewith  printed. 

'  There  were  alfo  taken  in  that  glorious  Day, 

*  all  their  Arms,  Ammunition,  Colours,  Bag  and 

*  Baggage,  and  moft  of  their  Horfe ;  and  though 
'  their  General  the  Bifhop  got  off  with  a  Party, 

*  yet  he  was  met  with  (fo  fure  doth  Divine  Juftice 
4  purfue,  and  overtake  the  Men  of  Blood)  and 
e  taken  by  Major  King  and  his  Troops,  near  Innif- 
c  killing,   whofe  Head  was  alfo  fent  for  by  Sir 

*  Charles  Coot  %   to  accompany  the  reft   of  his 

*  wicked  Accomplices  at  Derry. 

'  In  this  Day  of  Ul/ter's  Danger  and  Diftrefs,  k 
(  might  reafonably  have  been  expected  that  the 

*  Scots  (who,  notwithftanding  their  general  Defec- 

*  tion  from  the  Parliament  to  the  contrary  Party 
'  the  laft  Year,  had  yet  enjoyed  Peace  and  Pro- 
'  teclion  from  us)  would  have  come  out  againft 
'  this  perfectly  Popifti  Army,  to  the  Help  of  the  Lord 
(  again/}  the  Mighty  ;  but  fuch  was  their  Ingrati- 
'  tude,  and  fo  great  their  Hatred  to  them  whom, 
'  they  term  Sectaries,  above  what  they  bear  to  the 

*  worft  of  Papifts  and  the  moft  bloody  Rebels,  as 

*  that  they  fat  neutral  all  the  while,  as  referving 

*  themfelves  to  declare  and  fall  in  with  the  Con- 
'  queror,  which  they  alfo  did  accordingly. 

'  In  all  this  Bufmefs  the  Lofs  on  our  Side  was 

*  very  fmall,  fo  mercifully  did  the  Lord  cover  the 

T  3  «  Heads 

a  In  Lord  Clarendons  Vindication  of  James  Duke  of  Qrmand, 
(printed  Anno  1736)  we  find  a  particular  Narrative  of  this  Engage- 
ment, together  with  the  firft  Rife  and  Character  of  this  Bi/hop  of 
Clogber;  who,  as  the  Noble  Hiftorian  affirms,  was  hang'd  by  Sir 
Charles  Coot's  Order,  with  all  the  Circumftances  of  Contumely, 
Reproach,  and  Cruelty  he  could  devife,  tho',  upon  being  taken  Pri- 
foner,  he  was  promiled  fair  Quarter.  But  Mr.  Whitlocke  writes, 
That  the  Bifhop  died  of  his  Wounds,  a  few  Hours  after  he  was 
taken  Prifoner ;  and  that  fome  of  the  Irijb  Officers  confefs'd,That 
if  the  Parliament's  Forces  had  been  defeated,  the  Bifiiop  intended 
to  have  drawn  his  Army  into  Scotland,  to  promote  the  King's  De- 
%ns  there. 


294     Th*  Parliamentary  HISTORV 

Interregnum.  «  Heads  of  his  Servants  in  the  Day  of  Battle  ;  fa 

1650.         c  as  only  Capt.  Sloper  of  Col.  Venable's  Regiment, 

*— ""vp^    4  with  ii  or  12  private  Soldiers,  were  (lain;  and 

Juy<        <  Col.  Fenwick,  Major  Gore,  Capt.  Gore,  and  an 

«  Enfign,  with  fome  few  others,  wounded  :  And 

4  it  is  a  Thing  moft  worthy  Obfervation,  That 

4  thofe  who  firft  began  the  Rebellion  in  that  ve- 

*  ry  Country  of  Ulftcr^  and  where  they  executed. 
4  moft  Cruelty  and  Inhumanity,  fhould  be  referv'd 
4  for  God's  Vengeance  to  be  pour'd  out  upon  them 

*  in  that  Place  ;  fo  that  we  may  juftly  fay,  Who  is 
4  a  God  like  our  God,  our  Enemies  themfelves  being 
'  Judges !  To  him  alone  therefore  be  the  Praife 
4  and  the  Glory. 

4  Nor  was  this  great  Mercy  more  wonderful 
4  than  feafonable,  in  regard  of  the  Terms  wherein 
4  we  ftand  to  Scotland,  and  the  Ncceffity  of  our 
4  Army's  marching  thither,  amongft  other  Things, 
4  for  purfuing  the  Head  of  this  Army  of  Popifh, 
4  and  Irijh  Rebels,  Charles  Stuart,  eldeft  Son  of 
4  the  late  King ;  who  being  beaten  out  from  his 
4  Confidences  and  Intimacies  with  the  Popifh  Ar- 
4  my  in  Ireland,  by  the  wonderful  Succefs  which 
4  God  hath  been  pleafed  to  give  our  Army  this 
4  Year  and  the  laft,  hath  now  no  other  Refuge 
4  left  him  but  Scotland,where  his  Hopes  are  (Man- 
*  trofe  having  alfo  run  out  his  Courfe,  upon  whofe 
4  Affiftance  it  is  known  he  moft  affectionately  de- 
4  pendedb)  to  do  that  by  Stratagem  and  Deceit 
4  with  the  Reformed  Party,  which  he  could  not 
4  carry  on  by  Force  and  Power,  by  Means  of  the 

«  Popifh 

b  In  the  latter  End  of  ^r/7  this  Year  the  Marquis  of  Montrofe 
landed  in  Scotland,  and  railed  Forces  for  the  King  ;  but  being  de- 
feated and  taken  Prifoner  by  a  Party  of  Covenanters,  he  was  fen- 
tenced  by  the  Scots  Parliament,  in  May  following,  to  be  hang'd  at 
Edinburgh  on  a  Gallows  30  Feet  high,  and  afterwards  quartered  ; 
which  was  executed  accordingly,  with  all  poflible  Circumftances  of 
Jnfolence  and  Barbarity,  notwithstanding  he  had  the  King's  Com- 
miflion,  and  they  were  at  that  very  Time  treating  with  his  Majefty 
as  to  the  Conditions  on  which  he  was  to  be  reftored  to  that  Crown. 
On  the  12th  of  June  the  King  fet  Sail  under  a  Dutch  Convoy  for 
Scotland,  and  arrived  on  thatCoaft  the  23d;  but  was  compell'd  to 
promife  to  take  the  Covenant  before  they  would  permit  him  to  come 
on  Shore.  On  the  1 5th  of  July  he  was  folemnly  proclaimed  at  £</;'«• 
t>urgb  Crdfs, 


Of   ENGLAND.      295 

*  Popifh  Rebels  and  purely  Malignant  Party;  and  Inter-regnum. 

*  thinks  now,  under  th*e  fair  Vizard  of  Reforma-        l6S0- 

'  tion  and  the  Covenant,  (which  he  hath  fwal-    *   Ty"  "^ 

*  lowed   like  ill -pleating  Phyfic  for  a  defperate  *' 

*  Cure)  to  raife  up  a  Party  for  himfelf  in  this  Na- 

*  tion  alfo,  for  the  rooting  up  this  prefent  Govern- 
f  ment,  and  with  it  the  Englijb  Liberty,  purchafed 
'  at  fo  high  a  Rate,  and  whatever  elfe  is  near  and 

*  dear  to  honeft  and  good  Men :  But  the  fame 
'  God,  who  is  mighty  in  Strength,  and  alfo  wife 

*  in  Heart,  and  having  fhewn  himfelf  in  Power  to 

*  fubdue  open  Enemies,  will  not  fuffer  his  Arm  to 
'  be  ftiortened,  in  his  going  forth  againft  Hypo- 

*  crites  and  falfe  Friends ;  that  he  in  all  may  be 

*  glorified,  and  his  Praife  /bread  abroad  throughout 

*  the  whole  Earth. 

<  UPON  Confideration  of  all  which,  together 
'  with  the  Taking  of  Trecrogban  about  the  fame 
'  Time,  and  other  profperous  Proceedings  of  our 

*  Forces  in  Ireland^  the  Parliament,  for  Manifef- 
'  tation  of  their  high  and  extraordinary  Senfe  of  fo 
f  fignal  and  feafonable  Mercies,  have  thought  if 
'  fit,  and  their  Duty,  to  fet  a-part  a  Time  for  pub- 
c  lie  and  folemn  Thankfgiving  to  be  rendered  to 
'  the  Lord,  the  Author  of  thefe  Mercies :  And  they 

*  do  therefore  ena&  and  ordain,  That  Friday  the 

*  26th  of  July  be  obferved  and  kept  as  a  Day  of 

<  public  and  holy  Rejoicing  and  Thankfgiving  to 
'  the  Lord  in  all  the  Churches  and  Chapels,  and 
'  Places  of  Divine  Worfhip,  within  this  Common- 
'  wealth  of  England^   Dominion  of  Wales>  and 

*  Town  of  Berwick  upon  Tweed-,  and  that  the  Mi- 

<  nifters  of  the  refpe&ive  ParSflies  and  Places  afore- 
'  faid  be,  and  hereby  they  are,  required  and  «n- 

*  joined  to  give  Notice  on  the  Lord's  Day  next  pre- 

*  ceding  the  faid  26th  of  July-,  of  the  Day  fo  to  be 

<  obferved,  to  the  end  the  People  of  their  feveral 
f  Congregations  may  the  more  geaerally  and  dili- 

*  gently  attend  the  public  Exercifes  of  God's  Wor- 

*  Slip  and  Service  there  to  be  di/penfed  upon  that 

*  Occafion  5  at  which  Time3  that  the  People  may 

*be 


296     *The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum,  '  ^e  ^e  more  particularly  and  fully  inform'd  of  this 

1650.     '  '  great  Deliverance  and  Succefs,  the  faid  Minifters 

C— -v-^    '  are  hereby  required  and  (under  the  Penalty  fet 

July.        «  down  in  the  Refolves  of  Parliament  of  the  Qth 

'  of  Juty,  1649)  enjoined  to  publifh  and  read  this 

4  preient  A&  and  Declaration  d.     And,  for  the  bet- 

*  ter  Obfervation  of  the  Day,  the  Parliament  doth 

*  hereby  inhibit  and  forbid  the  Holding  or  Ufe  of 
4  all  Fairs,  Markets,  and  fervile  Works  of  Men's 
4  ordinary  Callings  on  that  Day:  And  all  Mayors, 
4  Sheriffs,  Juftices  of  the  Peace,  Conftables,  and 

*  other  Officers,  are  hereby  enjoined,  to  take  efpe- 
4  cial  Care  of  the  due  Obfervance  of  the  faid  Day 
4  of  Thankfgiving  accordingly. 

By  a  Lift  annex'd  to  this  Declaration  and  Nar- 
rative it  appears,  that  befides  the  Bifhop  of  Clogher9 
the  Commander  in  Chief,  there  were  taken  Prifon- 
ers  two  Lieutenant-Colonels,  and  one  Quarter- 
rnafter-General;  and  amongft  thofe  kill'd  in  the 
Action  and  Purfuit  were  the  Lord  of  Enijkellen^ 
the  Bifhop  of  Down,  one  Major-General,  five 
Colonels,  four  Lieutenant-Colonels, two  Adjutarjts 
-General,  four  Majors,  five  Captains  of  Horfe, 
and  fifteen  Captains  of  Foot,  whofe  Names  are  put 
down,  but  unneceflary  to  be  repeated  here ;  to- 
gether with  feveral  other  Field  Officers,  Captains, 
Lieutenants,  Enfigns,  three  Priefts  and  Friers, 
Names  unknown,  3000  private  Soldiers,  with  all 
their  Ammunition,  Colours,  Arms,  Bag,  and  Bag* 

gage- 
Then  follows  a  Copy  of  the  Commiffion  under 
the  Hand  and  Seal  of  the  Marquis  of  Ormond  to 
the  Bifhop  of  Clogber^  the  Original  whereof  was 
taken,  and  fent  over  to  the  Parliament. 

JAMES 

*  By  thcfe  Resolutions,  (which  are  given  at  large  in  this  Vo- 
lume, p.  154)  fuch  of  the  Clergy  as  neglected  to  publirti  the  feveral 
Acts  and  Orders  of  Parliament,  were  declared  to  be  Delinquents  j 
and  accordingly  Mr.  Jenkins,  Minifter  of  Ckrijl's  Church,  London, 
having  refufed  to  obferve  a  Faft-Day  appointed  by  Order  of  the 
Houfe,  he  was,  about  this  Time,  fequeitered  from  his  Benefice, 
banifhed  twenty  Miles  from  London)  and  iufpended  from  Preaching 
fur  the  future, 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       297 

JAMES  Marquis  of  Ormond,  Earl  of  Ormond  and  Inter-regnum. 
O/ory,  V ifcount  Thurles,  Lor^l  Baron  of  Arch, 
Lord-Lieutenant-General,  and  General  Gover- 
nor  of  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  Chancellor  of  the 
Univerfity  of  Dublin,  and  Knight  of  the  Moft 
Noble  Order  of  the  Garter. 

To  our  Trufty  and  Well-beloved   Bifhop 
EVER    MACMAHON. 

ORMOND. 

T,J/"Hereas  upon  the  Treaty  with  General  Owen  The  Marquis  of 
*  *  O  Neil,  deceased,  it  was,  amongji  other  par.0rmond^  Com- 
ticulars,  concluded  and  agreed  upon,  That  in  caje  of^^™  *f  J/ * 
the  Death  or  Removal  of  him,  fuch  other  General,  her. 
or  Commander  in  Chief,  Jhould  be  authorised  by  Com- 
tnijjion  from  us,  to  command  his  Majefty's  Forces  of 
the  Province  of  Ulfter,  Natives  of  the  Kingdom,  as 
Jhould  be,  by  general  Confent  of  the  Gentry  of  that 
Province,  elected  and  made  Choice  of  for  the  fame  : 
And  whereas,  in  a  general  Meeting,  lately  held  by  the 
faid  Gentry  for  that  Purpofe,  it  was  agreed  upon9 
andfo  reprefented  unto  us,  that  you  Jhould  exercifefhat 
Command  over  the  faid  Forces  ;  we  therefore,  upon 
Conjideration  thereof,  and  of  the  Care,  Judgment^ 
Valour,  and  Experience  in  Martial  Affairs,  as  alfo 
of  the  Readinejs  and  good  Affettions  of  you  ts  do  his 
Majefty  good  and  acceptable  Service,  have  nomina- 
ted and  appointed,  and  we  do  hereby  nominate  and 
appoint,  you  the  faid  Bijhop  Ever  MacMahon,  to 
le  General  of  all  his  Ma'jejiy's  faid  Forces  of  Horfe 
and  Foot  of  the  Province  of  Ulfter,  Natives  of  the 
Kingdom  \  giving  hereby  unto  you  the  faid  Bijhop 
Ever  MacMahon  full  Power  and  Authority  to  take 
the  faid  Charge  and  Employment  upon  yout  and  the 
faid  Forces,  and  every  of  them,  to  lead  and  command* 
according  to  the  Ufe  and  Difcipline  of  IVar,  and  fuch 
further  Orders  and  Inftruclions  as  you  Jhall,  from 
Time  to  Time,  receive  from  us,  or  other  his  Maje- 
Jlys  Chief  Governor  or  Governors  of  this  Kingdom 
for  the  Time  being  in  that  Behalf;  willing,  and 
hereby  requiring  all  the  Officers ,  Troopers ^  and  Sol- 
diers 


298      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY* 

Jnter-regnum.  d{ers  of  the  faid  Forces,   to  obey  you  as  their  Gene- 
65°'        ral,  and  to  be  at  and  perform  your  Commands  ,  en 
•i-IT^^/    they  Jhall  ijfue  unto  them  upon  all  Occaftons  of  his 
Majefty's  Service,  as  they  will  anfwer  the  contrary. 
Jn  witnefs  whereof  we  have  fign'd  this  your 
Commiffion,  and  caufed  our  Seal  of  Arms  to 
be  thereunto  affix'd,  at  Loghreogh,  the  firft 
Day  of  April,   1650. 

Thus  much  for  the  Affairs  of  Ireland^  this  Time. 

The  Parliament  were  now  fo  intent  upon  profe- 
cuting  their  Expedition  into  Scotland,  that  on  tb.€ 
2Qth  of  June,  only  three  Days  zlterCromzuelFs  being 
appointed  Captain-General  of  the  Army,  he  fet 
forward  from  London  towards  the  North.  When 
he  arrived  at  York,  the  Lord  Mayor,  Aldermen, 
and  Sheriffs  attended  on  him,  and  invited  him  and 
his  Officers  to  Dinner,  where  they  were  highly 
carefs'd.  At  Durham  Sir  Arthur  Hafelrigg,  Go- 
vernor of  Newcaftle,  with  Col.  Pride,  and  other 
Officers,  met  him,  and  attended  him  to  that  Town, 
where  he  arrived  on  the  ifth.  of  July.  During  his 
Stay  there,  a  Faft  was  kept  to  implore  Godjs  Bkf- 
fing  upon  the  Army's  Undertaking,  and  a  Decla- 
ration agreed  on  to  be  difperfed  in  their  march  -y 
which,  being  fent  up  to  the  Parliament  on  the  igth, 
was  by  them  ordered  to  be  forthwith  printed  and 
publifhed  in  htec  Verba  b  : 

^DECLARATION  of  the  ARMY  of  England 
upon  their  March  into  Scotland. 

To  all  that  are  Saints,  and  Partakers  of  the  Faitb 
of  God's  Eleft,  in  Scotland, 


the  Army  of  En&land  do»  from  the 

nz.v       -  —  ,  .  -^          TT     °  ,—    ...      .  , 

my,  addrefs'd  to  *  Y  V  Bottom  of  our  Hearts,  wifh  like  Mercy 
the  Eleft  Saints  "<  and  Truth,  Light  and  Liberty  with  ourfelves, 
ofSc«/W,upon<  fromGod  our  Father,  and  our  Lord  Jefus  Chrift. 

their  march  in-  A  .  .          ,  /•-.,-          111          , 

to  that  King-  '  Although  we  have  no  Caule  to  doubt  but  that 
J~«u  (  the  Declaration  of  the  Parliament  of  the  Com- 

*  monwealth 

b  From  the  original  Edition,  printed  by  Edward  Hufoand  and 
Jobn  FicJJ,  Printers  to  the  Parliament  of  Mxglentt,  Jxfy  19,  3650, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       299 

*  monwealth  of  England,  bearing  Date  the  26th  Inter-regnum. 

*  of  June  laft,   and  publiflied  to  manifeft  to  the 

*  World  the  Juftice  and  Necefiity  of  fending  their 
4  Army  into  Scotland^  may  fatisfy  all  impartial  and 
4  difmterefted  Men  in  all  the  Nations  round  about 
4  us,  (the  Matters  of  Fa&  therein  contained  being 
4  true,  and  the  Conclufions  made  from  thence,  and 

*  the  Refolutions  thereupon  taken,  agreeable  to  the 
4  Principles  of  Religion,  Nature,  and  Nations)  and 
4  therefore  it  may  feem  to  fome,  if  not  improper, 
4  yet  fuperfluous,  for  us,  their  Army,  to  fay  any 
4  more  ;  yet,  however,  out  of  our  Tendernefs  tq- 
4  wards  you,  whom  we  look  upon  as  our  Brethren, 
4  and  our  Defire  to  make  a  Diftinclion  and  Sepa- 
4  ration  of  you  from  the  reft,  as  who,  through  the 
4  cunning  PracYifes  of  fome  wicked  and  defigning 

*  Men,  byafied  by  particular  Interefts,  or  for  want 
4  of  a  true  and  right  Information  and  Reprefenta- 
4  tion  of  the  great  and  wonderful  Tranfa&ions 
4  wrought  amongft  us,  and  brought  to  pafs  by  the 
4  meer  Finger  of  our  God,  may  poflibly  be  ican- 
4  dalized  at  fpme  late  Actions  in  England;   and 
4  thereby  be  involved  in  that  common  Caufe,  fo 
4  much  from  Heaven  declared  againft,  by  blafting 
4  all  Perfons  and  Parties  that  at  any  Time,  in  the 
4  leaft,  under  what  Pretence  or  Difguife  foever, 
4  engaged  therein,  and  fo,  with  them,  to  become 
4  Partakers  of  their  Miferies : 

4  We  have  therefore  thought  fit  to  fpeak  to  fome 
4  Particulars,  and  that  as  in  the  Prefence  of  the 
4  Lord,  (to  whofe  Grace,  and  in  the  Dread  of 
4  whofe  Name,  we  do  molt  humbly  appeal,  and 
4  who,  fhould  we  come  to  a  Day  of  Engagement, 
4  will  be  a  fore  Witnefs  againft  us,  if  we  utter 
4  thefe  Things  in  Hypocrify,  and  not  out  of  the 
4  Bowels  of  Love,  to  perfuade  the  Hearts  and  Con- 
4  fciences  of  thofe  that  a,re  godly  in  Scotland)  that 
4  fo  they  may  be  withdrawn  from  partaking  in  the 
4  Sin  and  Punimment  of  Evil  Doers  ;  or  that,  at 
4  leaft,  we  might  exonerate  ourfelves  before  God 
f  and  Man,  do  remonftrate  as  followeth  : 

4  And 


300      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

'  And  for  as  much  as  we  believe  many  godly 
<  People  in  Scotland  are  not  fatisfied  with  the  Pro- 
'  cecdings  of  this  Nation,  concerning  the  Death  of 
«  the  late  King ;  the  Rejedion  of  his  Ifliie ;  the 
'  Change  of  the  Government ;  and  feveral  Actions 

*  converfant  thereabout.     Although  it  cannot  be 

*  fuppofed  that  in  this  Paper  we  fliould  anfwer  all 
c  Objections  that  may  be  made,  (thefe  very  Parti- 
'  culars  alone  requiring  more  Lines  than  we  intend 
'  in  the  whole)  yet  we  briefly  fay,  That  we  were 
'  engaged  in  a  War  with  the  faid  King,  for  the 

*  Defence  of  our  Religion  and  Liberties ;  and  how 

*  many  Times  Proportions  for  a  fafe  and  well- 
'  grounded  Peace  were  offered  to  him,  and  how 
'  often  he  refufed  to  confent  thereto,    you  well 
'  know ;  which,   according  to  human  Account, 
f  he  might  have  clofed  with,  had  not  the  righte- 
'  ous  God,  who  knoweth  the  deceitful  Heart  of 
'  Man,  and  is  the  Preferver  of  Mankind,  efpecially 
'  of  his  People  in  his  fecret  Judgment,  denied  him 
'  a  Heart  to  aflent  thereto. 

.'  By  which  Refufals  he  made  it  appear,  that 
c  nothing  lefs  would  fatisfy  than  to  have  it  in  his 
'  own  Power  to  deflroy  Religion  and  Liberties ; 
'  the  Subverfion  whereof  he  had  fo  often  attempt- 
c  ed  :  That  he  was  a  Man  guiky  of  more  innocent 

*  Blood  in  England,  Ireland^  and  Scotland,  even 

*  of  thofe  he  ought  to  have  preferved,  as  a  Father 

*  his  Children,  than  any  of  his  Predeceflbrs,  or, 
'  we  think,    than  any  Hiftory  mentioneth  ;   the 
'  Guilt  whereof  he  brought  upon  his  Family  by 

*  folemn  Appeals  to  God :  That  the  Son  did  tread 
1  in  the  Father's  Steps,  and  purfue  his  Defigns,  de- 

*  ftruftive  to  Religion  and  Liberty  :  That  a  Party 

*  in  Parliament,  falfe  to  God  and  to  their  Truft, 

*  were  willing,  and  did  endeavour,  to  betray  the 
'  Caufe  into  the  late  King's  Hands  :  That  a  re- 
4  mainingNumber  in  Parliament,  defiring  to  be  true 

*  to  God,  and  to  the  People  that  intrufted  them, 
'  (out  of  Integrity  of  Heart,  and  fearing  that  the 
4  high  Difpleafure  of  God  would  fall  upon  them, 


Of    ENGLAND.       301 

1  if  they  had  not  done  it)  did  bring  to  Juftice,  and  inter-regnum; 
'  caufe  to  be  executed,  the  faid  King;  did  reject 
'  the  Perfon  now  with  you;  did  lay  afide  the  Hoiife 

*  of  Lords  (an  Eftate  not  reprefenting  the  People, 
'  nor  trufted  with  their  Liberties,  yet  at  that  Time 
'  very  forward  to  give  up  the  People's  Rights,  and 
'  obftru<St  what  might  fave  them,  and  always  apt 
'  enough  to  join  with  Kingly  Intereft  againft  the 

*  People's  Liberties,  whereof  we  wifli  you  have  not 
'  like  fad  Experience) ;  and  did,  for  the  Good  of 
'  the  People,  refolve  the  Government  into  a  Com- 
'  monwealth. 

'  And  having  done  all  this,  that  they  are  not 
'  accountable  to  any  other  Nation,  is  fufficient  to 
?  fay  to  you,  except  it  be  to  excite  you  to  rejoice 

*  in  this  wonderful  Work  of  God,  and  to  be  thank- 
'  ful  to  him  for  fo  much  Deliverance  as  you  have 
'  thereby,  and  leave  the  reft  to  the  State  of  Eng- 

*  land)  to  whom  it  doth  only  and  properly  belong ; 

*  who  have  manifefted  their  regular  Proceedings 
'  therein,  according  to  the  true  and  equitable  In- 
'  tent  of  the  Constitution  of  England,  and  the  Re- 
'  prefentors  of  the  People  in  Parliament,  in  their 
'  feveral  and  refpective  Declarations,  if  they  be 
'  looked  into,  to  which  we  refer  you.     Befides, 

*  it  is  worthy  Conflderation,  with  how  many  Pro- 

*  vidences  this  Series  of  Adion  hath  been  blefs'd, 

*  which  would  require  a  Volume  to  recount. 

'  If  Treaties  be  urged  againft  us,  it  is  eafy  to 
'  fay  by  whom  they  were  broken,  and  how  emi- 

*  nently,  even  by  the  then  full  Authority  of  the 
'  Parliament  of  Scotland,  and  the  Invafion  by  the 

*  Duke  of  Hamilton ;  and  yet  that  not  the  firft 
'  Breach  neither.     And  if  it  be  faid,  That  hath 
'  been  protefted  againft,  and  revoked  fence ;  we  afk, 
'  Doth  that  make  up  the  Breach,  fo  as  to  challenge 
'  England  ftill  upon  Agreements  and  Articles  ? 

*  You  know,  as  to  Right,  it  doth  not,  except  you 
'  fuppofe  that  England  made  their  Bargain  fo,  that 

*  Scotland  might  break  and  England  remain  bound  ; 

*  whereas  k  is  a  known  Law  of  Nations,  that  in 

<  the 


302      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jater-regnum.  «  the  Breach  of  the  League  by  the  one  Party,  the 

1650.         t  other  is  no  longer  obliged. 

*— — v— - '  *  If  the  Covenant  be  alledged  againft  us,  this 
Ju  y*  '  may  be  faid  by  us  with  Honefty  and  Clearnefs, 
'  Religion  therein  having  the  firft  Place,  Civil  Li- 
'  berties  the  next,  the  King's  Intereft  and  Confti- 
'  tutionof  Parliament  the  laft,  and  thefe  with  Sub- 
'  ordination  one  to  another :  The  Covenant  tied 

*  us  to  preferve  Religion  and  Liberty,  as  the  Ends 

*  of  it,  even  when  thefe  were  inconiiftent  with  the 
'  Prefcrvation  of  the  King's  Intereft  and  the  Frame 
'  of  Parliament ;  becaufe  when  the  Means  and  the 

*  End  cannot  be  enjoyed  both  together,  the  End 
'  is  to  be  preferred  before  the  Means. 

'  Now  that  there  was  a  real  Inconfiftency  be- 

*  tween  the  End  and  the  Means,  and  that  the  lefler 

*  did  fight  againft  the  greater,  is  your  own  Judg- 
'  naent ;  who,  in  a  Book  of  yours,  call'd  A  necef- 
'  fary  and  feafonable  Tejiimony  againft  Toleration t 

*  fay  thus  of  the  two  Houfes,  p.  12,  And  doubtlefs 
(  the  Lord  is  highly  dijpleafed  with  their  Proceedings 
c  in  the  Treaty  at  Newport,  in  reference  to  Religion 

*  and  the  Covenant ;  concerning  which  they  accepted 
4  of  fucb  Concejfions  from  his  Majejly^  as,  being  ac- 
'  quiefced  in,  were  dangerous  and  deftruftive  to  both. 
c  Had  we  not  then  appeared  againft  thefe  Con- 
'  ceflions,  and  likewife  thofe  of  both  Houfes  who 

*  acquiefced  in  them,  had  not  Religion  and  Li- 
'  berty  both  been  deftroyed,  which  now,  by  the 

*  Blefling  of  God,  are  preferved  ?  And  if  that  Ao 
'  tion  concerning  the  Parliament  deferve  a  Charge, 

*  yet  leaft  of  all  from  yourfelves  ;  who,  when  you 

*  faw  the  Parliament  which  fent  the  Duke  of  Ha- 
'  milton  with  an  Army  into  England,  proceed  in 
4  Ways  deftru<Stive  to  Religion  and  Liberty,  you 

*  countenanced  and  adted  with  thofe  that  rofe  up 

*  for  public  Safety,  tho'  contrary  to  AtSts  of  Par- 
'  liament,  and  call'd  a  new  one,  excluding  whom 

*  you  thought  fit ;  all  which  was  done  by  Virtue 

*  of  Authority  from   the  Committee  of  Eftates 

*  then  fitting  at  Edinburgh ;  which  indeed  was  no 

«  Com- 


Of   ENGLAND.        303 

c  Committee,    if  you   refpecl:  Formalities,    (the  Inter-regnunu 
4  Breach  whereof  you  fo  often  charge  upon  us)        l65°- 

*  being  conftituted  of  fuch  Perfons  as,  by  Act  of-  L  ~7V~  ~*j 
4  the  foregoing  Parliament,  had  not  legal  Right  to        ^   y 

4  fit  or  act  therein ;  they  not  having  taken  the  Oath 

*  (for  faithful  Difcharge  of  the  Truft  repofed  in 
4  them,  in  reference  to  the  late  Engagement  againft 
e  England)  injoined  by  that  Parliament  to  be  taken 
4  by  every  Member  of  the  Committee  at  his  firft 
4  fitting,  or  elfe  to  have  no  Place  or  Vote  therein, 

*  as  is  fully  fet  down  in  the  Commifiion  for  confti- 
4  tuting  of  that  Committee  of  Eftates. 

4  We  could  more  particularly  fet  forth  how  the 

*  Committee  of  Eftates  there  fitting,  according  to 

*  the  literal  Senfe  of  the  aforementioned  Commif- 
'  fion,  was  broken  and  driven  away  by  that  Force 
'  raifed  and  acted  by  you  as  aforefaid  :    But  we 
4  fpare,  not  feeking  to  juftify  our  Actions  by  yours, 
4  but  to  (hew,  that  you  have  done  the  fame  Things 
6  for  Prefervation  of  Religion  and  Liberty,  which- 

*  you  fo  highly  charge  as  Evil  upon  us :  And  there- 

*  fore  we  further  defire  you  ferioufly  to  confider,      t 
4  that  the  Inconfiftency  of  our  Religion  and  Liber- 

'  ties,  with  the  King's  Intereft  and  former  Con- 
4  ftitution  of  Parliament,  did  not  arife  from  our 
4  Jealoufies  or  Pretences ;  but  from  the  Hardnefs 
4  of  the  King's  Heart,  and  the  Backfliding  of  the 
4  greater  Part  of  thofe  that  were  intrufted  in  the 
4  Parliament,  by  their  acquiefcing  in  thofe  Concef- 
4  lions,  and  endeavouring  immediately  to  bring  in 
4  the  King  upon  them.  We  therefore  reckon  it 
4  no  Breach,  but  a  religious  Keeping,  of  the  Co- 
4  venant  according  to  the  Equity  thereof,  when 
4  our  Parliament,  for  Religion  and  Liberty's  Sake, 
4  and  the  Intereft  of  the  People,  did  remove  the 
4  King  and  Kingmip.  As  alfo  we  aflert  ourfelves 
4  Keepers  of  the  Covenant,  when  the  Competition 
4  hath  been  between  the  Form  and  Subftance,  if 
4  we  have  altered  fome  Forms  of  the  Government 

*  in  part  for  the  Subftance  Sake. 

4  As  for  the  Prefbyterian,  or  any  other  Form  of 
4  Church-Government,  they  are  not  by  the  Cove- 

*  nant 


304     jfife  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  *  nant  to  be  impofcd  by  Force;  yet  we  do  and  are 
1650.  '  ready  to  embrace  fo  much  as  doth,  or  (hall  be 

l>  «-v—  *J  i  ma(je  appear  to  us  to  be  according  to  the  Word 

July-        «  Of  God.     Are  we  to  be  dealt  with  as  Enemies, 

'  becaufe  we  come  not  to  your  Way  ?  Is  all  Re- 

*  ligion  wrapt  up  in  that  or  any  one  Form  ?  Doth 
'  that  Name,  or  Thing,  give  the  Difference  be- 
'  tween   thofe  that  are  the  Members  of  Chrift, 
'  and  thofe  that  are  not  ?  We  think  not  fo.    We 

*  fay,  Faith  working  by  Love  is  the  true  Cha- 

*  rafter  of  a  Chriftian  j   and,  God  is  our  Wit- 

*  nefs,    in  whomfoever  we    fee    any   Thing  of 

*  Chrift  to  be,  there  we  reckon  our  Duty  to  love, 

*  waiting  fof  a  more  plentiful  Effufion  of  the  Spirit 
4  of  God  to  make  all  thofe  Chriftians,  who,  by 

*  the  Malice  of  the  World,  are  diversified,  and, 

*  by  their  own  Carnal-mindednefs,   do  diverfify 

*  themfelves  by  feveral  Names  of  Reproach,  to  be 

*  of  one  Heart  and  one  Mind,   worfhipping  God 
'  with  one  Confent.     We  are  defirous  that  thofe 

*  who  are  for  the  Prefbyterian  Government,  mould 

*  have  all  Freedom  to  enjoy  it;  and  are  perfuaded, 
'  that  if  it  be  fo  much  of  God,  as  fome  affirm,  if 
'  God  be  trufted  with  his  own  Means,  which  is 

*  his  Word  powerfully  and  effectually  preached, 
-    *  without  a  too-bufy  meddling  with,  or  engaging, 

*  the  Authorities  of  the  World,  it  is  able  to  ac- 

*  complifh  his  good  Pleafure  upon  the  Minds  of 
'  Men,  to  produce  and  cftablim  his  Purpofes  in 

*  the  World,  concerning  the  Government  of  his 
«  Church. 

'  And   as   for  the   Blafphemies   and  Herefies 
'  wherewith  fome  Statifts  among  you  have  labour- 

*  ed  to  brand  us,  we  can  fay,  That  we  do  own 
'  thofe  found  Grounds  and  Principles  of  the  Chri- 
'  ftian  Religion,  preached  and  held  by  the  Gene- 

*  rality  of  godly  Minifters  and  Chriftians  of  thefe 
'  later  Times ;   abhorring  from  our  Hearts,  and 

*  being  ready  to  bear  our  Witnefs  againft,  any  de- 

*  teftable  Blafphemies  and  Herefies  lately  broken 

*  out  amongft  us.     We  have  already  punifhed 
c  fome  amongft  us  for  Blafphemy,  and  are  further 

'  ready 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      305 

4  ready  to  do  it ;  but  how  uningenuoufly  we  have  Inter-regnum, 

*  been  dealt  with  by  fome  amongft  you,  and  of  our        l65°« 
'  own  Countrymen,  in  heaping  Calumnies  upon    ''"""Tv" 
4  our  Heads,  to  render  us  vile  and  odious  to  our 

4  Brethren,  yea  and  the  whole  World,  we  leave 
4  to  God  to  judge,  who  will,  we  trull,  in  due 
4  Time,  make  thefe  Things  manifeft.  But  were 
4  Prefbytery  thus  to  be  contended  for,  and  that  in 
4  upholding  it  all  Religion  did  and  would  flourifh ; 
4  yet  how  improbable  it  is,  that  the  Courfe  taken 
'  by  thofe  in  Authority  with  you  will  produce  the 

*  Things  you  defire,  to  fay  no  more,  let  your  own 
4  Experiences  a  little  mind  you. 

*  What  Pretenders  were  fome  Lords  and  other 
4  Perfons  in  the  North  of  Ireland,   whilft  they 

*  mingled  the  Prefbyterian  with  the  Kingly  Inte- 
4  reft  j  and  the  Minifters,  by  their  Preaching,  fe- 
4  duced  the  People  from  their  Obedience  to  Eng- 
4  land,  under  the  fame  Pretence :  But  no  fooner 
4  had  thofe  Perfons  got  the  Power  into  their  own 
4  Hands,    but  they  fhook  off  the  Minifters  by 
4  Threatenings,  caufing  fome  of  them  to  quit  the 
4  Country,  and,  in  general,  difcouraging  the  Ex- 
4  ercife  of  the  Government  there;  declaring  plainly 
4  by  their  Actions,  that  it  was  but  a  Device  to 
4  draw  on  the  Royal  Intereft ;  and  thofe  very  Per- 
4  fons  that  did  get  Power  into  their  Hands  under 
'  thofe  Pretences,  immediately  joined  with  Owen 
4  Roe  O'Ntal,  and  thofe  bloody  Irijh  Rebels  upon 
4  the' Kingly  Intereft. 

4  It  will  not  be  unfit  to  mind  you  alfo,  how  the 

*  Nobility  and  fome  of  the  Minifters  of  Scotland* 
4  preaching  and  crying  up  a  War  againft  England^ 
4  under  Pretence  of  the  Covenant,  did  thereby  lay 
4  a  Foundation  to  the  Duke  of  Hamilton's  getting 
4  the  Command  of  that  Army ;  who,  over-num- 
4  bering  them  in  Parliament,  'Power,  and  Friends, 
4  and  by  the  Advantage  of  Malignants,  thruft  all 
4  that  you  could  call  the  good  Party  out  of  Power 
4  and  Authority ;  himfelf  getting  the  Command  of 
4  that  Army  into  England,  and  leaving  his  Brother 
4  a,nd  other  Kindred  in  Power  in  Scotland. 

VOL,  XIX.  U  <  Thus, 


306     ffle  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  <  Thus,  upon  the  fame  Ground  and  Pretence  to 
1650.  «  carry  on  the  Kingly  Intereft,  have  you  been  twice 

^—  ~v  *  deceived  ;  and  now  he  is  brought  in  amonc;  you, 

'  who  hath  turned  every  Stone,  and  tried  all  Friends 
c  and  Allies  in  foreign  Parts ;  endeavoured  Com- 
«  motions  at  home  by  his  wicked  and  malignant 
6  Inftruments ;  commiffioned  Rupert,  the  French^ 

*  and  all  that  piratical  Generation,  who  do  fpoil, 
'  take,  plunder,  arid  deftroy  our  Ships  and  Trade 
4  at  Sea,  and  all  to  the  end  he  might  deflroy  the 
6  People  of  God,  and  the  Peace  of  the  three  Na- 
c  tions  :  And  now  being,  by  his  Mother  and  the 

<  Popifh  Interefts  abroad,  counfelled  thereto,  hath 

*  made  a  Compliance  with  you,  as  his  laft  Refuge; 

*  who,  even  whilft  he  was  treating  with  you,  had 
e  his  Heart  fet  upon  Montrofe  and  his  Accomplices, 
6  (writing  Letters,  and  fending  particular  Orders 

<  to  him)  and  upon  his  Popifh  Army  in  Ireland,  to 

*  whom  he  had  given  Commiflions,  and  whom  he 
'  ftill  owned  as  his  faithful  Subjects,  notwithftand- 
«  ing  all  the  innocent  Blood  by  them  (hed  ;  and 
'  would  never  be  induced  to  comply,  or  clofe  with 
'  the  Covenant  and  Prefbytery,  till  utterly  difap- 
'  pointed  of  all  thofe  his  Malignant  and  Popifli 

*  Hopes  and  Confidences. 

'  Is  there  not  now  juft  Caufe  for  all  good  Men 

<  with  you  to  fear  that  one  fo  bred,  fo  engaged  and 
'  interefted,  and  meerly  in  fuch  a  Way  coming 
'  in  to  you,  doth  but  watch  his  Opportunity  (to 

*  fpeak  nothing  of  the  Weight  of  the  Blood  of 
'  Saints  under  the  Altar,  crying  ftill  for  Vengeance 
'  upon  him  and  that  Family)  till  by  his  Influence 
'  upon  your  Army,  which  you  know  how  com- 

*  pofed,  he  may  gain  his  Ends  upon  you ;  and  how 
'  likewife  the  Generality  of  the  People  of  Scotland 

*  are  affected,  is  not  unworthy  of  your  moft  ferious 
,                 '  Confideration,  nor  of  a  friendly  Intimation  from, 

«  us. 

'  But  that  which  moft  awakens  us  is,  That  not- 
'  withftanding  all  this,  and  all  the  Wrongs  done  to 

*  England  from  Scotland,  they  refufe  to  do  us  Right ; 
'  fo  that  what  Wrongs  foevcr  we  have,  or  fhall 

*  fuftain, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       307 

4  fuftain,muft  be  without  Remedy,and  we  alfo  with" 
c  out  Security  for  the  future,  as  is  fufficiently  expo- 
'  ftulated  in  the  Parliament  of -fiV/gvWsDeclaration 

*  aforementioned  ;  and  the  Seeds  laid  of  a  perpe- 

*  tual  War,  by  talcing  our  grand  Enemy  into  your 
''.Bofoms,   and   your  Engagement  to  him,  in  the 
4  late  Treaty  with  him,  to  reftore  him  to  the  Pof- 
4  feflion  of   England  and  Ireland;  and  therefore 
4  we  call  Heaven  and  Earth  to  witnefs,  whether  or 
4  no  we  have  not  Caufe  to  defend  ourfelves,  by  hin- 
4  dering  the  prefent  Power  of  ScQtland  from  ta- 
4  king  their  Time  and  Advantage  to  impofe  thus 
4  upon  us  :  And  whether  they  have  now  any  juft 
4  Reafon  to  wonder  at  the  Approach  of  an  Army 
4  to  their  Borders,  and  the  taking  fome  of  their 
4  Ships  by  ours ;  yea,  whether  our  coming  into 
4  Scotland  with  an  Army,  upon  fo  clear  a  Ground, 
4  be  any  other  than  a  juft  and  neceflary  Defence 
4  of  ourfelves,  for  Prefervation  of  thofe    Rights 
4  and  Liberties  which  Divine  Providence  hath,  thro' 
4  the  Expence  of  fo  much  Blood  and  Trealure, 
4  given  us ;  and  thofe  amongft  you  have  engaged 
4  they  will,  if  they  can,  wreft  from  us  ;  unlefs  it 
4  muft  be  taken  for  granted  that  the  Parliament 
4  of  England  ought  to  lit  ftill  and  be  filent  vvhilft 
4  their  Ruin  is  contrived,  their  Friends  and  Bre- 
4  thren  deftroyed  by  Sea  and  Land,  whom  in  Con- 
4  fcience  and  Duty,  both  before  God  and  Man, 
4  they  ought  to  preferve. 

*  And  now  we  come  to  fpeak  to  all  thofe  who 
4  are  within  the  Compafs  pf  the  Title  of  this  De- 
4  claration ;  that  we  undertake  this  Bufmefs  in  the 
4  Fear  of  God,  with  Bowels  full  of  Love,  yea, 
4  full  of  Pity,  to  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Country  » 

*  and  if  it  fliall  pleafe  God  to  make  Scotland  fen- 
4  fible  of  the  Wrongs  done  to  us,  and  to  give  to 
4  the  Commonwealth  of  England  a  fatisfying  Se- 
4  curity  againft  future  Injuries,  we  fliall  rejoice  ; 
4  but  if  that  may  not  be  obtain'd,  we  {hall  defire 
4  fuch  as  fear  God  not  to  join  or  have  to  do  with 
4  thofe  who  are  the  Authors  and  Actors  of  fo  much 
<  Evil  and  Mifchief  againft  their  Neighbours :  And 

U  2  'we 


308     ¥be  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  '  we  dare  fay,  to  the  Praife  of  God,  that  that  which 
1650.        <  moves  us  to  this  great  Undertaking,  is  not  any 

^-"**"V"""""1^  '  Reliance  upon  the  Arm  of  Fleih,  or  being  lifted 
'  up  with  the  Remembrance  of  former  Succefles, 
'  or  the  Defire  of  accomplifhing  any  Defigns  of 
'  our  own  that  we  have  forelaid  ;  but  the  full  Af- 
'  furance  we  have  that  our  Caufe  is  juil  and  righte- 
'  ous  in  the  Sight  of  God;  looking  at  all  precedent 
'  Changes,  and  the  SuccefTes  that  have  produced 
'  them,  not  as  the  Work  of  the  Policy  or  Strength  of 
'  Man,  but  as  the  eminent  Actings  of  the  Provi- 
'  dence  and  Power  of  God  to  bring  forth  hisGood- 
'  will  and  Pleafure,  concerning  the  Things  which 
'  he  hath  determined  in  the  World.  And  we  are 
'  confident,  that  as  he  hath  hitherto  glorioufly  ap- 
'  peared,  fo  he  will  ftill,  bearing  witnefs  to  the 
'  Righteoufnefs  of  this  Caufe,  in  great  Mercy  and 
'  Pity  of  the  Infirmities  and  Failings  of  us  his 

*  poor  Creatures :  And  we  do  moft  humbly  implore 
'  his  divine  Majefty  to  give  a  merciful  Teftimony, 
'  whether  the  Actings  of  divers  Men  amongft  you 
'  have  not  proceeded  from  worldly  Intcrefts,  toge- 

*  ther  with  the  Rancour  and  Bitternefs  of  their 

*  Spirits,  who,  we  fear,  thro'  Envy  atlnftruments, 

*  have  refufed  to  acknowledge  his  Hand  and  Good- 

*  nefs    in    the    Accomplishment    of    thefe    great 
'  Changes;  and  whether  ours  have  not  come  from 
'  the  Simplicity  of  our  and  other  his  poor  Servants 

*  Hearts;  who,  we  truft,  have  defired,  though  in 

*  the  Midfl  of  manifold  Weaknefles,  to  follow  him 

*  in  Integrity,  through  difficult  Paths,  having  no- 
(  thing  but  Danger  and  Ruin  appearing   to  the 
'  Flefh,  and  little  to  encourage  us,  faving  thofe 
'  fignal  Manifeflations  of  his  Prefence  in  thofe 

*  high  Acts  of  his  Providence,  and  the  Fear  of 
'  his  Name,  left  he  going  before,  we  fliould  not 
c  follow. 

«  And  this  we  can  further  add,  That  nothing  is 
'  fo  predominant  within  us  (next  to  our  Duty  to 
'  God,  nor  to  betray  a  Caufe  to  which  he  hath  fo 

*  much  witnefled)  as  the  Lo\re  we  have  towards 

*  thofe  that  fear  God  there}-who  may  poffibly  fuf- 

«  fer 


Of   ENGLAND       309 

*  fer  through  their  own  Miftakes,  or  our  Difabi-  Inter- regnum, 

*  lity  to  diftinguifh  in  a  common  Calamity ;  of        l6s°' 

'  which  Chriftian  Love  we  hope  we  gave  fome    **""Ty"""' 
4  Proof  and  Teftimony  when  we  were  ] aft  in  Scot- 
'  land  with  this  Army,  and  were  by  God  made  in- 

*  ftrumental  to  break  the  Power  of  thofe  that  then      j 
'  opprefled  the  godly  Party  there,  and  were  then  rea-    ' 

'  dy,  at  their  Defire,  to  do  every  Thing  on  their 
'  Behalf  which  might  put  them  into  the  Seat  of 
'  Authority  and  Power ;  whofe  Confciences  know 

*  this  is  true,  and  for  which  this  late  Aft  of  En- 

*  gagement  to  their  new  King  againft  England,  is 
'  no  good  Requital ;   nor  their  heaping  on  us  the 

*  Reproach  of  a  Sectarian  Army,  a  Chriftian  Deal- 
'  ing  :  All  which  we  do  with  Comfort  commend 
'  to  God,  and  can,  notwithftanding  all  this,  fay, 

*  By  the  Grace  of  God,  we  can  forgive  and  for- 

*  get  thofe  Things,  and  can  and  do  defire  of  God 

*  that  the  Precious  in  Scotland  may  be  feparated 
c  from  the  Vile;  which  is  the  End  of  this  our  Paper. 
'  And  to  the  Truth  of  this  let  the  God  of  Heaven, 
'  in  his  great  Mercy  pardoning  our  Weaknefles, 

*  judge  of  us  when  we  come  to  meet  our  Enemies 
'  in  the  Field,  if,  through  the  Perverfenefs  of  any 

*  in  Authority  with  you,  God  lhall  pleafe  to  or- 
'  der  the  Decifion  of  this  Controverfy  by  the  Sword  ; 
6  which  we,  from  our  Hearts,  befeech  the  Lord  to 
'  avert,  and  to  give  you  the  like  Chriftian   and 

*  Brotherly  Affedtion  towards  us,  which  we,  by 

*  God's  Grace,  bear  towards  you. 

Sign'd  in  the  Name^  and  by  the  Appointment^  of 
his  Excellency  the  Lord-General  Cromwell 
and  his  Council  of  Officers. 

JO.  RUSHWORTH,  Secretary. 

Befides  the  foregoing  Declaration  of  the  Army, 
To  all  that  are  Saints^  and  Partakers  of  the  Faith 
of  God's  Elefl)  another  was  publifhed  by  Crotn- 
•well,  on  his  Arrival  at  Berwick;  which  was  alfo 
reprinted  at  London  on  the  23d  of  this  Month,  by 
Order  of  Parliament,  and  therefore  requires  a  Place 
in  this  Work.  It  was  addrefled  thus : 

u  3  r« 


310      Tie  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

To   the  People  of  SCOTLAND. 
<  "Y  T£  THereas  the  Army  under  my  Conduct,  by 
«     V  V     tne  Authority  of  the  Parliament  of  the 
4  Commonwealth  of  England^  is  to  advance  into 
Another  to  thcc  Scotland^  upon  the  Grounds,  and  for  the  Ends, 
/wlngleral.'"'  exprefled  in  their  Declaration  of  June  26,  1650: 
'  And  considering  the  feveral  Ways  and  Pra6tices 

*  of  fome  in  that  Kingdom,  whole  Defign  it  hath 
'  been,  and  ftill  is,  by  all  Manner  of  groundlefs 
'  and  unjuft  Reproaches,  and  moft  falfe  Slanders, 
«  to  make  the  Army  odious,  and  to  render  us  unto 
'  the  People  as  fuch  that  are  to  be  abhorred  of  all 
'  pious,  peaceable,  and  fober  Spirits,  and  to  be 
'  rather  Monfters  than  Men. 

*  We  think  fit  therefore,  for  the  clearing  of  our- 
4  felves,  to  remind  you  of  our  former  Deportment 
'  and  Behaviour ;  when,  about  two  Years  fince, 
«  we  entered  into  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  and 
«  then  carried   in  by  the  Hand  of  Divine  Provi- 
«  dence,  and  through  the  earneft  Invitation  of  thofe 
'  now  in  prefent  Authority  and  Power  with  you, 

*  What  Injury  or  Wrong  did  we  then  do,  either 

*  to  the  Perfons,  Houfes,  or  Goods  of  any?  Whofe 
'  Ox  have  we  taken  ?  Did  we  feek  any  Thing  for 
'  ourfelves  ?  Did  we  other  than  preferve  the  Beft- 

*  affected  from  their  and  our  moft  defperate  Ene- 

*  mies  ?  And  having  efrablifhed  our  Inviters  in  their 

*  Power,  without  doing  the  leaft  Violence  to  any, 

*  we  returned  to  our  own  Nation.     And,  confr- 

*  dering  this,  we  have  Caufe  to  hope  that  thofe  for- 
'  mer  Carriages  of  ours  are  not  fo  foon  forgotten, 

*  and   that   the  prefent   Mifrcports  of  what  our 

*  Dealings  will  be,  {hall  not  difturb  nor  affright 

*  the  People  from  their  Houfes  and  Dwellings. 

*  And  for  Satisfaction  of  all  thofe  that  are  Lo- 

*  vers  of  Religion,  Peace,  and  public  Liberty;  and 

*  being  dcfirous  to  put  a  Difference  between  the  In- 

*  nocent  and  the  Guilty,  we  do  hereby  declare,  in 
'  the  Integrity  cf  our  Hearts,  That,  as  to  the  Gen- 
'  try  and  Commonalty  of  the  Nation  of  Scotland, 

*  whofe  Habitations  are  in  thofe  Places  whither  the 

*  Army, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      311 

*  Army,  by  the  Providence  of  God,  may  come;  Inter-regnum, 
'  as  we  know  full  well  they  are  not  the  Perfons,        l65°- 

*  who,  by  their  Councils  and  Undertakings,  have    V:"-v — •* 
"'  lai^l  the  certain  Foundation  of  a  fecond  unrigh-         July* 

'  teous  and  unjuft  Invafion  of  England^  by  doling 
c  with,  and  entertaining  of,  him  who  ftirs  up,  and 
'  labours  to  engage,  many  foreign  Princes  to  invade 

*  the  Commonwealth  of  England  j  and  hath  exer- 

*  cifed  actual  Hoftility  againft  the  Nation,  by  de- 
'  ftroying  the  People,  and  commiflionating  Pirates 
'  to  kill  our  Men,  and  to  rob,  fpoil,  and  take  away 
'  our  Ships  and  Goods  by  Sea,  to  the  Ruin  ofEng- 
'  land?  fo  much  as  in  him  lies ;  nor  of  thofe  who 
'  have  refufed  fo  much  as  a  Treaty  with  the  Com- 

*  monwealth  of  England?  wherein  only  a  juft  and 

*  equal  Satisfaction  for  paft  Injuries  was  aimed  at, 
'  and  a  Security  for  a  firm  Peace  between  the  two 
'  Nations  defired :  Which  Denial,  and  other  Prac- 

*  tices,  hath  put  us  upon  this  unavoidable  Necef- 
'  fity  of  entering  into  Scotland?  unlefs  we  would 
'  have  flood  ftill,  and  feen  not  only  the  Deftruc- 

*  tion  of  the  Godly  and  Well -affected,  but  alfo  of 

*  the  very  Power  of  Godlinefs  and  Holinefs  in  both 
'  Nations :  So  we  mail  not  (the  Lord  continuing 

*  his  Goodnefs  and  Prefence  to  us)  offer  the  leaft 

*  Violence  and  Injury  to  the  Perfons,  Goods,  or 
'  Pofleflions  of  any  of  them  ;  but  ftrive  and  labour 

*  to  our  utmoft  to  prevent  all  Diforders  that  happen. 
'  from  an  Army,  and  to  give  all  fpeedy  Redrefs  and 

*  Satisfaction  that  poflibly  may  be,  when  any  juft 

*  Complaint  of  Mifcarriage  mall  be  made. 

'  And  upon  the  Confidence  of  thefe  our  fincere 
'  and  honeft  Intentions,  (which  we  hope  our  good 

*  and  gracious  God  will  enable  us  to  perform)  we 
c  do  hereby  invite  all  fuch  Perfons  to  ftay  and  abide 
'  in  their  own  Houfes  and  Habitations,  where  they 
'  may  and  mall  enjoy  what  they  have  in  Peace  ; 
4  and  not  to  fuffer  themfelves  to  be  mifled  by  the 

*  Craft  and  Subtilty  of  any,  into  that  which  muft 

*  needs  prove  their  inevitable  Lofs  and  Ruin,  and 
'  a  great  Hazard  to  their  Country. 

«  How-  '  ' 


312     72tf  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.       '  Howfoever  we  have  done  this  as  our  Duty  to 

1650.        <  God,  and  for  Satisfaction  to  all  good  Men. 
*— - -v— -J         Signed  in  the  Narne^  and  by  the  Appointment ,  of 
his  Excellency  the  Lord-General  Cromwell  and 
his  Council  of  Officer  s^ 

J.  RUSHWORTH,  Sec. 

July  24.  Sir  Henry  Mildmay  reported  from  the 
Council  of  State,  That  it  was  their  Opinion,  in 
regard  of  the  many  Defigns  now  on  Foot,  if 
any  Infurre&ions  (hould  happen,  the  Public  Peace 
would  be  much  the  more  endangered,  by  Occa- 
fion  of  the  late  King's  Children  remaining  here, 
who  may  be  made  Ufe  of  to  the  Prejudice  of  the 
Public ;  which  they  left  to  the  Confideration  of 
the  Houfe  to  provide  fuch  Remedy  therein  as  to 
their  Wifdoms  fhall  feem  meet. 

On  which,  after  fome  Debate,  it  was  refolved^ 
The  Parliament  <  That  Henry  Stuart,  third  Son  to  the  late  King, 
p?nce/5°Jeandand  the  ^a^  Elizabeth  his  Daughter,  {hould  be 
Princds  'jEilxa-  removed  forthwith  beyond  the  Seas,  out  of  the  Li- 
betb  cut  01 Eng-m\ts  of  this  Commonwealth.'  And  that  it  be 
land.  ]eft  to  t]ie  Council  of  State  to  confider  of  a  fit  Place 

to  remove  them  to,  the  Manner  of  fending  them 
thither,  and  of  a  fit  Maintenance  for  their  Sup- 
port, during  the  Pleafure  of  Parliament. 

We  have  already  taken  Notice  that  fome  Prefby- 

terian  Minifters  had  neglected  or  refufed  to  publifh 

the  Ads  and  Ordinances  of  Parliament,fmce  the 

King  was  beheaded  and  the  Houfe  of  Lords  fet 

afide,  which  gave  Occafion  to  the  foregoing  Re- 

7oSiEingnshf  folutions  touching  the  Clergy a :  And  the  Houfe  be- 

riffs  to  difperfe  ing  informed  that  feveral  Sheriffs  of  Counties  had 

the  Orders,  fife,  been  equally  regardlefs  of  their  Votes  and  Orders, 

of  the  Houfe,     ^^  found  jt  neCeffary  to  pafs  an  &Q_  tf\\s  Month, 

requiring  all  Sheriffs  to  appoint  Deputies  to  re- 
ceive and  tranfmit  the  Acts,  Orders,  and  Direc- 
tions of  the  Parliament  and  Council  of  State,  and 
to  make  Returns  thereof,  as  they  fhould  be  enjoined 
by  either  of  thofe  Authorities. 

Auguft 
•  At  F«  154*  in  this  Volume. 


Of   ENGLAND. 

Auguft  i .  This  Month  begins  with  another  Re-  Inter-regnum. 
port  made  to  the  Houfe  from  the  Council  of  State,  l65°- 
That  they  had  Intelligence  from  fome  who  were  in  <""""v"7"'^' 
Cuftody,  and  other  concurrent  Testimonies,  of  a 
Defign  ready  to  break  out,  which  would  have  been 
of  imminent  Danger  to  the  Parliament,  and  all 
that  adhere  to  them,  if  not  timely  prevented,  many 
being  engaged  therein  ;  and  the  Difcovery  made  by 
fuchlas  were  in  the  Defign  :  That  the  Council, 
thereupon,  had  ordered  all  the  Horfes  to  be  feiz'd, 
in  the  City  and  Parts  adjacent,  to  prevent  Ufe  to 
be  made  of  them  by  thofe  who  were  concerned  in 
this  Bufinefs  j  which,  as  they  were  informed,  was 
near  breaking  out,  but,  as  they  hoped,  might  now  be 
broken.  The  Houfe  approved  of  all  the  Council 
had  done  in  the  Affair,  but  we  hear  no  more  of  it. 

The  next  Day,  Aug.  2,  an  Act  parted  the  Houfe,  And  another  for- 
inhibiting  all  Trade,  Traffic  or  Intercourfe  with [bidding  all  inter-' 
Scotland,  and  for  enjoining  the  Departure  of  all^with5"<- 
Scotfmen  out  of  the  Commonwealth  ;  which  was 
ordered  to  be  forthwith  printed  and  publifhed,  and 
proclaimed  by  Beat  of  Drum  and  Sound  of  Trum- 
pet. 

The  Houfe  now  proceeded  on  Ways  and  Means  Ways  and  Means 
for  raifing  Monies  for  the  conftant  Payment  of°f  "ifing  Sup- 
their  numerous  Armies  in  Ireland  and  Scotland ; plies% 
in  which,  amongft  others,  deep  Search  was  made 
after  Delinquents  Eftates,  though  they  had  raked 
into  them,  feemingly,  as  far  as  they  could   be- 
fore.    A  Committee  was  appointed  to  confider 
of  the  Names  of  more  Delinquents  for  their  Eftates 
to  be  fold ;  and  that  the  Eftates  of  fo  many  of 
them  be  put  to  Sale,  as  may  be  fufficient  Security 
for  the  Loan  of  200,000  /.  and  a  Bill  was  ordered 
to  be  brought  in  for  that  Purpofe,  and  alfo  for  rai- 
fing Money  on  Deans  and  Chapters  Lands. 

But  as  Supplies  of  this  bort  muft  have  an  End, 
and  the  Extending  of  Commerce  is  the  only  ef- 
fectual Fund  for  enabling  the  Subject  to  pay 
Taxes,  an  Act  was  pafled,  about  this  Time,  for 

the 


314 


Parliamentary  HISTORY 


Inter-regnum. 

)' 
Auguft. 


Advancemoit  of 
Trade. 


the  Advancing  and  Regulating  the  Trade  of  the 
Commonwealth. 

Hitherto  we  have  given  an  Abftract  of  the  moft 
material  Acts  pafied  by  this  Remnant  of  a  Parlia- 
ment, nor  does  that  now  'before  us  deferve  lefs 
Notice  :  P\>r  thefe  Laws,  though  made  by  Ufur- 
pers  of  the  Legifiative  Authority,  may  probably 
furnifh  many  ufeful  Hints  for  Reformation  and 
Improvement  under  a  lawful  Government.  And, 
in  fact,  feveral  Statutes  enacted  fmce  the  Reftora- 
tion,  have  taken  their  Rife  from  fuch  as  were 
made  during  the  Commonwealth  and  Protectorate. 
The  Preamble  to  the  laft-mention'd  Act  runs  thus  : 
An  Aa  appoint-  '  The  Parliament  of  England  taking  into  their 
ing  Commiflion-.  <  Care  the  Maintenance  and  Advance  of  theTraf- 
fi.c>  Trade>  and  feveral  Manufadures  of  this  Na- 
tion;  and  being  defirous  to  improve  and  multiply 
tne  fame  for  'the  beft  Advantage  and  Benefit 
'  thereof;  to  the  end  that  the  poor  People  of  this 
'  Land  may  be  fet  on  Work,  and  their  Families 
'  preferved  from  Beggary  and  Ruin  ;  that  the  Com- 
'  monwealth  might  be  enriched  thereby,  and  no 

*  Occafion  left  either  for  Idlenefs  or  Poverty  :  And 

*  duly  weighing  that  the  Trade  of  this  Nation, 
c  both  at  home  and  abroad,  being  rightly  driven 
'  and  regularly  managed,  doth  exceedingly  con- 

*  duce  to  the  Strength,  Wealth,  Honour,  and  Pro- 
'  fperity  thereof;  and,  on  the  contrary,  that  the 

*  negligent,  irregular,  and  defective  Management 
'  of  Trade,  muft  neceflarily  prove  difadvantageous 
'  to  the  feveral  Trades  in  particular,  and  to  the 

*  Commonwealth  in  general  :  For  the  preventing 

*  of  which  Mifchiefs  and  Inconveniences,  and  for 

*  the  better  regulating  of  Trade  for  the  future, 
«feV.' 

Then  the  Act  proceeds  to  appoint  Commif- 
fioners  to  be  a  ftanding  Council  for  the  Regulation 
of  Trade,  according  to  certain  Inftruclions,  to  this 
Effect: 

i.  '  To  take  Notice  of  all  the  native  Commo- 
'  dities  of  England,  or  what  Time  or  Induftry  may 
.'  hereafter  make  native}  and  advife  how  they  may 

4  not 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D       315 

x  not  only  be  fully  manufactured,  but  well  and  Injer-regnum. 
c  truly  wrought,  to  the  Honour  and  Profit  of  the        l65°- 
'  Commonwealth.  *•— -v— «^; 

2.  '  To  confider  how  the  Trades  and  Manufac-       Auguft' 
'  tures  of  this  Nation  may  moft  fitly  and  equally 

*  be  diftributed ;    to  the  end  one  Part  may  not 

*  abound  with  Trade,  and  another  remain  poor  for 
6  want  of  it. 

3.  '  How  Trade  may  moft  conveniently  be  dri- 
e  ven  from  one  Part  of  the  Nation  to  another;  to 
'  which  Purpofe  they  are  to  confider  how  Rivers 

*  may  be  made  more  navigable,  and  Ports  more 
'  capable  of  Shipping. 

4.  '  How  the  Commodities  of  England  may  be 
'  vented,    to   the   beft   Advantage,    into   foreign 
'  Gentries,  and  not  undervalued  by  ill  Manage- 

*  ment ;  how  Obftructions  of  Trade  into  foreign 

*  Parts  may  be  removed ;  and  how  new  Ways  and 
6  Places  may  be  found  out  for  better  venting  of  na- 
'  live  Commodities. 

5.  '  How  free  Ports  for  foreign  Commodities 
'  imported  (without  paying  of  Cuftom,  if  again 
'  exported)  may  be  appointed,  and  in  what  Man- 
'  ner  the  fame  is  beft  to  be  effected. 

6.  *  To  contrive  that  a  moft  exact  Account  be 
4  kept  of  all  Commodities  imported  and  exported, 
c  that  a  perfect  Balance  of  Trade  may  be  taken ; 
4  whereby  the  Commonwealth  may  not  be  impo- 
'  verifhed  by  receiving  of  Commodities  yearly  from 

*  foreign  Parts,  of  a  greater  Value  than  what  were 

*  carried  out. 

7.  '  To  confider  the  Value  of  the  Engtijh  Coin, 
c  and  the  Par  thereof,  in  relation  to  the  intrinfic 

*  Value  which  it  bears  in  Weight  and  Finenefs  with 
'  the  Coin  of  other  Nations ;    alfo  of  the  State  of 
'  Exchange,  and  of  the  Gain  or  Lofs  that  comes  to 

*  the  Commonwealth  by  the  Exchange  now  ufed 
'  by  Merchants. 

8.  *  To  inquire  what  Cuftoms,  Impofts,  and 

*  Excife  are  fit  to  be  laid  upon  all  Commodities, 
'  either  native  or  imported  ;    and  how  they  may  be 

*  beft  regulated,  and  fo  equally  laid  and  managed 

'  as 


3 1 6     7#<?  Parliamentary  HISTORY' 

Xnter-regmim.  *  as  neither  Trade  may  be  hindered,  nor  the  State 
1650.         '  made  incapable  to  defray  public  Charges. 

9.  '  To  confider  whether  it  be  necefiary  to  give 
ay  to  a  more  Open  Trade  than  that  of  Com- 

*  panies,  and  in  what  Manner  it  is  fitteft  to  be 
'  done ;  wherein  to  take  Care  that  Government 

*  and  Order  in  Trade  may  be  preferved,  and  Con- 
'  fufion  avoided. 

10.  '  To  inform  themfelves  of  the  particular 
'  Ordinances,  Grants,  Patents,  and  Conftitutions 
'  of  the   feveral    Companies   of  Merchants   and 

*  Handicrafts-Men,  that,  if  any  of  them  tend  to 

*  the  Hurt  of  the  Public,  they  may  be  laid  down. 

11.  '  To  confider  the  great  Trade  of  Fifliing, 

*  not  only  upon  the  Coafts  <&  England  and  Ireland^ 

*  but  likewife  of  Iceland^  Greenland,  Newfound- 

*  land,  and  New-England^  or  elfewhere ;  and  to 

*  encourage  Fimermen,  in  order  to  the  Increafe  of 

*  Shipping  and  Manners. 

12.  To  advife  how  the  Englljh  Plantations  in 
'  y/^zm^,  or  elfewhere,  may  be  beft  managed;  and 
«  how  the  Commodities  thereof  may  be  ib  multi- 

*  plied  that  thofe  Plantations  alone  may  fupply  the 
'  Commonwealth  of  England  with  whatsoever  it 

*  neceflarily  wants.' 

Thefe  Commiflioners  were  impowered  not  only 
to  receive  Propofals  from  any  Perfons  of  Experi- 
ence and  Ability  in  Matter  of  Trade,  but  had  alfo 
Authority  to  fend  for  the  Officers  of  the  Exche- 
quer, Mint,  Cuftoms,  and  Excife  for  their  Afiift- 
ance ;  alfo  to  view  all  Books,  Records,  &c.  for 
their  further  Information  ;  and  the  Refult  of  their 
Inquiries,  with  their  Opinion  thereupon,  was  re- 
quited to  be  laid  before  the  Parliament  or  Coun- 
cil of  State.  A  Salary  of  200  /.  per  Annum  was 
appointed  for  their  Secretary,  and  300  /.  per  Annum 
more  for  Clerks  and  other  Officers,  payable  by  the 
Treafurer  of  the  Navy  ;  but  as  the  Commiffioners 
themfelves  had  nothing  more  than  their  incident 
Charges  allowed  them  by  this  Adr.,  we  may  fuppofe 
they  were  content  with  the  Honour  arifing  from 
the  Service  of  their  Country. 

Aug. 


Of    ENGLAND.     317 

Aug.  6.  Sir  Henry  Vane^  jun.  having  reported,  Inter-regnum. 
from  the  Council  of  State,  feveral  Letters  received 
from  the  Army  in  Scotland^  they  were  read,  and  a       ^f^^ 
Committee  was  ordered  to  examine  which  of  them 
were  fit  to  be  publifhed.     Among  thefe,  one  from 
the  Lord-General  Cromwell  h\mklft  will  be  a  fuf- 
ficient  Reprefentation  of  his  Proceedings,  hitherto, 
in  that  Kingdom. 

To  the  Right  Honourable  the  LORD  PRESIDENT 
of  the  COUNCIL  of  STATE. 

My  Lord,  Muffelburgh,  July  30,  1650. 

'  "\T7"E  marched  from  Berwick  upon  Monday,  Gen.  CnrnmlT* 
'     V  V     being  the  twenty-fecond  Day  of  July,  Account  of  the 
«  and  lay  at  my  Lord  Mordington's  Houfe  on  Man- Armfs  ?roc,eed: 
«  day  Night,  Tuefday  and  Wednefday  ;  on  Thurfday"&  m 
'  we  march'd  to  Copperfpeth  j  on  Friday  to  Dun- 
'  bar,  where  we  got  fome  fmall  Pittance  from  our 
'  Ships,  and  from  thence  we  march'd  to  Haddlng- 
'  ton.     On  the  Lord's  Day,  hearing  that  the  Scots 
'  Army  meant  to  meet  us  at  Gladfmoor,  we  labour- 
<  ed  to  poflefs  the  Moor  before  them,  and  beat  our 
'  Drums  very  early  in  the  Morning ;  but  when  we 
'  came  there  no  confiderable  Body  of  the  Army 
4  appeared ;  whereupon   1400  Horfe,  under   the 
'  Command  of  Major-General  Lambert  and  Colo- 
'  nel  Wballey,  were  fent  as  a  Van-guard  to  Muf- 
'  felburgb,  to  fee  likewife  if  they  could  find  out 

*  and    attempt  arty  Thing  upon   the  Enemy,    I 

*  marching  in  the  Heel  of  them  with  the  Relidue 
'  of  the  Army.    Our  Party  encountered  with  fome 
«  of  their  Horfe,  but  they  could  not  abide  us.    We 
'  lay  at  Muffelburgb  encamp'd  clofe  that  Night, 
'  the  Enemy's  Army  lying  between  Edinburgh  and 

*  Leith,  about  four  Miles  from  us,  intrench'd  by 
'  a  Line  flanker'd  from  Edinburgh  to  Leith ;    the 
'  Guns  alfo  from  Leith  fcouring  moft  Parts  of  the 

*  Line,  fo  that  they  lay  very  ftrong. 

'  Upon  Monday  the  2Qth  Inft.  we  were  refolved 
'  to  draw  up  to  them,  to  fee  if  they  would  fight 
'  with  us  ;  and  when  we  came  upon  the  Place  we 
'  refolved  to  get  our  Cannon  as  near  them  as  we 

*  could 


318     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum.  '  could,  hoping  thereby  to  annoy  them  :  We  like- 

l65°-         4  wife  perceiving  they  had  fome  Force  upon  a  Hill 

**~^f^~t     '  tnat   over-looks    Edinburgh^    from   whence   we 

*  might  be  annoyed,  did  refolve  to  fend  up  a  Party 
'  to  pofiefs  the  faid  Hill,  which  prevailed  ;    but 

*  upon  the  whole  we  did  find  that  their  Army  were 
'  not  ealily  to  be  attempted  ;  whereupon  we  lay 
'  ftill  all  the  faid  Day,  which  proved  to  be  fo  fore 

*  a  Day  and  Night  of  Rain,  as  I  have  feldom  feen, 

*  and  greatly  to  our  Difadvantage,  the  Enemy  ha- 
'  ving  enough  to  cover  them,  and  we' nothing  at 
6  all  confiderable.     Our  Soldiers  did   abide  this 
'  Difficulty  with  great  Courage  and  Refolution, 
'  hoping  they  fliould  fpeedily  come  to  fight.     In 

*  the  Morning,  the  (jround  being  very  wet,  and  our 
'  Provifions  fcarce,  we  refolved  to  draw  back  to 
'  our  Quarters  at  MuJJelburgh,  there  to  refrefh  and 
c  revictual.     The  Enemy,  when  we  drew  off,  fell 

*  upon  our  Rear,  and  put  them  into  fome  little 
'  Diforder  ;  but  our  Bodies  of  Horfe  being  in  fome 
'  Readinefs,  came  to  grapple  with  them,  where  in- 

*  deed  there  was  a  gallant  and  hot  Difpute;  the 
'  Major- General  and  Col.  Whalley  being  in  the 
'  Rear,  and  the  Enemy  drawing  out  great  Bodies 
'  to  fecond  their  firft  Effort,   our  Men  charged 
'  them  up  to  the  very  Trenches,  and  beat  them  in. 
'  The  Major-General's  Horfe  was   ftiot    in  the 
'  Neck  and  Head;  himfelf  being  run  thro' the  Arm 
'  with  a  Lance,    and   into   another  Place  of  his 
'  Body, was  taken Prifoner  by  theEnemy,butrefcu- 
'  ed  immediately  by  Lieutenant  Empfon  of  my  Re- 
c  gimem.     Col.  ty'balley,  who  was  then  neareft  to 
'the  Major  General,  did  charge  very  refolutely, 
'  repulfed  the  Enemy,   a'nd  kill'd  divers  of  them 
'  upon  the  Place,  and  took  fome  Prifoners  without 
'  any  confiderable  Lofs;  which  indeed  did  fo  amaze 
'  and  quiet  them,  that  we  marched  oft"  to  MuJJel- 
c  burgh,  but  they  dar'd  not  fend  out  a  Man  to 
'  trouble  us. 

'  We  hear  their  young  King  looked  on  upon  all 
'  this,  but  was  very  ill  fatisfied  to  fee  their  Men 

*  do  no  better. 

«  We 


Of    ENGLAND.     319 

«  We  came  to  Mu/elburgh  that  Night,  fo  tired  Inter-regnum. 
'  and  wearied  for  want  of  Sleep,  and  fo  dirty  by         J 
4  reafon  of  the  Wetnefs  of  the  Weather,  that  we 
'  expelled  the  Enemy  would  make  an  Infall  upon 

*  us  ;  which  accordingly  they  did,  between  Three 
'  and  Four  this  Morning,  with  fifteen  Companies  of 

*  their  moft  felecl:  Troops,  under  the  Command  of 
6  Major-General  Montgomery  and  Stracban,   two 
c  Champions  of  the  Church,  upon  which  Bufinefs 

*  there  was  great  Hope  and  Expectation  laid.     The 

'  Enemy  came  on  with  a  great  deal  of  Refolution, ' 

*  beat  in  our  Guards,  and  put  a  Regiment  of  Horfe 

*  in  fome  Diforder ;  but  our  Men  fpeedily  taking 

*  the  Alarm,  charged  the  Enemy,  routed  them, 

*  took  many  Prifoners,  killed  a  great  many  of  them, 
'did  Execution  within  a  Quarter  of  a  Mile  of  Edin- 
6  burgh ;  and,  as  I  am  informed,  Stracban  was 

*  killed  there,  befides  divers  other  Officers  of  Qua- 

*  lity.     We  took  the  Major  of  Stracban's  Regi- 
e  ment,  Major  Hamilton^  a  Lieutenant-Colonel, 
'  and  divers  other  Officers  and  Perfons  of  Quality, 

*  whom  yet  we  know  not.     Indeed  this  is  a  fweet 
'  Beginning  of  your  Bufmefs,  or  rather  the  Lord's, 
'  an<T  I  believe  is  not  very  fatisfaclory  to  the  Ene- 
«  my,  efpecially  to  the  Kirk-Party ;  we  did  not 
'  lofe  any  in  this  Bufmefs,  fo  far  as  I  hear,  but  a 
«  Cornet ;  I  do  not  hear  of  four  Men  more.     The 

*  Major-General  will,  I  believe,  within  a  few  Days, 
4  be  well  enough  to  take  the  Field ;  and  I  truft  this 

*  Work,  which  is  the  Lord's,  will  profper  in  tfte 

*  Hands  of  his  Servants. 

'  I  did  not  think  it  advifeable  to  attemp't  upon 
'  the  Enemy,  lying  as  he  doth;  but  furely  it  would 
'  fufficiently  provoke  him  to  fight  if  he  had  a  Mind 
'  to  it.  I  do  not  think  he  is  lefs  than  6  or  7000 
4  Horfe,  and  14  or  15,000  Foot.  The  Reafon  I 

*  hear  that  they  give  out  to  their  People,  why  they 

*  do  not  fight  us,  is,  becaufe  they  expect  many 
e  Bodies  of  Men  more  out  of  the  North  of  Scot- 
'  land,  which  when  they  come,  they  give  out  they 
'  will  then  engage ;  but  I  believe  they  would  ra- 
'  ther  tempt  us  to  attack  them  in  their  Faftnefles, 

'  within 


320     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  *  within  which  they  are  intrenched  ;  or  elfe,  ho- 

*  ping  we  fhall  familh  for  v/ant  of  Provifions,  which 
'  is  very  likely  to  be,  if  we  be  not  timely  and  fully 
4  fupplied.     I  remain, 

My  Lord, 

Your  mo/i  bumble  Servant, 

'  O.  CROMWELL. 

*  I  underftand,  fince  the  writing  of  this  Letter, 

*  that  Major-General  Montgomery  is  flain.' 

After  reading  the  foregoing  Letter,  it  was  re- 
folved,  That  all  private  Buiinefs  be  forborn  for 
one  Month  ;  and  no  other  Matter  taken  into  De- 
bate but  that  of  raifing  Supplies,  and  other  public 
Affairs  of  the  Commonwealth. 

We  have  already  given  the  Army's  Declaration 
upon  their  March  into  Scotland,  published  by  Or- 
der of  Parliament.  To  this  the  General  Aflembly 
of  the  Kirk  of  Scotland  having  printed  an  Anfwer, 
Cromwell  wrote  them  a  Letter  upon  that  Occafion ; 
which,  though  not  Parliamentary  itfelf,  yet  as  it 
proves  the  General  to  have  been  a  Match  for  the 
Aflembly  themfelves,  i-n  the  Manner  of  handling  of 
Scripture  and  applying  it  to  his  own  Purpofes,  a 
Copy  thereof  will  not  be  deem'd  an  improper  Di- 
greflion ;  and  the  rather,  as  this  Letter,  tho'  men- 
tion'd  by  Mr.  Wlrithcke,  is  not  printed  any  where 
that  we  know  of.  It  runs  thus  h  : 

70 /^GENERAL  ASSEMBLY  of  the  KIRK  c/Scor- 
LAND  ;  or,  in  cafe  of  their  not  fitting,  to  the 
COMMISSIONERS  of  the  KIRK  of  SCOTLAND. 

SIRS,  Mufelburgh,  Aug.  3,  1650. 

His  Letter  to  the'  XTQUR  Anfwer  to  the  Declaration  of  the 

'  I  Arm? we  have  feen  c  j  fome  s°dly  .Mini- 

' '  flers  with  us  did,  at  Berwick,  compofe  this  Re- 

•ply 

h  From  the  original  Edition,  printed  for  H.  Alien,  in  Pope 'i- 
Eead-Mey. 

c  Printed  at  Edinburgh,  July  22,  1650,  by  Evan  Tyler,  and 
Jtyled  A  Short  Reply  to  (be  Arm^i  Dedarativn)  figned  A,  Ktrr»' 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        321 

*  ply,  which  I  thought  fit  to  fend  you  d.     That  Inter-regnunu 

*  you  or  we,  in  thefe  great  Tranfaclions,  anfwer 
'  the  Will  and  Mind  of  God,  it  is  only  from  his 
'  Grace  and  Mercy  to  us  j  and  therefore,  having 

*  faid,  as  in  our  Papers,  we  commit  the  Iflue  there- 

*  of  to  him  who  difpofeth  all  Things  ;  afTuring  you 

*  that  we  have  Light  and  Comfort  increafing  upon 

*  us,  Day  by  Day ;  and  are  peri uaded  that,  before 
'  it  be  long,  the  Lord  will  manifeil  his  good  Plea- 

*  fure,  fo  that  all  fhall  fee  him ;  and  his  People 
c  fhall  fay,  This  is  the  Lord's  Work^  and  it  is  mar- 
6  velloits  in  our  Eyes  :  This  is  the  Day  that  the  Lord 
'  hath  made,  we  will  be  glad  and  rejoice  therein. 

'  Only  give  me  Leave  to  fay,  in  a  Word,  you 

*  take  upon  you  to  judge  us  in  the  Things  of  our 
'  God,  though  you  know  us  not;  though  in  the 
'  Things  we  have  faid  unto  you,  in  that  which  is 
4  intitled  The  Army's  Declaration,  we  have  fpoken 
4  our  Hearts  as  in  the  Sight  of  the  Lord  who  hath 
1  tried  us  :  And  by  your  hard  and  fubtle  Words, 
'  you  have  begotten  Prejudice  in  thofe  who  do  too 
«  much  (in  Matters  of  Conference,  wherein  every 
e  Soul  is  to  anfwer  for  itfelf  ti  God)  depend  upon 

<  you  ;  fo  that  fome  have  already  followed  you  to 
«  the  breathing-out  of  their  Souls ;  others  continue 
«  ftill  in  the  Way  wherein  they  are  led  by  you  (we 
«  fear)  to  their  own  Ruin :  And  no  marvel  if  you 
«  deal  thus  with  us,  when  indeed  you  can  find 

<  in  your  Hearts  to  conceal  the  Papers  we  have  fent 
t  you  from  your  own  People,  who  might  fee  and 
«  underftand  the  Bo*wels  of  our  Affections  to  them, 
«  efpecially  fuch  among  them  as  fear  the  Lord. 
<•  Send  as  many  of  your  Papers  asyoupleafe  amongft 

<  ours,  they  have  a  free  PafTage  ;  I  fear  them  not: 
«  What  is  of  God  in  them,  would  it  might  be  em- 
«  braced  and  received. 

VOL.  XIX.  X  « One 

<l  This  Piece  is  intitled  A  Vindication  of  the  Army  of  England's 
March  into  Scotland,  from  the  uncharitable  Conjlrufiions,  odious  Im- 
putations, and  fcandslous  Afferjlons  of  the  General  AJJ'cmbly  of  tht 
Kirk  of  Scotland,  in  their  Anf-wer.  Publifhed  by  the  fpecial  Ap- 
pointment of  the  Council  of  State,  and  printed  by  JibnFitld,  Au* 
1650. 


322     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

'  One  of  them  lately  fent,  directed  To  the  Under  ~ 
«  Officers  and  Soldiers  in  the  Englifh  Army*,  hath, 

*  begotten  from  them  this  inclofed  Anfwer,  which 
'  they  defired  me  to  fend  you  ;  not  a  crafty  politic 
'  one,  but  a  plain,  fimple,  fpiritual  one ;  fuch  as 

*  it  is  God  knoweth,  and  God  alfo  will,  in  due 
'  Time,  make  manifeft :  And  do  we  multiply  thefe 

*  Things  as  Men,  or  do  we  them  for  the  Lord 
«  Chrift  and  his  People's  Sake  ? 

'  Indeed  we  are  not,  through  the  Grace  of  God, 

*  afraid  of  your  Numbers,  nor  confident  in  our- 
4  felves.     We  could  (I  pray  God  you  do  not  think 
'  we  boaft)  meet  your  Army,  or  what  you  have  to 
'  bring  againft  us.     We  have  given  (humbly  we 

*  fpeak  it  before  our  God,  in  whom  all  our  Hope 

*  is)  fomeProof  that  Thoughts  of  thatKind  prevail 
'  not  upon  us.     The  Lord  hath  not  hid  his  Face 

*  from  us  fince  our  Approach  fo  near  unto  you. 

*  Your  own  Guilt  is  too  much  for  you  to  bear ; 
'  bring  not  therefore  upon  yourfelves  the  Blood  of 

*  innocent  Men,  deceived  with  Pretences  of  King 

*  and  Covenant,  from  whofe  Eyes  you  hide  a  bet- 

*  ter  Knowledge.     I  am  perfuaded  that  divers  of 

*  you  who  lead  the  People,  have  laboured  to  build 
'  yourfelves  in  thefe  Things,  wherein  you  have 

*  cenfured  others,  and  eftabliftied  yourfelves  upon 
(  the  Word  of  God.  Is  it  therefore  infallibly  agree- 

*  able  to  the  Word  of  God  all  that  you  fay  ? 

'  I  befeech  you,  in  the  Bowels  of  Chrift,  think 

*  it  poffible  you  may  be  miftaken.     Precept  may 

*  be  upon  Precept,  Line  may  be  upon  Line,  and 

*  yet  the  Word  of  the  Lord  maybe  to  fome  a  Word 
'  of  Judgment,  that  they  may  fall  backward  and 

*  be  broken,  and  be  fnared  and  be  taken.     There 

*  may  be  a  Spiritual  Fulnefs  which  the  World  may 

*  call  .Drunken nefs,  as  in  the  fecond  Chapter  of 
'  the  Atts.     There  may  be  as  well  a  carnal  Con- 

*  fidence  upon  mifunderftood  and  mifapplied  Pre- 
'  cepts,  which  may  be  called  Spiritual  Drunken- 

«  nefs. 

«  This  Piece,  with  the  Army's  Anfwer  annex'd,  (dated  from  the 
Leaguer  at  Mujj'ellurgb,  Aug.  i,  1650)  was  reprinted  at  Lokdsr.t 
Aug,  12,  by  Hujbandi  and  Field,  and  licenfed  by  Mr.  Rujbivortk. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      323 

*  nefs.    There  may  be  a  Covenant  made  with  Death  inter-regnum, 
c  and  Hell  (I  will  not  fay  yours  was  fo f ) ;  but  judge        1650. 

'  if  fuch  Things  have  a  politic  Aim,  to  avoid  the    <— — v— -J 

6  overflowing  Scourge,  or  to  accomplifh  worldly       Auguft, 

c  Interefts  ;  and  if  therein  we  have  confederated 

'  with  wicked  and  carnal  Men,  and  have  Rcfpecl: 

'  for  them, or  otherwife  drawn  them  in  to  aflbciate 

'  with  us,  whether  this  be  a  Covenant  of  God,  and 

•*  fpiritual,  bethink  yourfelves  ;  we  hope  we  do. 

*  I  pray  you  read  the  28th  of  Ifaiab,  from  the 
e  5th  to  the  1 5th ;  and  do  not  fcorn  to  know  that 

*  it  is  the  Spirit  that  quickens  and  giveth  Life. 
'  The  Lord  give  you  and  us  Underftanding  to  do 
'  that  which  is  well-pleafing  in  his  Sight.     Com- 

*  mitting  you  to  the  Grace  of  God,  I  reft 

Your  humble  Servant, 

O.  CROMWELL. 
To  return  to  the  Proceedings  at  Weftminjler. 

Aug.  9.  The  Cuftom  of  vthe  Houfe  was  fre- 
quently, at  this  Time,  to  order  the  Door  to  be 
Ihut,  and  no  Member  to  be  fuffered  to  go  out, 
without  Leave,  'till  Twelve  o'Clock ;  and  this 
Day,  after  fuch  an  Order,  the  Houfe  went  upon 
a  Bill  which  had  been  fome  Time  before  them, 
intitled,  An  Aft  again/I  feveral  athetftical,  blafphe- 
mouS)  and  execrable  Opinions^  derogatory  to  the  Ho- 
nour of  God?  and  deftruffive  to  human  Society 9  now 
held  and  propagated  in  this.Nation.  This  Bill,  be- 
ing read  a  third  Time,  feveral  Claufes  were  offered 
to  be  added  to  it ;  fome  of  which  were  taken,  and 
others  rejected;  and  it  was  ordered  that  the  Bill, 
fo  amended,  fliould  pafs.  The  Preamble  to  this 
A£t,  with  an  Abftraft  of  the  moft  material  Claufes, 
X  2  con- 

f  In  Carringtons  Life  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  (printed  for  Natb* 
Brooke  in  Cornbill,  1659)  he  ftyles  the  Covenant,  '  That  burning 
Torch  which  the  Mother  of  Paris  did  fee  in  her  Frenzies,  that  fatal 
Fire  which  the  Scots  believe  defcended  from  Heaven,  and  by  which 
they,  at  their  Pleafure,  kindled  tbofe  Wars  wherewith  they  infefted 
England* 


' 


324      7fo  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jiter-regnum.  containing  the  Religious  Hiftory  of  thefe  Times, 

1650.         may  not  be  unacceptable  to  the  Reader. 
*— -v*— '         '  The  Parliament  holding  it  to  be  their  Duty, 
"^  *       '  by  all  good  Ways  and  Means,  to  propagate  the 
'  Gofpel  in  this  Commonwealth  ;  to  advance  Re- 
^effirf1  a°he^"  *  ^g"lon  m  a^  Sincerity,  Godlinefs,  and  Honefty, 
cal  and  blafphe- '  have  made  feveral  Ordinances  and  Laws  for  the 
mous  Opinions  «  Good  and  Furtherance  of  Reformation,  in  Doc- 
in  Religion.       <  tfjne  an(j  Manners  .  3^  jn  ort}er  to  the  fuppref- 
'  ftngof  Profanenefs,  Wickednefs,  profane  Swear- 
ing,Drunkennefs,Superftition,  and  Formality, that 
God  may  be  truly  glorified,  and'all  might  in\Vell- 
'  doing  be  encouraged  :  But,  notwithftanding  this 
'  their  Care,  finding,  to  their  great  Grief  and  Afto- 

*  nifhment,  that  there  are  divers  Men  and  Women 

*  who  have  lately  difcovered  themfelves  to  be  moft 
'  monftrous  in  their  Opinions,  and  loofe  in  all  wick- 
'  ed  and  abominable  Practices  hereafter  mentioned, 

*  not  only  to  the  notorious  Corrupting  andDiforder- 
'  ing, but  even  to  theDiflblution,of  all  human  Soci- 
'  ety ;  who  rejecting  theUfe  of  Gofpel  Ordinances, 

*  do  deny  theNeceffity  of  civil  and  moral  Righteouf- 
'  nefs  among  Men :  The  Parliament  therefore,  ac- 

*  cording  to  their  Declaration  publifti'd  on  the  28th 

*  of  September ,  1649,  to  be  moll  ready  to  tejlify  their 
'  Difpleafure  and  Abhorrence  of  fuch  Offenders^  by 

*  ajlrifl  and  effectual  proceeding  again/1  them^  who 
'  Jhould  abufe  and  turn  into  Licentioufnefs  the  Li- 
'  berty  given  in  Matters  of  Conference,  do  there- 
'  fore  enact  and  ordain,  That  every  Perfon  (not 
'  diftemper'd  with  Sicknefs,  or  diftracted  in  Brain) 
'  who  {hall  prefume  avowedly  in  Words  to  profefs, 
'  or  fhall  by  Writing  proceed  to  affirm  and  main- 
'  tain  him  or  herfelf,  or  any  other  meer  Creature, 

*  to  be  very  God  ;  or  to  be  infinite  or  almighty  j 
'  or,. in  Honour,  Excellency,  Majefty,  and  Power, 
'  to  be  equal,  and  the  fame  with  the  true  God  ;  or 
'  that  the  true  God,  or  the  eternal  Majefty,  dwells 
'  in  the  Creature  and  no  where  elfe :  Or  whofoever 
'  fhall  deny  the  Holinefs   and  Righteoufnefs    of 
'  God  ;  or  {hall  prefume  to  profefs,  that  Unrigh- 
'  teoufnefs  in  Perlons,  or  the  Acts  of  Uncleannefs, 

4  and 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       325 

'  and  the  like  Fiithinefs  and  Brutifhnefs,  arc  not  Inter-regnuir.. 
'  unholy  and  forbidden  in  the  Word  of  God  ;  or        l65°- 
'  that  thefe  Adts  in  any  Perfon,  or  the  Perfons  for    Vfc — v~~-^ 
'  committing   them,  are  approved   of   by  God  j 
'  or  that  fuch  A£ts,    or   fuch    Perfons   in  ,thofe 
'  Things,  are  like  unto  God  :  Or  ihall  prefume 
'  to  profefs,  that  thefe  Acts  of  denying  and  blaf- 
'  pheming  God,  or  the  Holinefs  or  Righteoufnefs 
'  of  God ;    or  the  A6ts   of  curfmg  God,  or  of 

*  fwearing  profanely  or  falfly  by  the  Name  of  God ; 

*  or  the  Acts  of  Lying,  Stealing,  Couzening,  and 
'  defrauding  others ;  or  the  Acts  of  Murder,  Adul- 
'  tery,  Inceft,  Fornication,  Uncleannefs,  Sodomy, 

*  Drunkennefs,  filthy  and  lafcivious  Speaking,  are 
'  not  Things   in    themfelves    fhameful,    wicked, 
'  iinful,  impious,  abominable,  and   deteftable  in 
'  any  Perfon,  or  to  be  practiced  or  done  by  any 
«  Perfon  :     Or  fhall    profefs,    that   the   Acts   of 

*  Adultery,  Drunkennefs,  Swearing,  and  the  like 

*  open  Wickednefs,  are  in  their  own  Nature  as 
'  holy  and   righteous    as   the  Duties  of  Prayer, 
'  Preaching,  or  giving  of  Thanks  to  God  :  Or 
'  Ihall  avowedly  profefs,  that  whatfoever  is  acted 

*  by  them,  whether  Whoredom,  Adultery,  Drun- 
c  kenncfs,  or  the  like  open  Wickednefs,  may  be 

*  committed  without  Sin ;  or  that  fuch  Acts  are 

*  acted  by  the  true  God,  or  by  the  Majefty  of  God, 
'  or  the  Eternity  that  is  in  them ;  that  Heaven 
'  and  all  Happinefs  confifts  in  the  acting  of  thofe 

*  Things  which  are  Sin  and  Wickednefs  j  or  that, 

*  fuch  Men  or  Women  are  moft  perfect,  or  like  to 
'  God  or  Eternity,  which  do  commit  the  greateft 

*  Sins  with  the  leaft  Remorfe  or  Senfe  ;  or  that 

*  there  is  no  fuch  Thing  really  and  truly  as  Un- 

*  righteoufnefs,  Unholinefs,  or  Sin,  but  as  a  Man 

*  or  Woman  judgeth  thereof;  or  that  there  is  nei- 
'  ther  Heaven   nor   Hell,   neither  Salvation  nor 

*  Damnation,  or  that  thefe  are  one  and  the  fame 
'  Thing  ;  and  that  there  is  not  any  Diftin&ion  or 
'  Difference  truly  between  them  :' 

.  By  this  A&  it  was  ordain'd,  That  any  Perfon 

maintaining  any  of  the  Opinions  above  enumera- 

X  3  ted, 


326     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.  ted,  fhould,  for  the  firft  Offence,  fuffer  fix  Months 

1650.        Imprifonment,  without  Bail,  and  find  Sureties  for 

*~~Tf~^*    their  good  Behaviour  for  one  Year;  for  the  fecond, 

be  banifhed  ;  and  for  returning  without  Licenfe, 

fuffer  Death.     This  Act  was  required  to  be  read 

and  given  in  Charge  at  Affixes  and  Seffions,  and  to 

be  proclaim'd  in  every  Market  Town. 

The  Bill  for  the  Aug.  14.  All  this  Time  the  Bill,  long  fmce 
betterReguhtion  Bought  in,  for  an  equal  Reprefentative,  and  regu- 
rame  tS  lati"g  E1^  ions  for  Members  of  Parliament,  was 
canvafled,  in  a  Grand  Committee  of  the  whole 
Houfe,  every  Wednefday\  but,  as  yet,  nothing  was 
done  in  it.  This  Delay  plainly  (hews,  that  the 
prefent  Members  had  no  Mind  to  part  with  their 
Power  or  Places,  and  venture  a  Diflblution  of  the 
Parliament.  Nay,  it  feems  about  this  Time,  when 
the  Army  was  fo  far  diftant  from  them,  they  had  a 
Defign  to  drop  the  Bill ;  for,  at  the  End  of  the 
Debate  this  Day,  a  Motion  being  made,  That  the 
Houfe  be  refolved  into  a  Grand  Committee  this 
Day  Se'nnight,  upon  the  Heads  of  the  faid  Bill,dsV. 
it  paffed  in  the  Negative,  and  this  Day  Fortnight 
was  agreed  to  inftead  of  it. — During  all  this  De- 
bate the  Doors  were  ordered  to  be  kept  fhut,  as 
ufual;  and  we  find  that  this  Election-Bill,  after  be- 
ing put  off  from  Time  to  Time,  was  at  laft  laid 
afide. 

We  hear  no  further,  as  yet,  concerning  the  Trial 
of  the  fix  Gentlemen  defign'd  as  Victims  to  be  of- 
fered to  the  Ghoft  of  Mr.  Afcham,  the  Parliament's 
Jate  Agent  in  Spain.  But  this  Day,  Aug.  20,  ano- 
ther unhappy  Gentleman,  not  in  the  above  Lift,Col. 
Eufebius  Andrews,  was  reported,  by  the  Attorney- 
General,  to  be  tried,  convicted,  and  fentenced  by 
the  High  Court  of  Juftice  to  fuffer  the  Pains  of 
Death,  as  in  cafe  of  Treafon.  The  Houfe  thought 
fit  to  alter  this  Sentence,  on  the  humble  Petition  of 
the  Prifoner,  from  Hanging,  Drawing,  and  Quar- 
tering, into  Beheading;  and  accordingly  he  was 
beheaded  on,  TQWtr-Iiill  two  Days  after, 

Aug. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      327 

Aug.  22.  This  Day  the  Parliament  received,  Inter-regnunj, 
from  the  Lord-General  Cromwell^  a  Narrative  of       l6S°- 

the  farther  Proceedings  of  the  Englijb  Army  in  **"•" "V— - ' 
Scotland,  with  feveral  Papers  inclofed,  which  were 
ordered  to  be  publifhed,  as  follows  b  : 

From  the  Camp  in  Muflelburgh  Fields ,  Augitft  16, 

1650. 

'  /"*\N  Tuefday^  Auguft  13,  the  Army  advanced  Gen.  CromoelVt 
'  \J  from  Mujjel-burgb  to  the  Weft  Side  of  Edm-  f"f  hepr  AcTnt 

i   17  j  c    • p-    i_       e   i-     /-«•       r  othisProceediaes 

*  burgh,  and  fo  in  Sight  of  the  City  for  two  or  three  in  Scotland. 
'  Miles  together  ;  but  had  not  fo  much  as  a  Salute 

'  from  the  Caftle  of  Edinburgh^  or  Dalkeith  where 

*  the  Enemy  had  a  Garrifon,  nor  Oppofition  from 

*  the  Enemy,  nor  did  any  Party  of  them  make  any 
'  Attempt  upon  the  Rear,  or  otherwife:  The  Ene- 

*  my  alfo  had  another  Garrifon  at  Red-Hall^  two 

*  Miles  from  Edinburgh^  which  they  kept,  who  fired 

*  at  our  Men  ;  yet,  there  not  being  above  20  Men 
'  there,  it  was  not  held  confiderable  enough  to  take. 

*  The  great  Bufinefs  being  to  engage  the  Enemy 

*  in  the  Field,  a  convenient  ahd  advantageous  Place 
'  was  next  to  be  confulted  of;  and  the  Army  being 
'  drawn  up  upon  Pentland  Hills,  it  was  held  fit  to 

*  encamp  the  Army  there;  which  was  accordingly 
'  done,  and  their  Tents  pitched,  many  of  them  in 
6  View  of  Edinburgh  City  and  Caftle,  that  Night* 
'  from  whence  we  received  no  Alarm. 

'  This  Day  the  Intelligence  from  Edinburgh  was, 

*  That  the  Scots  Army  was  now  put  to  a  greater 

*  Strait  than  ever,  to  fee  us  come  behind  them, 

*  which  hindered  their  Supplies  from  Fife;  fo  that 
e  their  Allowance  is  a  Penny  Loaf  for  two  Men  for 
'  twenty-four  Hours,  which  was  held  fo  little,  and 
'  fo  unlikely  to  hold  out,  that  many  of  their  Soldiers 

*  ran  away  from  them :  Yet  many  of  the  Horfe 
'  had  new  Lances  made  them,  with  two  Iron  Pegs 

*  on  each  Side,  befides  the  Pike  at  the  End,  that, 
'  in  cafe  the  one  fhould  break,  they  might  do  Ex- 

*  ecution  with  the  other. 

<The 

*  b  Printed  by  Edward  Hufiandi  and  Join  Field)  Printers  to  the 
Parliament  of  England,  dug,  23,  1650, 


328     Ybe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  The  People  on  that  Side  Edinburgh  were  all  fled 
4  with  their  Beams,  Goods  and  Geer;  and  being 
4  perfuaded  by  their  Grandees  that  the  Array  would 
«  deftroy  all  by  Fire  and  Sword,  they  ran  away  as 
'  far  as  ££ttecn's-Ftrry.  Two  Troops  of  Horfe, 
'  and  about  700  Highlanders,  who  were  coming  for 
'  their  Relief,  were  fent  to  by  a  Poft  to  go  back  to 
«  Stirling.  When  our  Men  fired  the  Furze-Bufhes, 
'  they  told  the  People  they  were  firing  of  Houfes. 

*  Our  Ships,  all  this  March,  attended  the  Army 

*  with  Provifions  ;  but  the  PafTes  were  too  danger- 
'  ous  for  the  Army  to  march  near  the  Sea. 

*  On  Wednesday  ^  Jug.  14,  in  the  Morning  be- 
'  times,  there  came  a  Trumpeter  from  Lieutenant - 
'  General  David  Le/Iey,  with  the  Letter  and  De- 
'  claration  inclofed  from  him,  which  was  read 
'  to  fo  many  of  the  Officers  as  could  be  got  toge- 
c  ther,  and  in  the  Prefence  of  the  Enemy's  Trum- 

*  peter ;  and,  after  fome  Debate,  the  inclofed  An- 

*  i'wer  was  return'd  thereunto. 

4  But  that  Things  might  appear  to  look  more 
c  towards  an  Accommodation,  a  great  Com- 

*  mander  of  the  Enemy's,  Colonel  Gibby  Carre, 
'  fent  for  the  Captain  of  the  Guard   that  com- 
'  manded  the  Party  of  Horfe  that  were  neareft  the 
'  City;  and,  upon  Security  of  a  free  Return,  a  Lieu- 

*  tenant  of  Major-General  Lambert'?,  Regiment, 

*  who  was  then  on  the  Guard,  went  to  him,  with 
'  whom  he  had  much  Difcourfe  concerning  the 

*  Grounds  of  the  prefent Engagement  againft  them; 

*  by  which  he  perceived  that  many  of  them  were 

*  deluded  by  the  Malignants  fpecious  Pretences, 
'  and  that  the  more  honeft  and  godly  Party  did  be- 

*  gin  to  think  of  taking  another  Courfe :  He  de- 

*  clared,  That  they  were  not  in  a  Capacity  to 

*  fight  us,  but  to  keep  in  their  Trenches,  and  truft 
«  to  the  Protection  of  the  Almighty.     This  Way 

*  of  Reconcilement  being  thought  the  beft  IfTue  of 
«  all  the  Hardfhips  and  Labours  of  this  Army,  to 

*  gain  a  Conqueft  without  Blood,  or  taking  away 

*  the  Lives  of  Men,  fome  more  Freedom  was 

«  taken 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      329 

'  taken  by  the  Officers  to  confer  with  thofe  of  the  inter-regnum. 
'  Enemy  whom  they  found  to  be  ingenuous  and  re-        l65°- 
'  ligious;  by  which  they  perceived,  that  their  King    tta— "V—- •* 
<  having  refufed  to  fign  a  Declaration  of  his  re-       Aueuft- 
'  nouncing  and  declaring  againft  the  Mifcarriage  of 
'  his  Father,  and  his  Repentance  of  all  the  Blood 
'  that  was  fhed  in  his  Father's  Time,  by  his  Fa- 
'  ther's  or  his  own  Means,  and  to  refolve  to  ad- 
'  here  to  the  Caufe  of  God,  the  Kirk,  and  Cove- 
'  nant,  they  had  Thoughts  of  relinquishing  him, 

*  and  to  a£t  upon  another  Account.     It  is  remark- 

*  able  that,  upon  the  Day  when  our  Army  drew 
'  off  from  Edinburgh,  at  their  firft  coming  before 

*  it,  when  their  King  would  Have  come  forth  to 
'  have  charg'd  in  Perfon,  the  Lord-General  Leven 
'  told  him,  That  if  he  did  it  he  would  lay  down 
'  his  Commifiion. 

«  Tkurfday,  AuguJI  15.  This  Day,  by  reafon 
'  of  the  Want  of  Provifions,  our  Army  went  back 
'  to  Mujjelburgb,  where  the  Ships  were  ready  with 

*  Provifions  of  Bread  and  Cheefe,  which  were  ta- 
'  ken  in.     The  laft  Night  the  Enemy  made  no 
'  Sally  at  all,  nor  in  all  this  Day's  March,  nor 
c  made  any  other  Attempt;  only  at  the  paffing  of 
'  fome  of  our  Men  by  Dalkeith  they  difcharg'd  two 
£  Drakes.     At  our  marching,  back  by  Edinburgh 
'  the  Enemy  received  a  great  Alarm,  and  remov'd 
'  their  Guns  from  the  further  Side  of  Leith  to  this 
'  Side ;  Lieutenant-General  Lejley  alfo  fent  a  Party, 
'  with  two  great  Guns,  to  fecure  aPafs  towards  the 
'  Queen's -Ferry.    This  Day  (being  the  firft  Day  of 

*  the  Parliament's  Sitting)  the  Prince  fhould  have 
'  been  crowned  ;  but,  in  regard  of  his  refufmg  to 
'  fign  the  Declaration  before-mentioned,  it  was 
'  fufpended. 

«  On  Friday ,  Augiift  16,  the  45,000 /.  being 
«  come  for  the  Pay  of  the  Army,  both  Horfe  and 
'  Foot  mufter'd  that  Day;  Provifions  were  then  de- 
« liver'd  out  for  fix  or  ifeven  Days,  in  order  to  a 

*  further  March." 

The 


«TAi 

«  X  of 

'  fioner 


330     *The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

The  Letter  from  Lieutenant-Genera]  Le/Jey,  re- 
ferrecl  to  in  the  foregoing. 

Auguft.       por  fris  Excellency  the  Lord-General  CROMWELL. 
My  Lord,  Bruchton,  Aug.  13,  1650. 

Am  commanded  by  the  Committee  of  Eftates 
)f  this  Kingdom,  and  defired  by  the  Commif- 
fioners  of  the  General  AfTembly,  to  fend  unto 
'  your  Excellency  this  inclofed  Declaration,  as  that 

*  which  containeth  the  State  of  the  Quarrel  i  where- 

*  in  we  are  re/olved,  by  the  Lord's  Affiftance,  to 
'  fight  your  Army,  when  the  Lord  fhall  be  pleafed 

*  to  call  us  thereunto.     And  as  you  have  profefled 

<  you  will  not  conceal  any  of  our  Papers,  I  do  de- 

*  fire  that  this  Declaration  may  be  made  known  to 

<  all  the  Officers  of  your  Army  ;  and  fo  I  reft 

Your  Excellency's  mojl  bumble  Servant , 

DAVID  LESLEY. 

A  DECLARATION  from  /^COMMISSIONERS  of 
the  GENERAL  ASSEMBLY  of  the  Kirk  of  Scot- 
land, anent  the  ft  at  ing  of  the  Quarrel  ^ubereon 
the  Army  is  to  fight. 

Weft-Kirk^  Aug.  13,  1650. 

THE  Commiflioners  of  the  General  Aflembly 
confidering  that  there  may  be  juft  Ground 
of  Humbling,  from  the  King's  Majefty's  refufing 
to  fubfcribe  and  emit  the  Declaration  offer'd  unto 
him  by  the  Committee  of  Eftates,  and  Commif- 
fioners  of  the  General  Afiembly,  concerning  his 
former  Carriage,  and  Refolutions  for  the  future, 
in  reference  to  the  Caufe  of  God,  and  the  Ene- 
mies and  Friends  thereof,  doth  therefore  declare, 
That  this  Kirk  and  Kingdom  do  not  own  nor 
efpoufe  any  malignant  Party,  or  Quarrel  or  In- 
tereft,  but  that  they  fight  meerly  upon  their  for- 
mer Grounds  and  Principles,  and  in  Defence  of 
the  Caufe  of  God  and  of  the  Kingdom,  as  they 
have  done  thefe  twelve  Years  paft :  And  there - 

«  fore 


Of    E  N  G  L  AN  D.      331 

«  fore,  as  they  do  difclaim  all  the  Sin  and  Guilt  of  Interregnum. 

*  the  King  and  of  his  Houfe,  fo  they  will  not  own    ^     ^ 
'  him,  nor  his  Intereft,  otherwife  than  with  a  Sub-       Au&uft. 

*  ordination  to  God ;  and  fo  far  as  he  owns  and 

*  profecutes  the  Caufe  of  God,  and  difclaims  his 

*  and  his  Father's  Oppofition  to  the  Work  of  God, 
6  and  to  the  Covenant,  and  like  wife  all  the  Enemies 

*  thereof:  And  that  they  will,withconvenientSpeed, 

*  take  into  Confideration  the  Papers  lately  fent  un- 
'  to  them  from  Oliver  Cromwell,    and  vindicate 
'  themfelves  from  all  the  Falfhoods  contain'd  there- 

*  in,  efpecially  in  thofe  Things  wherein  the  Quar- 
'  rel  betwixt  us  and  that  Party  is  mif-ftated,  as  if 
'  we  owned  the  late  King's  Proceedings,  and  were 
'  refolved  to  profecute  and  maintain  his  prefent 
4  Majefty's  Intereft  before,  and  without,  Acknow- 
'  ledgment  of  the  Sins  of  his  Houfe  and  former 
'  Ways,  and  Satisfaction  to  God's  People  in  both 
4  Kingdoms. 

A.  KER. 

Auguft  13,  1650. 

«  f"|1  H  E  Committee  of  Eftates  having  feen  and 
4  _§_  confidered  A  Declaration  from  the  Com- 
4  mijjioners  of  the  General  AJ/embly,  anent  the  Jl at  ing 
c  of  the  Quarrel^  "whereon  the  Army  is  to  fight ,  do  ap- 
'  prove  the  fame,  and  heartily  concur  therein. 

THO.  HENDERSON; 

The  Lord-General  CROMWELL'J  ANSWER  to  the 
foregoing  LETTER  and  DECLARATION. 

For  the  Right  Hon.  DAVID  LESLEY,  Lieutenant- 
General  of  the  Scots  Army. 

From  the  Camp  at  Pentland-Hills,  Aug.  14,  1650. 

SIR, 

<  T  Received  yours  of  the  I3th  Inftant,  with  the 
'  J[  Paper  you  mentioned  therein  inclofed,  which 

*  I  caufed  to  be  read  in  the  Prefence  of  fo  many  Of- 
4  ficers  as  could  well  be  gotten  together,  to  which 

*  your 


332     *Ihe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

er- regnum.  '  your  Trumpet  can  witnefs.  We  return  you  this 
1650.  <  Anfwer,  by  which  I  hope,  in  the  Lord,  it  will 
~v— — '  '  appear  that  we  continue  the  fame  we  have  pro- 

Auguft.       t  feffcj  ourfejves  to  the  noneft  People  in  Scotland, 

*  wifliing  to  them  as  to  our  own  Souls ;   it  being  no 
'  Part  of"  our  Buiinefs  to  hinder  any  of  them  from 

*  worshipping  God  in  that  Way  they  are  fatisfied 
'  in  their  Conferences  by  the  Word  of  God  they 
'  ought,  though  uifrerent  irom  us,  but  {hail  there - 
'  in  be  ready  to  perform  what  Obligation  lies  upon 

*  us  by  the  Covenant ;  but  that  under  the  Pretence 
'  of  the  Covenant  mifbken,  and  wrefted  from  the 
«  molt  native  Intent  and  Equity  thereof,  a  King 
'  fhould  be  taken  in  by  you,  to  be  impofed  upon 

*  us,  and  this  called   the  Caule  of  God  and  the 
'  Kingdom;  and  this  done  upon  the  Satisfaction  of 

*  God's  People  in  both  Nations,  as  is  alledged,  to- 
4  gether  with  a  Difowning  of  Malignants  ;  altho' 
'  he  who  is  the  Head  of  them,  in  whom  all  their 

*  Hope  and  Comfort  lies,  be  received  ;  who  at  this 

<  very  Inftant  hath  a  Popifh  Party  fighting  for,  and 

*  under,  him  in  Ireland;  hath  Prince  Rupert  (a 

<  Man  who  hath  had  his  Hand  deep  in  the  Blood  of 
'  many  innocent  Men  of  England)  now  in  the  Head 
'  of  our  Ships  ftolen  from  us  upon  a  malignant 

*  Account ;  hath  the  French  and  Irifb  Ships  daily 
'  making  Depredations  on  our  Coafts ;  and  ftrong 

*  Combinations  by  the  Malignants  in  England,  to 
'  raife  Armies  in  our  Bowels,  by  virtue  of  his  Com- 
'•  millions,  who  hath  of  late  iflued  out  very  many  to 

*  that  Purpofe  :  How  the  Intereft  you  pretend  you 

*  have  received  him  upon,  and  the  Malignant  Inte- 

*  reft  in  the  Ends  and  Confequences  centring  in  this 
c  Man,  can  be  fecured,  we  cannot  difcern ;  and  how 
'  we  fhould  believe  that  whilft  known  and  notorious 
'  Malignants  are  fighting  and  plotting  againft  us  on 

*  the  one  Hand,  and  you  declaring  for  him  on  the 
4              *  other,  it  fhould  not  be  an  efpoufing  of  a  Malignant 

*  Party-Quarrel  or  Intereft;  but  be  a  meer  fighting 
'  upon  former  Grounds  and  Principles,  and  in  the 

*  Defence  of  the  Caufe  of  God  and  of  the  King- 
c  domsj  as  hath  been  thefe  twelve  Years  laft  pa(t, 

'as 


Of    ENGLAND.       333 

«  as  you  fay,  for  the  Security  and  Satisfa&ion  of  Inter-regmim. 
«  God's  People  in  both  Nations;  or  the  Oppofing  of       l65°- 
e  which  fhould  render  us  Enemies  to  the  Godly  with  *•* ^"- 

*  you,  we  cannot  well  underftand,  efpecially  confi- 
«  dering  that  all  thefe  Malignants  take  their  Confi- 
'  dence  and  Encouragement  from  the  late  Tranfac- 
'  tions  of  your  Kirk  and  State  with  your  King;  for 
<  as  we  have  already  faid,  fo  we  tell  you  again,  it  is 

*  but  fatisfying  Security  to  thofe  that  employ  us, 

*  and  are  concerned  in  that  we  feek,  which  we 
4  conceive  will  not  be  by  a  few  formal  and  feigned 

*  Submiflions  from  a  Perfon  who  could  not  tell 
4  otherwife  how  to  accomplifh  his  malignant  Ends; 
4  and  therefore  counfelled  to  this  Compliance  by 
4  them  who  afftfted  hisFather,and  have  hitherto  ac- 

*  tuated  him  in  his  moft  evil  and  defperate  Defigns, 
4  and  are  now  again  by  them  fet  on  foot ;  againft 
4  which  how  you  will  be  able,  in  the  Way  you  are 
4  in,  to  fecure  us  or  yourfelves,  is  (forafmuch  as 

*  concerns  ourfelves)  our  Duty  to  look  after. 

4  If  the  State  of  your  Quarrel  be  thus,  upon 
4  which,  as  you  fay,  you  refolve  to  fight  our  Ar- 

*  my,  you  will  have  Opportunity  to  do  that ;  elfe 
«  what  means  our  Abode  here  ?  And  if  our  Hope 

*  be  not  in  the  Lord,  it  will  be  ill  with  us.     We 
4  commit  both  you  and  ourfelves  to  him  who  knows 
4  the  Heart  and  tries  the  Reins.;    with  whom  are  all 
6  our  Ways  who  is  able  to  do  for  us  and  you 
4  above  what  we  know ;  which  we  defire  may  be 
4  in  much  Mercy  to  his  poor  People,  and  to  the 

*  Glory  of  his  own  great  Name  :  And  having  per- 
4  form'd  your  Defire  in  making  your  Papers  fo  pub- 
'  lie,  as  is  before  exprelTed,  I  defire  you  to  do  the 

*  like,  by  letting  the  State,  Kirk,  and  Army  have 
«  the  Knowledge  hereof.     To  which  End  I  have 
4  fent  you  inclofed  two  Copies,  and  reft 

Tour  bumble  Servant, 

O.  CROMWELL. 

Aug.  27.  Another  Letter  from  Ireland  was  re- 
ceived, dated  from  the  Camp  at  Waterford,  Au- 

gujt 


334      ffl*e  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum.  guft  12,  1650;  after  the  Reading  of  which,  public 
1650.  Thanks  were  ordered  to  be  given  to  God,  the 

v—  ~v^—  •*  next  Loid's  Day,  for  thefe  further  Succefles  gain'd 
in  that  Kingdom  ;  the  Particulars  whereof  will 
fully  appear  by  the  following  Declaration,  which 
was  ordered  to  be  drawn  up  and  publifhed  on  that 
Occafion  ;  and  likewife  to  be  read  in  all  Congre- 
gations throughout  the  Nation,  immediately  after 
the  Pfalm  before  Sermon,  for  the  better  ftirring  up 
the  Hearts  of  the  People  to  praife  God  for  this 
Victory. 


A  Narrative  of  c  TT^  VE  R  fmce  that  wonderful  and  unexpected. 

the  taking  of   «   Pv  Victory  which  the  Lord  was  pleafed,  the  laft 

Sr*r  tffb  '  Summer>  to  give  unto  a  fmall  Party  of  the  Parlia- 

Gen./rrfcTf/be-'  ment's  Forces  then  in  Dublin^  againft  that  nu- 

puty-Lieutenant  «  merous  and  potent  Army  under  Ormcnd\  which 

of  Ireland.         (  was  a  f)oor  of  pjope  to  the  Parliament  and  their 

c  Army,  then  on  their  Way  for  Ireland,  that  the 

'  Lord,  who  had  made  fo  open  a  Way  for  them, 

'  would  vouchfafe  his  Prefence  with  them,  to  carry 

'  on  and  perfect  that  W^ork  which  himfelf  had  fo 

'  eminently  begun  in  that  admirable  Providence, 

'  wherein  he  had,  as  it  were,  by  a  Worm,  threfh'd 

*  the  Mountains  :  The  fame  gracious  Hand  hath 
'  gone  along,  from  Time  to  Time,  with  his  Ser- 
'  vants  there,  vouchsafing  them  many  Victories, 
'  giving  many  ftrong  Cities,  Towns,  Caftles,  and 

*  Garrifons  into  their  Hands,  raifmg  up  their  Spi- 
'  rits,   overcoming   great  Difficulties,   furnifhing 
'  feafonable  Supplies,  and  difmaying  the  Hearts  of 

*  the  Enemies  ;  and  that  in  fuch  a  Series  of  conti- 
'  nued  Succefles,  as  is  juft  Matter  of  high  Admira- 
'  tion,  and  perpetual  Thankfulnefs  in  all  that  truly 
'  fear  the  Lord,  and  love  his  Caufe  and  People. 

*  And  feeing  every  Addition  of  Mercy  is  a  further 

*  Obligation  to  Thankfulnefs  and  Duty  ;  and  that 
c  the  Lord  hath  been  pleafed,  as  a  further  Mani- 

*  feftation  of  his  Goodnefs,  to  give  up  into  the 
4  Hands  of  the  Parliament's  Forces  there,  Cather- 
6  lagk,  a  Garrifon  of  much  Strength  and  Importance  ; 

a  great  and  populous  Town,  and  the 
«moft 


Of   ENGLAND.       335 

«  moft  confiderable  Harbour  in  all  Ireland.,  upon  Inter-regnum. 

4  Saturday  the  lOth  of  Auguft  Inft.  together  with         l650- 

4  the  ftrong  Caftle  of  Duncannon^  fmce  likewife    *— "~ v—— * 

4  furrendered  upon  Articles  :  The  Parliament  of      Aus"ft* 

4  England  have  thought  fit  not  to  let  fuch  great 

4  Mercies  pafs,    without  an   efpecial   Return   of 

4  Thankfulnefs  j  but  to  publifh  the  Narrative  there - 

4  of,  as  it  comes  to  us  in  a  Letter  from  the  De- 

4  puty-Generalof/r^«^b;  the  Effect  whereof  is  as 

'  followeth,  viz.  The  Deputy  having  received,  at 

4  the  late  Leaguer  before  Catherlagh,  f everal  Alarms 

4  of  great  Forces  of  the  Enemy  riling  and  appear- 

4  ing  within  the  Counties  of  Cork ,  Kerry ,  Limerick, 

4  and  Tipper  ary, to  the  diftreffing  and  endangerino-of 

<  our  Parties  and  Garrifons  in  thofe  Parts  ;  wriere 

*  the  Enemy  threatened  to  deftroy  our  Quarters, 
4  and  probably  defigned  a  Conjunction  of  their  moft 
4  confiderable  Forces,  in  order  to  the  Relief  of 
«  Water  ford)  and  an  Attempt  upon  the  fmall  Party 

<  left  to  block  it  up;    after  he  had  difpofed  divers 
'  of  his  Forces  to  iecure  Carrick,  to  repel  and  op- 
«  pofe  the  Enemy  in  Carbery,  and  the  Wefrerrt 

<  Parts,  and  to  march  to  the  Relief  of  our  Forces 

<  in  Kerry  and  Limerick,    leaving   Sir  Hardrefs 
'  fPaller  with  the  Body  of  the  Army,  to  carry  on 
4  theBufmefs  about Catherlagh^  he  did  himfelf  draw 
«  down  with  a  fmall  Party  of  Foot  towards  Water- 
«  ford,  to  beleaguer  it  more  ftraitly.     Coming  be- 
«  fore  Water  ford  with  thofe  Foot,  and  fome  fmall 

4  Parties  left  there  before,  to  block  it  up  at  a  Dif-    ' 

*  tance,  he  applied  himfelf  to  a  clofer  Siege  of  it; 
4  making  two  Quarters  within  fhot  of  their  Walls' 
4  which,  with  our  Foot  at  the  Abbey  on  the  other 
«  Side  of  the  Water,  kept  them  clofe  within  the 
4  Town  on  every  Side ;  and  then  trying  them  with 
4  a  Summons,  the  Enemy  within  fo  defpifed  our 
4  fmall  Numbers,  as  that  they  made  an  Offer  as  if 
4  they  durft  fet  open  one  of  their  Gates,  and  let  in 

'all 

b  Commiffary-Gcneral  Ireton,  "to  whom  Cromwel!  Jeft  the  Com- 
mand dining  his  Abfence,  which  Appointment  was  afterwards  co»> 
arm  a  by  the  Parliament. 


33 6     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  *  all  our  Foot  to  make  the  beft  of  it :  And  to  that 

•        *  being  anfwered  it  was  but  a  vain  Brag,  and  they 

*~^^h        '  durft  not  make  it  good,  they  in  Reply,  for  their 

'  Honour's  Sake,  feemed  to  adhere  to  their  former 

*  Vanity,  but  with  fuch  Conditions  and  Cautions 
'  as  they  might  be  fure  would  not  be  accepted  : 
'  But  that  the  Power  of  God  might  appear  in  our 

*  defpifed  Weaknefs  againft  this  Pride  of  Man,thefe 

*  Sons  of  Honour,  as  they  would  be  thought,  did, 
4  even  in  both  the  fame  Letters,  unequally  fubjoin 
'  to  thefe  high  Vapours  an  Offer  of  Treaty  for 
'  Surrender:  During  which  Time  News  came  from 

*  Catherlagh)  that  it  had  pleafed  God,  beyond,  or 
'  much  before,  Expectation,  upon  our  Men's  bat- 
'  tering,  and  then  taking  by  Storm  (without  Lofs 
'  on  our  Part)  a  fmall  Tower  on  their  Bridge  over 
6  the  Barrow^  to  bring  down  the  Enemy's  Hearts 

*  to  a  Treaty,  for  a  Surrender  of  that  ftrong  and 
'  important  Place.     Hereupon  the  Deputy  concei- 
'  ving  Water  ford  to  be  attemptible  by  Force  in  one 
'  or  two  Places,  though  otherwife  exceedingly  for- 

*  tified  ;  while  Preparations  were  made  for  that  At- 
'  tempt,  the  Lord  wrought  upon  the  Hearts  of  the 
*•  Enemy  to  defire  a  Treaty,  without  thofe  Terms 

*  of  Honour,  which  formerly  they  infifted  on ;  by 
'  which,  after  high  Demands,  rejected  on  our  Part 
1  with  Indignation,  they  were,  on  Tuefday  the  6th 
e  of  this  Inftant  Augujl^  brought  to  furrender  upon 
'  Articles,  which  was  perform'd  on  Saturday  fol- 

*  lowing ;  at  which  Time  there  marched  out  about 

*  700  Men,  well  arm'd,  the  Townfmen  more  nu- 
'  merous  than  before  was  believed,  and  the  Town 
'  better  fortified  in  all  Parts,  and  more  difficult  to 
4  be  attempted  than  our  Forces  conceived,  there 

*  being  many  private  Stores  fufficient  to  have  main- 

*  tained  them  a  long  Time ;  whereby  \ve  may  fee 

*  the  Hand  of  God  in  overpowering  the  Hearts  of 
'  the  Enemy,  which  was  the  only  Caufe  of  their 

*  prefent  Surrender.    By  this  okWaterford  and  Ca- 

*  th&lagh)  God  was  pleafed  to  extend  his  Hand  to- 
'  wards  Duncannon  ;  the  Enemy  there  (though  a 

*  Prieft  was  Governor)  having  on  the  fame  Satur- 


Of    ENGLAND.        337 

*  day,  with  Col.  Cook's  Leave,  fent  one  to  Water-  Inter-regnart. 
'ford,  to  fee  whether  it  were  furrendered,   did  on        J 

e  the  nth  of  this  Month  defire  a  Treaty,  which    **~~A^'^*J ' 
*•  produced,  through  the  fame  Divine  Mercy,  a 

*  Surrender  of  the  fame  Caftle  of  Duncannon^  upon 
'  Articles,  on  Saturday  the  lyth  of  this  Month; 
'  fince  which  Time  the  ftrong  Garrifon  and  Caftle 
'  of  Charlemount  is  likewife  furrendered,  whereby 
'  the  whole  Province  ofUlfter  is  now  intirely  in  the 
'  Power  of  the  Parliament. 

4  For  all  which  great  Mercies  the  Parliament 
'  doth  order,  &c. 

Aug.  28.  It  is  obfervable  that  in  Cromwelfs 
Narrative  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Army  in  Scot- 
land,  laft  mentioned,  he  inform'd  the  Houfe  that 
the  Prince  (meaning  King  Charles  II.)  was  to  have 
been  crown'd  in  that  Kingdom  on  the  i5th  of  this 
Month  ;  but  that  the  Ceremony  was  fufpended  oh, 
account  of  his  refufing  to  fign  a  Declaration  which, 
the  Scots  Parliament  required  of  him,  whereby  he 
was  to  profefs  his  Repentance  for  all  the  Blood 
{bed  in  his  Father's  Time  and  fince  by  his  own 
Means  ;  and  to  refolve  to  adhere,  for  the  future, 
to  the  Caufe  of  God,  the  Kirk,  and  the  Covenant : 
However,  the  King  was  prevail'd  upon  to  fign  it  on 
the  1 6th  of  this  Month  ;  and  a  Copy  thereof  being  King  Charles  II. 
lent  up  to  the  Parliament,  it  was  read  in  the  Houfe  hav«ng  pubhfted 
this  Day ;  a  Committee  was  alfo  appointed  to  with-  ^cotlanjl  "" 
draw  and  confider  of  a  Declaration  to  be  printed  and 
publifhed  thereupon.  This  was  prefently  brought 
in  and  pafs'd,  as  preparatory  to  an  Anfwer  at  large, 
•which  was  ordered  to  be  drawn  up  by  the  Council 
of  State,  and  will  fhortly  follow  in  its  due  Order  of 
Time.  The  previous  Declaration  runs  thus  : 


'  the  Kingdoms  of  Scotland,  England,  and  Ireland,  High 
'  printed   at  Edinburgh,   1650,  do  find  therein  a 
*  Defign  of  Charles  Stuart,  the  declared  King  of 
VOL.  XIX  Y  '  Seat-' 


338     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  Scotland,    by  the  Inftigation  of  the   State  and 
'  Kirk  of  that  Kingdom,  under  a  Pretence  of  Hu- 

*  miliation  for  his  own  and  his  Father's  Oppofition 
<  to  the  Work  Qf  Rcformation  and  Solemn  League 

*  and  Covenant,  to  feduce  the  People  of  this  Na- 

*  tion  from  their  due  Obedience  to  this  prefent  Go- 

*  vernment ;  and  to  invite  them,  by  promoting  his 

*  pretended  Intereft  here,  not  only  to  embroil  this 
'  Nation  in  new  Troubles,  by  a  bloody  and  inte- 

*  ftine  War,  (thereby,  as  much  as  in  them  lies, 
'  taking  away  all  Hopes  of  a  fettled  Peace  in  this 
'Commonwealth)  but  alfoto  make  themfelves  in- 

*  ftrumental  to  inthral  themfelves  again  in  Tyranny 
4  and  Slavery,  from  which  they  have  been,  thro' 
'  the  Bleffing  and  glorious  Appearances  of  God, 
4  fo  happily  redeem'd.     And,  however,  the  Parlia- 

*  ment  have  Reafon  to  believe,  that  no  pious  or  ju- 
'  dicious  Perfon  can  poflibly  be  deluded  under  fuch 

*  grofs  Deceits,  to  contribute  fuch  an  Affiftance  as 

*  in  that  Declaration  is  call'd  for,  and  which  would 

*  moft  undoubtedly  end,  if  the  Lord  prevent  it  not, 

*  in  the  Deftrudion  of  the  truly  Godly  in  both  Na- 

*  tions,  and  the  betraying  of  that  Caufe  that  hath 

*  been  engaged  in  by  them ;  neverthelefs,they  have 

*  refolved,  for  the  better  Information  and  Saiisfac- 

*  tion  of  the  People  of  this  Land,  more  largely  and 

*  particularly  to  unmafk  and  difcover  the  Hypocri- 
e  fy  and  wicked  Defign  lodged  under  the  fpecious 
(  Pretences  in  that  Declaration ;  and,  in  the  mean 

*  Time,  do  enact  and  declare,  That  all  Perfons 
'  whatfoever,  who  (hall  abet  or  countenance  the 
'  faid  Declaration,  by  printing  or  publifliing  the 

*  fame,  or  by  promoting  or  profecuting  the  Defign 
'  or  Ends  therein  contained,  are  hereby  adjudged 

*  to  be  guilty  of  High  Treafon,  and  {hall  be  pro- 
6  ceeded  againft  as  Traitors.' 

September.  Nothing  material  occurs  this  Month, 
till  the  6th,  when  the  following  Letter  from  the 
Lord- General  to  a  Member  of  the  Council  of 

State,  was  read  in  the  Houfe a.  P  T  D 

o  /  A, 

a  From  the  original    Edition,    printed   for  Robert  Jl-bctfcn,  i» 
Smitbfeld,  near  Hofier-Iane,  and  licenfed  by  Henry  Scobcll. 


Of    ENGLAND.       339 

SIR,  Muffelburgh,  Aug.  31,    1650.      Inter-regnwm* 

INCE  my  laft,  we  feeing  the  Enemy  not 


v _ 

willing  to  engage,  and  yet  very  apt  to  take    September, 
xceptions  againft  Speeches  of  that  Kind,  fpo-A  Lctter  fro 

*  ken  in  our  Army,   which  occafioned   fome  ofcen.Cronnvel/ 

*  them  to  come  to  parley  with  our  Officers,  to  ]etconcerning  the 
<  them  know  that  they  would  fight  us,'  they  fying^^^j 

*  ftill  in  or  near  their  Faftnefles,  on  the  Weft  Sidecomlnaad. 
'  of  Edinburgh ;  we  refolved,  the  Lord  affifting,  to 

*  draw  near  to  them  once  more,  to  try  if  we  could 

*  fight  them  ;  and,  indeed,  one  Hour's  Advantage 
'  gain'd  might  probably,  we  think,  have  given  us 

*  an  Opportunity ;  to  which  Purpofe,  upon  Tuef- 
f  day  the  2yth  Inftant,  we  march'd  Weftward  of 
'  Edinburgh  towards  Stirling ;  which  the  Enemy 
'  perceiving,  march'd  with  as  great  Expedition  as 
'  was  poffible  to  prevent  us,  and  the  Vanguards  of 

*  both  the  Armies  came  to  fkirmifli  upon  a  Place 
'  where  Bogs  and  Paries  made  the  Accefs  of  each 
'  Army  to  the  other  difficult :  We,  being  ignorant 
'  of  the  Place,  drew  up,  hoping  to  have  engaged, 
4  but  found  no  way  feazable,  by  reafon  of  the  Bogs 
'  and  other  Difficulties. 

*  We  drew  up  our  Cannon,  and  did  that  Day 

*  difcharge  2  or  300  great  Shot  upon  them ;  a  con- 

*  fiderable  Number  they  likewife  return'd  to  us, 
c  and  this  was  all  that  pafied  from  each  to  other, 
'  wherein  we  had  near  20  kill'd  and  wounded,  but 
'  not  one  Commiffion-Officer.     The  Enemy,  as 
'  we  are  informed,  had  about  80  kill'd,  and  fome 
'  confiderable  Officers.     Seeing  they  would  keep 
'  their  Ground,  from  which  we  could  not  remove 
'  them,  and  our  Bread  being  fpent,  we  were  ne- 

*  ceffitated  to  go  for  a  new  Supply,  and  fo  march'd 
'  off  about  Ten  or  Eleven  o'Clock  on  Wednesday 
'  Morning :  The  Enemy  .perceiving  it,  and,  as  we 
'  conceive,  fearing  we  might  interpofe  between 

*  them  and  Edinburgh,  though  it  was  not  our  In- 
'  tention,  albeit  it  feemed  fo  by  our  March,  retreat- 
'  ed  back  again  with  all  Hafte,  having  a  Bog  and 
'  Paffes  between  them  and  us  j  there  being  no  con- 

Y  2  *  fiderable 


later-re^num. 
1650. 

September. 


340     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

fiderable  AdUon,  faving  the  fkirmifhing  of  the 
Van  of  our  Horfe  with  theirs,  near  to  Edinburgh^ 
without  any  confiderable  Lofs  to  either  Part,  la- 
ving that  we  got  two  or  three  of  their  Horfes. 
*  That  Night  we  quartered  within  a  Mile  of 
Edinburgh^  and  of  the  Enemy  ;  it  was  a  moil 
tempeftuous  Night  and  wet  Morning.  The  Ene- 
my marched  in  the  Night  between  Leith  and 
Edinburgh^  to  interpofe  between  us  and  our  Vic- 
tual, they  knowing  that  it  was  fpent,  but  the 
Lord  in  Mercy  prevented  it ;  which  we  percei- 
ving in  the  Morning,  got  Time  enough,  through 
the  Goodnefs  of  the  Lord,  to  the  Sea  Side  to  re- 
viclual  j  the  Enemy  being  drawn  up  upon  the 
Hill  near  Arthur's  Seat,  looking  upon  us,  but 
not  attempting  any  Thing  :  And  thus  you  have 
an  Account  of  the  prefent  Occurrences. 

Tour  moft  humble  Servant, 

O.  CROMWELL. 

Tho'  the  foregoing  Letter  left  the  two  Armies 
looking, as  it  were,  upon  one  another;  yet  they  did 
not  long  remain  in  that  una&ive  Situation  :  For, 

On  ^Saturday  the  jth  of  this  Month,  Advice 
came  of  a  great  Victory  gain'd  by  the  EngliJbArmy 
near  Dunbar  on  the  3d,  in  which  the  Scots  were  en- 
tirely routed.  When  this  important  News  arriv'd, 
theHoufewas  adjourn'd,  according  to  their  late 
ufual  Cuftom,  from  Friday  to  Tuefday  :  Hereupon 
the  Council  of  State  ordered  a  brief  Narrative  of 
this  AcYion  to  be  immediately  printed,  and  read 
the  next  Sunday  in  all  the  Churches  in  and  about 
London,  that  the  People  might  return  Thanks  to 
God  for  his  fignal  Mercy  to  the  Commonwealth. 
On  the  Qth  a  further  Relation  of  this  Affair  was 
publifhed  :  But  both  thefe  we  purpofely  omit,  to 
make  Way  for  a  more  full  and  ample  Detail  there- 
of, communicated  to  the  Parliament  on  the  10th,  in 
the  following  Letters  :  And  firft  that  from  Mr. 
Secretary  to  the  Army. 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D,      341 

For  the  Hon.  WILLIAM  LENTHALL,  Efq\  Speaker  inter-regnum, 
of  the  Parliament  of  England.  l65°- 

SIR,  Dunbar,  Sep.  3,   1650.         September. 

c  T  Intimated  unto  you  before,  that  our  drawing 
*  1  off  from  Mufetourgb  might  tempt  the  Eqc-JSvJjl^ 
e  my  to  draw  out,  which  accordingly  they  did  ;  tained  by  him 
c  and  the  rather,  for  that  they  were  informed,  as ncar  £«»&«•• 
'  fome  of  their  Prifoners  confefs,  we  had  fhipped 
'  our  Train  of  Artillery,  which  was  a  Miftake  of 
'  them,  for  it  was  the  600  ficli  Soldiers  of  the 
c  Flux  that  I  had  fliipp'd  that  Morning :  So  they 
'  march'd  after  us,  with  Horfe,  Foot,  and  Train, 
'  within  a  Mile  of  Dunbar,  where  both  Armies 
c  ftood  in  Battalia  all  Night ;  only  in  the  Morn- 
'  ing,  about  Two  o'Clock,  we  gave  them  a  hot 
4  Alarm,  and  fo  got  the  Wind  of  them  ;  and  this 
'  Morning  about  Twilight  the  General  advanced 
4  with  the  Army,  and  charged  them  both  in  the 
'  Valley  and  on  the  Hill.     The  Battle  was  very 

*  fierce  for  the  Time,   one  Part  of  their  Battalia 

*  ftood  very  ftifly  to  it,  but  the  reft  was  prefently 
'  routed. 

*  I  never  beheld  a  more  terrible  Charge  of  Foot 
'  than  was  given  by  our  Army,  our  Foot  alone    • 
'  making  the  Scots  Foot  give  Ground  for  three 

*  Quarters  of  a  Mile  together.     We  have  all  their 
'  Guns,  Train,  Bag,  and  Basjsjage,  and  beaten 
f  them  clear  out  of  the  Field,  Hills,  and  Valleys  ; 
'  and  our  Army  is  now  aj:  the  leaft  eight  Miles  in 

*  Purfuit  of  their  Horfe,  their  Foot  being  taken 
'  wholly.     It  was  a  happy  and  feafonable  Victory, 

*  and  God  appeared  in  Man's  greateft  Weaknefs, 
'  they  came  with  Confidence  that  all  was  their  own. 

*  They  had  pofleft  the  Pafs  at  Copper/path  to  hin- 
'  der  our  March  to  Berwick^  thinking  we  would. 

*  have  run  away. 

'  I  mall  not  defcend  to  Particulars,  till  we  have 
£  a  particular  Account  of  the  Prifoners  and  Slain. 

*  Indeed,  when  our  Hearts  began  to  fail,  then  did 

*  the  Lord  begin  to  appear.     Fourteen  hundred 

Y  3  «  fick 


342      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum.  l  fick  Men  have  I  in  all  fent  to  Berwick  and  New* 
l65°-~  *  cajlle^  and  many  Hundreds  are  wonderful  fick 

^""^^  '  in  the  Army.  Confidering  thofe  who  have  died 
'  and  otherwife  left  the  Army,  and  the  Scots  dou- 
'  bling  the  Number,  the  more  the  Lord  was  feen 
'  in  the  Victory.  They  came  full  of  Revenge  in 
'  their  Hearts  to  cut  us  off  without  Mercy  ;  they 
'  having  in  the  Evening  before  taken  40  of  Colo- 
'  ncl  Pride's  Men,  thac  wenfrto  poflefs  a  Houfe, 
'  they  cut  them  and  mangled  them  in  a  moft  bar- 

*  barous  Manner  after  they  had  given  them  Quar- 
'  ter.     You  fhall  hear  fuddenly  further  from 

Tour  moft  humble  Servant^ 

JO.  RUSHWORTH. 

Next,  aLetter  from  the  Lord-General,  with  a  Lift 
of  the  Names  of  the  Scots  Officers  taken  Prifoners. 

For  the  Hon.  WILLIAM  LENTHALL,  Efq;Speaker 
of  the  Parliament  of  England. 

SIR,  Dunbar,  Sep.  4,    1650. 

'  T  Hope  it  is  not  ill  taken  that  I  make  no  more 
'  JL  frequent  Addrefles  to  the  Parliament:  Things 

*  that  are  of  Trouble  in  point  of  Provifion  for  your 
'  Army,    and  of  ordinary  Direction,  I    have,  as 

*  I    could,    often    prefented    to    the   Council    of 
'  State,  together  with  fuch  Occurrences  as  have 
'  happened ;  who,  I  am  fure,  as  they  have  not  been 
'  wanting  in  their  extraordinary  Care  and  Piovi- 
'  fion  for  us,  fo  neither  in  what  they  judg'd  tit  and 

*  neceflary  to  reprefent  the  fame  to  you  :  And  this 

*  I  thought  to  be  a  fufficient  Difcharge  of  my  Du- 

*  ty  on  that  Behalf. 

4  It  hath  now  pleafed  God  to  beftow  a  Mercy 

*  upon  you  worthy  your  Knowledge,  and  of  the 

*  utmoft  Praife  and  Thanks  of  all  that  fear  and 

*  love  his  Name ;  yea,  the  Mercy  is  far  above  all 

*  Praife;  which,  that  you  may  the  better  perceive, 
'  I  (hall  take  the  Boldnefs  to  tender  unto  you  fome 
'  Circumftances  accompanying  this  great  Bufinefs, 
«  which  will  manifeft  the  Greatnefs  and  Seafon- 
4  ablenefs  of  this  Mercy. 

«We 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       343 

'  We  having  tried  what  we  could  to  engage  the  inter-regnum. 

*  Enemy  three  or  four  Miles  Weft  of  Edinburgh^        1650. 

*  that  proving  ineffectual,  and  our  Visual  failing,    v— — v— — -* 
'  we  marched  towards  our  Ships  for  a  Recruit  of    SePtember« 
'  our  Want.     The  Enemy  did  not  at  all  trouble  us 

'  in  our  Rear,  but  marched  the  direct  Way  to- 
'  wards  Edinburgh ;  and,  partly  in  the  Night  and 

*  Morning,  flips  thro'  his  whole  Army,  and  quar- 
'  ters   himfelf  in   a  Pofture  eafy  to  interpofe  be- 

*  tween  us  and  our  Victual ;  but  the  Lord  made 

*  them  to  lofe  the  Opportunity,  and,  the  Morning 
'  proving  exceeding  wet  and  dark,  we  recovered, 

*  by  that  Time  it  was  light,  into  a  Ground  where 
c  they  could  not  hinder  us  from  our  Victual;  which 
'  was  an  high  Act  of  the  Lord's  Providence  to  us. 
'  We  being  come  into  the  faid  Ground,  the  Enemy 

*  marched  into  the  Ground  we  were  laft  upon,  ha- 
'  ving  no  Mind  either  to  ftrive  to  interpofe  between 

*  us  and  our  Victual,  or  to   fight,   being  indeed 

*  upon  this  Lock,  hoping  that  the  Sicknefs  of  your 

*  Army  would  render  their  Work  more  eafy  by  the 

*  gaining  of  Time :  Whereupon  we  march'd  to 
'  JMLuJJelburgh  to  victual  and  fhip  away  our  ficlc 
'  Men,  where  we  fent  aboard  near*  500  fick  and 
'  wounded  Soldiers  :  And,  upon  ferious  Confide- 

*  ration,  finding  our  Weaknefs  to  increafe,  and 

*  the  Enemy  lying  upon  his  Advantages,  at  a  Ge- 
'  neral  Council,  it  was  thought  fit  to  march  to 
'  Dunbar,  and  there  to  fortify  the  Town,  which 
'  we  thought,  if  any  Thing,  would  provoke  them 
'  to  engage ;  as  alfo  that  the  having  of  a  Garri- 
'  fon  there,  would  furnifh  us  with  Accommoda- 

*  tion  for  our  fick  Men  ;  would  be  a  good  Maga- 
'  zine,  which  we  exceedingly  wanted,  being  put 
'  to  depend  upon  the  Uncertainty  of  Weather  for 
'  landing  Provifions ;  which  many  Times  cannot 

*  be  done,  though  the  Being  of  the  whole  Army 
'  lay  upon  it,  all  the  Coaft  from  Berwick  to  Leith 
'  not  having  one  good  Harbour ;   as  alfo  to  lie 

*  more  conveniently   to  receive  our  Recruits  of 
'  Horfe  and  Foot  from  Berwick. 

*  Having 


344        3e  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Jhter-regnum.       *  Having  thefe  Confederations,  upon  Saturday  the 
1650.         *  3oth  of  Augujl  we  marched  from  MuJJelburgb  to 

V — v J    <  Haddington  ;  where,  by  that  Time  we  had  got 

September.     <  the  Van  Brigade  of  our  Horfe,  and  our  Foot  and 

<  Train  into  their  Quarters,  the  Enemy  was  march  - 
'  ed  with  that  exceeding  Expedition,  that  they  fell 

*  upon  the  Rear  Forlorn  of  our  Horfe,  and  put  it 
'  in  feme  Diforder;  and,  indeed,  had  like  to  have 
'  engaged  our  Rear  Brigade  of  Horfe  with  their 
'  whole  Army,  had  not  the  Lord,  by  his  Provi- 

*  dence,  put  a  Cloud  over  the  Moon,  thereby  gi- 
'  ving  us  Opportunity  to  draw  off  thofe  Horfe  to 

*  the  reft  of  the  Army  j  which  accordingly  was 

*  done  without  any  Lofs,  fave  three  or  four  of  our 
'  aforementioned  Forelorn,  wherein  the  Enemy,  as 
'  we  believe,  received  more  Lofs. 

*  The  Army  being  put  into  a  reafonable  fecure 
'  Pofture,  towards  Midnight  the  Enemy  atttempted 
'  our  Quarters  on  the  Weft  End  of  Haddington  ; 
'  but,thro'theGoodnefsof  God,werepulfed  them. 

*  The  next  Morning  we  drew  into  an  open 

*  Field  on  the  South  Side  of  Haddington^  we  not 

*  judging  it  fafe  to  draw  to  the  Enemy  upon  his 

*  own  Ground,  he  being  prepofiefied  thereof;   but 
'  rather  drew  back  to  give  him  Way  to  come  to 

*  us,  if  he  had  fo  thought  fit :  And  having  waited 
e  about  the  Space  of  four  or  five  Hours,  to  fee  if 

*  he  would  come  to  us ;  and  not  finding  any  Incli- 

*  nation  in  the  Enemy  fo  to  do,  we  refolved  to  go, 

*  according  to  our  firlr.  Intendment,  to  Dunbar. 

'  By  that  Time  we  had  marched  three  or  four 

*  Miles,  we  faw  fome  Bodies  of  the  Enemy's  Horfe 
'  draw  out  of  their  Quarters ;  and  by  that  Time  our 

*  Carriages  were  gotten  near  Dunbar,  their  whole 

*  Army  was  upon  their  March  after  us :  And  in- 

*  deed  our  drawing  back  in  this  Manner,  with  the 

*  Addition  of  three  new  Regiments  added  to  them, 

<  did  much  heighten  their  Confidence,  if  not  Pre- 

*  fumption  and  Arrogancy. 

'  The  Enemy  that  Night  we  perceived  gathered 

*  towards  the  Hills,  labouring  to  make  a  perfect 
«  Interpofition  between  us  and  Berwick  ;  and  ha- 

*  ving 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       345 

(  ving  in  this  Pofture  a  great  Advantage,  through  Inter-regnum 
e  his   better   Knowledge    of  the  Country,  which        l65°- 

-*  he  effected  by  fending  a  confiderable  Party  to  the    *T      "/~T^ 
r  n     •    r>   r         s-i  i        L  -\  n  \  September. 

'  ftrait  Pafs  at  Copperjpatk^  where  ten  Men  to  hin- 

'  der  are  better  than  forty  to  make  their  Way. 
'  And  truly  this  was  an  Exigent  to  us,  where- 

*  by  the  Enemy  reproached  us  with  that  Con- 
'  dition  the  Parliament's  Army  was  in  when  it 

*  made  its  hard  Conditions  with  the  King  in  Corn- 

*  wall.     By  fome  Reports  that  have  come  to  us, 

*  they  had  difpofed  of  us  and  of  their  Bufinefs, 

*  in  fufficient  Revenge  and  Wrath  towards  our  Per- 

*  fons,  and  had  fwallowed  up  the  poor  Intereft  of 
'  England,  believing  that  their  Army  and  their 
'  King  would  have  marched  to  London  without 
'  any  Interruption  ;  it  being  told  us,  we  know  not 
'  how  truly,  by  a  Prifoner  we  took  the  Night  be- 
'  fore  the  Fight,  that  their  King  was  very  fudden- 
'  ly  to  come  amongft  them,  with  thofe  Engli{h  they 
'  allowed  to  be  about  him  ;  but  in  what  they  were 
4  thus  lifted  up  the  Lord  was  above  them. 

'  The  Enemy  lying  in  the  Pofture  before-men- 

*  tioned,  having  thofe  Advantages,  we  lay  very  near 
'  him,  being  fenfible  of  our  Difadvantages,  having 

*  fome  Weaknefs  of  Flefh,  but  yet  Confolation 

*  and  Support  from  the  Lord  himfelf,  to  our  poor 

*  weak  Faith,  wherein  I  believe  not  a  few  amongft 
'  us  fhar'd,  that  becaufe  of  their  Numbers,  becaufe 

*  of  their  Advantages,  becaufe  of  their  Confidence, 
'  becaufe  of  our  Weaknefs,  becaufe  of  our  Strait, 
'  we  were  in  the  Mount,  and  in  the  Mount  the 

*  Lord  would  be  feen,  and  that  he  would  find  out 
«  a  Way  of  Deliverance  and  Salvation  for  us  ;  and 
'  indeed  we  had  our  Confolations  and  our  Hopes. 

'  Upon  Monday  Evening  the  Enemy,  whofe 
c  Numbers  were  very  great,  as  we  heard  about 
«  6000  Horfe,  and  16,000  Foot,  at  leaft;  ours 

*  drawn  down,  as  to  found  Men,  to  about  7500 
'  Foot,  and  3500  Horfe. 

'  The  Enemy  drew  down  to  their  Right  Wing 
<  about  two  Thirds  of  their  Left  Wing  of  Horfe, 
'  fhoeging  alfo  their  Foot  and  Train  much  to  the 

<  Right, 


346      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

er-regmim.  *  Right,  caufnig  their  Right  Wing  of  Horfe  to  edge 
1650.         t  down  towards  the  Sea. 

v — J         *  We  could  not  well  imagine  but  that  the  Ene- 
ytem  er.     <  ^  intended  to  attempt  upon  us,  or  to  place  them- 

'  felves  in  a  more  exact  Condition  of  Interpofition. 

'  Major-Oeneral  Lambert  and  myfelf  coming  to  the 

*  Earl  of  Roxburgh^  Houfe,  and  observing  this  Po- 

*  fture,  I  told  him  I  thought  it  did  give  us  an  Op- 

*  portunity  and  Advantage  to  attempt  upon  the 

*  Enemy  ;  to  which  he  immediately  replied,  That 

*  he  had  thought  to  have  faid  the  fame  Thing  to 

*  me;  fo  that  it  pleafed  the  Lord  to  fet  this  Appre- 

*  henfion  upon  both  of  our  Hearts  at  the  fame  In- 

*  ftant.     We  call'd  for  Col.  Monck  and  fhew'd  him 

*  the  Thing ;  and  coming  to  our  Quarters  at  Night, 

*  and  demonftrating  our  Apprehenfions  to  fome  of 
'  the  Colonels,  they  alfo  chearfully  concurred. 

'  We  therefore  refolved  to  put  our  Bufmefs  into 

*  this  Pofture  ;  that  fix  Regiments  of  Horfe  and 

*  three  Regiments  and   an  Half  of  Foot  fhould 
'  march  in  the  Van  :  That  the  Major- General, 

*  the  Lieutenant-General  of  the  Horfe,  and  the 

*  Commiflary-General,    and  Colonel  Monck^   to 
'  command  the  Brigade  of  Foot,  fhould  lead  on 
4  the  Bufmefs  :  And  that  Colonel  Prides  Brigade, 

*  Col.  Overtoils  Brigade,  and  the  remaining  two 

*  Regiments  of  Horfe,  fhould  bring  up  the  Cannon 
4  and  Rear;  the  Time  of  falling  on  to  be  by  Break 

*  of  Day ;   but,  thro'  fome  Delays,  it  proved  not  to 

*  be  fo  till  Six  o'Clock  in  the  Morning. 

*  The  Enemy's  Word  was  The  Covenant^  which 

*  it  had  been  for  fome  Days ;  ours,  The  Lord  of 
'  Hofts.    The  Major-General,  Lieutenant-Gene- 

*  ral  Fleetwood)  Commiflary-General  ll^haley^  and 

*  Colonel  Tivijleton,  gave  the  Onfet,  the  Enemy 

*  being  in  a  very  good  Pofture  to  receive  them,  ha- 
'  ving  the  Advantage  of  their  Cannon  and  Foot 

*  againft  our  Horfe. 

6  Before  our  Foot  could  come  up  the  Enemy 
'  made  a  gallant  Refiftance,  and  there  was  a  very 
'  hot  Difpute  at  Sword's  Point  between  our  Horfe 

*  and  theirs.     Our  firft  Foot,  after  they  had  dif- 

*  charged 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.        347 

4  charged  their  Duty,  being  overpowered  by  the  Inter-regnum. 
'  Enemy,  received  fome  Repulfe,  which  they  foon        l65° 
'  recovered  :  But  my  own  Regiment,  under  the    V~~V7T"' 
4  Command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Goffe  and  my      epte" 
4  Major  White,  did  come  feafonably  in  ;  and,  at 
4  the  Pufh  of  Pike,  did  repel  the  ftouteft  Regiment 
4  the  Enemy  had  there,  meerly  with  the  Courage 
'  the  Lord  was  pleafed  to  give,  which  proved  a 
4  great  Amazement  to  the  Refidue  of  their  Foot. 
4  This  being  the  firft  Action  between  the  Foot, 

*  the    Horfe,    in    the   mean   Time,   did,  with    a 
4  great  deal  of  Courage  and  Spirit,  beat  back  all 
4  Oppofition,  charging  through  the  Bodies  of  the 
4  Enemy's  Horfe  and  Foot ;  who  were,  after  the 

*  firft  Repulfe  given,  made,  by  the  Lord  of  Hofts^ 

*  as  Stubble  to  their  Swords. 

*  Indeed,  I  believe  I  may  fpeak  it  without  Par- 
1  tiality,  both  your  Chief  Commanders  and  others 
4  in  their  feveral  Places,  and  Soldiers  alfo,  a&ed 
4  with  as  much  Courage  as  ever  hath  been  feen  in 

*  any  Action  fince  this  War. 

4  I  know  they  look  not  to  be  named,  and  there- 
4  fore  I  forbear  Particulars ;  the  beft  of  the  Ene- 
4  my's  Horfe  and  Foot  being  broken  through  and 
4  through  in  lefs  than  an  Hour's  Difpute,  and  their 
4  whole  Army  being  put  into  Confufion,  it  became 
4  a  total  Rout,  our  Men  having  the  Chafe  and 
4  Execution  of  them  near  eight  Miles. 

4  We  believe  that  upon  the  Place,  and  near 
4  about  it,  were  3000  flain ;  Prifoners  taken  of  their 

*  Officers  you  have  a  Lift-  inclofed  ;  of  the  private 
4  Soldiers  taken,  near  10,000  j  the  whole  Baggage 
«  and  Train  taken,  wherein  was  good   Store  of 
4  Match,  Powder  and  Bullet,  all  their  Artillery, 
4  great  and  fmall,  and  30  Guns. 

«  We  are  confident  they  have  left  behind  them 
4  not  lefs  than  15,000  Arms.  IJiave  already  near 
4  200  Colours  brought  in  to  me,  which  I  herewith 
4  fend  you.  * 

4  What 

a  The  Journals  fay  thcfe  Colours  belong' d  to  17  Regiments  of 
Foot,  and  27  of  Horfe. 


348      *Tbe  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  What  Officers  of  theirs,  of  Quality,  are  kiU'cfc, 
«  we  cannot  yet  learn  ;  but  yet  iurcly  divers  arc, 

*  and  many  Men  of  Quality  are  mortally  wounded, 
September.     <  as  ^<oj  Lumfden^  the  Lord  Liberton^  and  others. 

'  And  that  which  is  no  fmall  Addition,  I  do  not 
'  believe  we  have  loft  20  Men  ;  not  one  Commif- 
'  fion  Officer  flain,  as  I  hear  of,  fave  one  Cornet, 

*  and  Major  R.ookjby,   fince  dead  of  his  Wounds, 
'  and  not  many  mortally  wounded.     Col.  IVbaley 
'  only  cut  in  the  Wrift,  and  his  Horfe  killed  under 

*  him,  having  received  two  Shot;  but  he  well,  re- 
'  covered   another   Horfe,    and  went   on   in   the 
«  Chafe. 

'  Thus  you  have  a  Profpecl  of  one  of  the  moft 
'  fignal  Mercies  God  hath  done  for  England  and  his 
'  People  this  War ;  and  now  it  may  pleafe  you  to 
'  give  me  Leave  of  a  few  Words  : 

*  It  is  eafy  to  fay  the  Lord  hath  done  this  ;  it 
'  would  do  you  good  to  fee  and  hear  our  poor  Foot 
'  go  up  and  down,  making  their  Boaft  of  God : 
'  But,  Sir,  it  is  in  your  Hands,  and  by  thefe  emi- 
'  nent  Mercies  God  puts  it  more  into  your  Hands, 

*  to  give  Glory  to  him  to  improve  your  Power, 
'  and  his  Bleffings,  to  his  Praife.     We  that  ferve 

*  you  beg  of  you  not  to  own  us,  but  God  alone  ; 
'  we  pray  you  own  his  People  more  and  more,  for 

*  they  are  the  Chariots  and  Horfemen  of  Ifratl. 
'  Difown  yourfelves,  but  own  your  Authority,  and 

*  impiove  it  to  curb  the  Proud  and  the  Infolenr, 

*  fuch  as  would  difturb  the  Tranquility  of  Eng- 

*  Iana\  though  under  what  fpecious  Pretences  fo- 
'  ever. 

'  Relieve  theOpprefied  j  hear  the  Groans  of  poor 
«  Prifoners  in  Fngland ;  be  pleated  to  reform  the  A- 

*  bufes  of  all  Profeffions;  and  if  there  be  any  one  that 

*  makes  many  poor  to  make  a  few  rich,  that  fuits  not 
«  a  Commonwealth.     If  he  that  ftrengthens  yous 

*  Servants  to  fight,  pleafe  to  give  you  Hearts  to  fet 

*  upon  thefe  Things,  in  order  to  his  Glory  and  the 

*  Glory  of  your  Commonwealth,  befidcs  the  Be- 

*  nefit  England  mall  feel  thereby,  you  (hall  fhine 
'  forth  to  other  Nations,  who  (hall  emulate  the 

4  Glory 


Of    ENGLAND.      349 

*  Glory  of  fuch  a  Pattern,  and,  through  the  Power  inter-regnum, 
'  of  God,  turn  into  the  like.  1650. 

c  Thefe  are  our  Defires ;  and  that  you  may  have    <— — v— — ' 
*•  Liberty  and  Opportunity  to  do  thefe  Things,  and    Septen 

*  not  be  hindered,  we  have  been  and  {hall  be,  by 
c  God's  Affiftance,  willing  to  venture  our  Lives, 

*  and  not  defire  you  fhould  be  precipitated  by  Im- 
'  portunities,  from  your  Care  of  Safety  and  Pre- 
'  lervation ;  but  that  the  doing  of  thefe  good  Things 
'  may  'have  their  Place  amongft  thofe  which  con- 

*  cern  Well-being;,    and  fo  be  wrought  in  their 

*  Time  and  Order. 

*  Since  we  came  into  Scotland  it  hath  been  our 
'  Defire  and  Longing  to  have  avoided  Blood  in  this 

*  Bufinefs,  by  reafon  that  God  hath  a  People  here 
'  fearing  his  Name,  though  deceived  ;  and  to  that 
'  End  have  we  offered  much  Love  unto  fuch  in  the 
'  Bowels  of  Chrift,  and  concerning  the  Truth  of 

*  our  Hearts  therein,  have  we  appealed  unto  the 
«  Lord. 

*  The  Minifters  of  Scotland  have  hindered  the 
'  Paflage  of  thefe  Things  to  the  Hearts  of  thofe  to 

*  whom  we  intended  them ;  and  now  we  hear  that 
'  not  only  the  deceived  People,  but  fome  of  the 
'  Minifters  are  alfo  fallen  in  this  Battle.     This  is 

*  the  great  Hand  of  the  Lord,  and  worthy  of  the 

*  Confideration   of  all  thofe  who  take  into  their 
6  Hands  the  Inftruments  of  a  foolifh  Shepherd,  to 

*  wit,  meddling  with  worldly  Polices,  and  Mixtures 
'  of  earthly  Power,  to  fet  up  that  which  they  call 

*  the  Kingdom  of  Chrift ;  which  is  neither  it,  nor, 
'  if  it  were,  would  fuch  Means  be  found  effectual 

*  to  that  End,  and  neglect  or  truft  not  to  the  Word 
«  of  God. 

4  The  Sword  of  the  Spirit  is  alone  powerful 

*  and  able  for  the  fetting'up  of  that  Kingdom,  and, 

*  when  trufted  to,  will  be  found  effectually  able 

*  to  that  End,  and  will  alfo  do  it. 

*  This  is  humbly  offered  for  their  Sakes ;  who 

*  having  lately  too  much  turned  afide,  that  they 
'  might  return  again  to  preach  Jefus  Chrift  accord- 
'  ing  to  the  Simplicity  of  the  Gofpel ;  and  then, 


Inter-repnum 
1650. 

September. 


350      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  no  doubt,  they  wiJJ  difcern  and  find  your  Protec- 

*  tion  and  Encouragement. 

'  Befeeching  you  to  pardon  this  Length,  I  hurn- 
1  bJy  take  Leave,  and  reft, 

SIR, 

Tour  mojl  bumble  Servant^ 

O.  CROMWELL. 

P.  S.  '  Some  Thoufands  wounded  befides  thofe 
above-mentioned;  27,000  routed;  the  Scots 
King  and  his  Council  withdrawn,  but  not  known 
whither  ;  the  Lord  Chancellor's  Purfe  and  Seals 
taken,  with  a  Book  in  them,  of  the  new  Ac~ts 
fign'd  by  their  declared  King ;  alfo  divers  Skeines 
and  Knives,  wherewith  they  intended  to  have 
murdered  the  Engiijh^  had  they  come  into  Eng- 
land. 

*  Since  the  Fight,  the  City  of  Edinburgh  taken  : 
«  Lelth  alfo  taken.' 

Annex'd  to  this  Letter  was  a  Lift  of  the  Names 
of  the  Scots  Officers  taken  Prifoners  in  this  Action : 
But  it  will  be  fufficient  for  our  Purpofe  to  obferve 
that  they  confifted  of  one  Lieutenant- General, 
three  Colonels,  eleven  Lieutenant-Colonels,  nine 
Majors  of  Horfe  and  Foot,  forty-feven  Captains 
of  Horfe  and  Foot,  feven  Captain-Lieutenants  of 
Horfe  and  Foot,  one  Adjutant-General,  feventy 
Lieutenants  of  Foot,  twelve  Cornets,  four  Quar- 
ter-Mafters  of  Horfe,  and  feventy-eight  Enfigns. 

Another  Letter  from  the  Lord  General  to  the 
Lord  Prefident  of  the  Council  of  State,  was  alfo 
read. 


Lordy  Dunlar^  Sept.  4,   1650. 

Have  fent  the  Major-General  with  fix  Regi- 
of  Horfe,  and  one  of  Foot,  towards 
purpofing,  God  willing,  to  follow 
'  after  To-morrow  with  what  Conveniency  I  may. 
4  We  are  put  to  exceeding  Trouble,  though  it  be 

an 


jVJLy   J-iUTUy 

e  T  Have  fen 

'  _§__  ments  c 
'  Edinburgh, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       351 

c  an  Effect  of  abundant  Mercy,  with  the  Numer-  Inter-regnum. 
'  oufnefs  of  our  Prifoners,  having  fo  few  Hands,        1650. 
'  fo  many  of  our  Men  ficlc,  fo  little  Conveniency  *—- l—  v~  — ' 

*  of  difpofing  of  them;    and  not,  by  Attendance      eptem    r* 
'  thereupon,    to  omit  the  Seafonablenefs   of  the 

'  Profecution  of  this  Mercy  as  Providence  fhall 
«  direct. 

'  We  have  been  conftrained,  even  out  of  Chrif- 

*  tianity,  Humanity,  and  the  forementioned  Necef- 
'  fity,  to  difmifs  between  4  and  5000  Prifoners, 

*  almoft  ftarved,  fick,  and  wounded;  the  Remain- 
'  der,  which  are  the  like  or  a  greater  Number,  I 
'  am  fain  to  fend  by  a  Convoy  of  four  Troops  of 

*  Col.  Hacker's  to  Berwick^  and  fo  on  to  New- 
6  caflle  Southward. 

4  I  think  fit  to  acquaint  your  Lordmip  with  two 

*  or  three  Obfervations :  Some  of  the  Honefteft  in 

*  the  Army  amongft  the  Scots  did  profefs,  before  the 

*  Fight,  that  they  did  not  believe  their  King  in  his 

*  Declaration;  -and  it  is  moft  evident  he  did  fign  it 
'  with  as  much  Reludlancy,  and  as  much  againit  his 

*  Heart,  as  could  be  ;  and  yet  they  venture  their 
6  Lives  for  him  upon  this  Account,  and  publifh  this 
<  to  the  World,  to  be  believed  as  the  Ad  of  a  Perfort 
'  converted,  when  in  their  Hearts  they  know  he 
'  abhorred  the  doing  of  it,  and  meant  it  not. 

'  I  hear  when  the  Enemy  marched  up  laft  to  us, 

*  the  Minifters  prefled  their  Army  to  interpofe  be- 
c  tween  us  and  home,  the  chief  Officers  defiring 

*  rather  that  we  might  have  Way  made,  though 

*  it  were  by  a  Golden  Bridge ;  but  the  Clergy's 

*  Counfel  prevailed,  to  our  great  Comfort,  thro* 

*  the  Goodnefs  of  God. 

*  The  Enemy  took  %  a  Gentleman  of  Major 
c  Brown's  Troop  Prifoner  that  Night  we  came 
'  toHaddington;  and  having  Quarter  through  Lieu- 
'  tenant  General  David  Lejlies  Means,  who,  find- 

*  ing  him  a  Man  of  Courage  and  Parts,  laboured 
'  with  him  to  take  up  Anns ;  but  the  Man  expref- 

*  fing  Conftancy  and  Refolution  to  this  Side,  the 

*  Lieutenant-General  caufed  him  to  be  mounted, 

«  and 


352     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

and  with  two  Troopers  to  ride  about  to  view 
their  gallant  Army,  ufmg  that  as  an  Argument 
to  perfuade  him  to  their  Side  ;  and  when  this  was 
lber'  done,  difmirTed  him  to  us  in  a  Bravery  :  And  in- 
deed, the  Day  before  we  fought,  they  did  ex- 
prefs  fo  much  Infolency  and  Contempt  of  us,  to 
fome  Soldiers  they  took,  as  was  beyond  Appre- 
henfion. 

Your  Lord/hip's  moft  humble  Servant, 

O.  CROMWELL. 

After  reading-  all  thefe  Letters,  the  Houfe  re- 
Sfpftet  folv'd,  that  the  Council  of  State  fhould  give  Or- 
thereupon.  ders  for  profecuting  the  War  in  Scotland  in  the  moft 
effectual  Manner,  and  prepare  all  Neceffaries  of 
Men,  Money,  Proviiions,  Medicines,  Surgeons,£3V. 
for  that  Purpoie  :  That  the  8th  of  Oftober  next  be 
fet  apart  as  a  Day  of  publick  Thankfgiving  for 
this  great  Victory,  which  God  had  vouchfafed  to 
the  Parliament's  Forces  :  That  all  the  Colours, 
both  of  Horle  and  Foot,  now  brought  up  from  the 
Scot's  Army,  together  with  thole  taken  at  Prefton, 
when  they  invaded  England  in  1648,  be  invento- 
ried, with  their  refpecbive  Motto's  and  Devices,  by 
the  Clerk  of  the  Parliament,  and  hung  up  on  each 
Side  of  Wejiminfter-Hall,  as  a  Monument  of  this 
great  Mercy,  to  Pofterity  :  That  the  Council  of 
State  do  prepare  a  Letter  to  be  fign'd  by  the  Speaker, 
and  lent  to  the  Lord  General,  in  the  Name  of  the 
Parliament,  taking  Notice  of  his  eminent  Services, 
with  the  fpecial  Acknowledgment  and  Thanks  of 
the  Houfe  ;  and  that  his  Excellency  be  therein  dc- 
fired  to  return  their  Thanks  alfo  to  the  Officers 
and  Soldiers  of  the  Army  \  and  that  a  Number  of 
Gold  and  Silvqr  Medals  be  distributed  amongfl 
them.  Belides  all  this  the  Houfe  voted  feveral 
Gratuities  in  Money  to  the  Officers  and  other 
Meftengers  that  brought  the  News  of  this  impor^ 
tant  Victory  :  They  alfo  appointed  a  Committee 
to  draw  up  a  Narrative  thereof,  with  an  Act  for 

«ap- 


<  T 

'   I 

"^^ 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      353 

appointing   a   Thankfgiving  Day  for  the   fame;  Inter-regnuna. 
which  was  pafs'd  in  the  following  Terms  :  l65°- 

F  any  Nation  in  the  World  hath  at  this  Day    SePtember- 
upon  them  mighty  and  ftrong.  Obligations- 

"^^       *  ,       —         .      /•        \  •  i-         »  JT      «  r  n      •          -"-n  Act  ror  an- 

'  unto  the  Lord,  for  his  peculiar  Manifeftationsp0jnting   a  * 

*  of  Mercy  and  Goodnefs  unto  them,  wherein  he  Thankfgiving 

«  hath  filled  with  Admiration  and  Aftonimment  aBJT    that  oe 
'  that  have  been  Spectators  and  Obfervers  of  the 

*  Out-goings  of  his  Power,  in  Deliverances  and 

*  Prefervations,    it  is  the  Parliament  and  People  of 

*  England  ;  in  the  Midft  of  whom  the  Lord  hath 

*  walked  moft  eminently  for  thefe  ten  Years  laft 

*  paft,  and  conftantly  exercifed  them  by  various 
'  and   wonderful   Providences  ;  being   pleafed  to 
'  make  ufe  of  a  few  weak  unworthy  Inftruments, 
'  contemptible  in  the  Eyes  of  Meri,  to  bring  great 
'  Things  to  pafs,  and  carry  on  his  own  Work, 
'  that  the  Power  might  appear  to  be  of  God,  and 
«  not  of  Man  ;  and  this  in  the  weakeft  and  loweft 

*  Condition  of  his  Servants,  when  we  have  been 
'  reduced  to  the  greateft  Straits,  and  had,  as  it 

*  were,  the  Sentence  of  Death  in  ourfelves  ;  and 
«  bur  Enemies  heightened  and  hardened,  by  their 
'  Power  and   Multitudes,    in  their  Confidences, 
'  even  to  Pride  and  Arrogance,  ready  to  fwallow 
'  us  up,  and  deftroy  us  :    So  that,  upon  moil  of 
'  the  Victories  vouchfafed  unto  us,  there  hath  been 
'  written  in  broad   and  .vifible  Characters,   This 
«  hath  God  wrought  ;  thus  far  hath  God  helped  us. 

*  And  as  it  is  the  Duty  of  all  Perfons  in  this 
<  Common-wealth,  efpecially  thofe  that  fear  the 
'  Lord,  to  obferve  thefe  his  marvellous  and  graci- 
'  ous  Difpenfations,  and  be  taught  by  them  not 
c  only  to  fubmit  unto,  and  jclofe  with,  the  Actings 
'  and  Appearances  of  the  Lord,  who  worketh  all 
'  Things  according  to  the  Council  of  his  oivn  Will  ; 
'  but  to  be  enlarged  inRejoycings  and  thankful  Ac- 
'  knowledgements,  and  to  truft  him  in  like  Straits 
4  for  Time  to  come  ;  fo  the  Memorial  of  fuch 
«  Mercies  and  glorious  Deliverances  of  the  Al- 

VOL.  XIX.  Z  «  mighty 


354       ^je  Park  dwtutary  HISTORY 

ntcr-rf-nnm.  *  mighty  dcfervc  to  be  tranfmitted   to  Pofterity, 

*  and  fur  ever  recorded  unto  his  Praifc. 

' — -\~~~J  *  In  the  Number  of  thefc,  and  as  that  which 
4  may  have  the  firft  Place,  the  Parliament  is  moft 
4  exceedingly  affected  with  the  late  wonderful  and 

*  gracious  Dealing  of  the  Lord,  towards  their  Ar- 
'  my  under  the  Command  of  their  prefent  General, 

*  General  Cromivcll,  in  Scotland;  and  with  the  glo- 
'  rious  Victory  which  he  hath  there  wrought  for 

*  them  in  an  unexpected  Seafon  againft  the  Scots ; 

*  for  which  ineftimable  Blefling  of  God  unto  the 
4  Parliament   and    People   of  England^    enriched 
4  with  fo  many  remarkable  Circumftances,  that  all 

*  along  evidence  his  Divine  Prefence,  this  Com- 

*  mon-weakh  can  never  be  fufficiently  thankful  ; 

*  efpecially  if  it  beconfidered,  that  in  this  is  given 
4  in  a  Seal  and  Confirmation  from  Heaven,  of  the 
4  Jufticc  of  our  Caufe,  and  of  the  Sincerity  of  his 
4  Servants,  that  are  his  unworthy  Inftruments  in 
4  the  carrying  of  it  on,  after  that  moft  folemn  Ap- 
4  peals  were  made  on  both  Sides  to  God  himfelf, 
4  the  righteous  Judge,  in  this  neceffitated  War  be- 
4  tween  England  and  Scotland ;  and  that  all  Means 
4  of  Chriftian  Love  and  Tendernefs  towards  thofe 
4  that  bear  the  Name  of  Godly  in  the  Scots  Na- 
4  tion,  have   been   ufed   to   inform  and    perfuade 
4  them,  and  prevent,  if  it  had  been  the  Will  of 
4  God,  a  Dccifion  by  the  Sword,  and  the  fame  re- 
4  jecled.     And,  indeed,  fuch  is  the   Riches  and 
4  Fulnefs  of  this   high  and  inexpreffible  Mercy, 
4  that  the  Value  and  Confequence  thereof,  is  not 
4  in  a  fliort  Time  to  be  apprehended  ;  but  is  of 

4  that  Nature,  as  fucceedins;  Generations  will  be   ' 
4  tafting  the  Sweet  and  Good  of  it,  as  often  as  they 
c  look  back  upon  it,  and  penetrate  into  it :    For  in 

*  the  Bofom  of  it  is  comprehended  the  Safety  of  all 
4  that  hath  been  fought  for  thefe  many  Years  late 
4  paft ;  and,    together   with   this    Victory,    God 
4  hath  renewed  Being  and  Life  itfelf  to  this  Com- 
4  mon-weakh,    and    the   Government    thereof; 
'  whofe  total  Ruin  and  Subverfion  was  not  only 

4  con- 


Oy    ENGLAND.      355 

*  contrived  and  defigned,   but  almofl  ripened  unto  rn^r-regn 
'  an  Accomplifliment,  by  all  the  Enemies  of  it,  un- 

4  der  the  faireft  Vrizards  and  Difguifes  they  could    se-Tembe 
,  '  cloath  themfelves  with  ;  that  is   to  fay,  of  the 

*  Caufe  of  God)    the  Covenant  and  Privileges   of 
'  Parliament,  the  more  eafy  to  feciuce  and  deceive 

*  a  Party  within  this  Nation,  who  lay  waiting  for 

*  it,  and  to  concentre  in  one  all  the  Strength  that 
'  could  be  heap'd  up  together,  of  various  deirruc- 

*  tive  Interefts  unto  the  Power  of  Godlinefs,  and 
1  true  Liberty  and  Freedom  of  the  People,    the 
'  Maintenance  whereof  is  fo  much  in  the  Deiires 
'  and  Endeavours  of  this  Common- wealth. 

'  In  this  Combination  the  Popifli,  PrelaticaJ, 
c  Profane,  and  Malignant  Parties  ftood  behind  the 
e  Curtain,  and  feemed  for  a  Seafon  to  be  quite  laid 

*  afidc,  that  the  Caufe  of  God,  the  Covenant,  and 

*  Work  of  Reformation  might  bear  the  Name,  and 
'  the  Promoters  thereof  the  only  Power  and  Sway, 

*  through  whofe  feeming  Credit  and  Authority  our 
'  Hands  might  be  wealcned,  our  Caufe  blemimed, 
'  and  general  Infurrections  from  all  Parts  of  Eng- 
1  land  procured ;  and  fo  obtain  that  through  De- 
'  ceit=>and  Hypocrify  joined  with  Power,    which, 
4  by  Force  alone,  they  durft  not  attempt ;  as  ha- 
'  ving  found,  by  frequent  and  dear  Experiences,  the 

*  mighty  Hand  of  God  drawn  out  againft  them,  as 

*  often  foever  as  they  appeared  in  a  Way  of  mere 
4  and  open  Force.     And_  now  when  the  Defign 
'  was  thus  fubtilly  and  dangeroufly  laid,  and  the  E- 
c  nemy  in  his  own  Thoughts  was  in  fo  fair  a  Way 
4  of  accomplifhing  thereof,  that  they  doubted  no- 

*  thing  lefs  than  of.  having  our  Army  at  their  Mer- 
'  cy,  and  of  marching  up  to  London  without  Oppo- 

*  fition,  with  their  new  King  at  the  Head  of  theirs, 

*  the  following  Narrative  will  declare  how  fuddenly 

*  the  Lord  turned  himfelf  againft  them,  and  arofe 

*  like  a  Giant  refrefoedwith  JVine,  beftowing  upon 

*  England  the  moft  feafonable  and  wonderful  Vic- 

*  tory  over  his  Enemies,  that  it  hath  ever  known, 

*  or  been  made  Partaker  of. 

Z  2  The 


356      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

The   NARRATIVE. 

*  After  the  March  of  our  Army  into  Scotland* 
'  upon  the  Grounds  of  "Ju/lice  and  Necejjity,  and  in 
September.      t  ^  Pro/edition  of  thoje  Ends  heretofore  declared  by 

*  us  ;  and  that  all  Means  had  been  ufcd  by  the  Ge- 

*  ncral  and  his  Council  of  War  for  to  prevent  the 

*  Effufwn  of  Blood,  and  bringing  the  Guilt  of  it 
4  upon  their  own  Heads,   which  they  might   incur 
'  upon  their  Objlinacy  : 

*  The  Enemy  mijlahing  the  Grounds  of  our  March, 
'  took  Courage  on  a  fudden,  p erf ua ding  themf elves 
'  we  now  durji  not  engage  with  them,  as  verily  ima~ 

*  gining  we  had  with  our  fick  Men  Jijipp'd  away 
'  our  Ordnance  already,  which  was  indeed  only  fent 
'  with  a  Party  before  towards  Haddington  ;   and 

*  having  been  informed  that  we  intended,  after  we 
'  were  come  to  Dunbar,  to  fend  away  all  our  In- 

*  fantry  by  Sea,  and  with  our  Horje  to  return  back 

*  into  England ;  between  which  and  our  Quarters 
'  then  they  knew  there  were  many  Pajfts,  where  they 

*  might  have  an  Advantage  eaftly  to  annoy  us,  &c. 

'  Here  begun  the  Pride  of  the  Scots  Army  fo  to 
'  fweil,  as  they  quite  forgot  an  over-rulingProvidence, 
1  their  Scouts  upbraiding  us,  They  now  had  us  fafe 
'  enough,  and  that  though  they  had  afforded  us  a 
c  Summer's  Quarters,  they  hop'd  to  have  it  quickly 

*  repaid  them,  when  they  came  to  take  up  their 
'  Winter  Quarters  ;    intending,  as  they  Jaid,  to 

*  convoy  up  our  Rear  for  us  to  London :  Tea,  ft 
'  far  had  their  Pajjion  blinded  them,  and  their  Pre- 

*  fumption  prevailed  upon  them,  that,  as  we  were 
'  informed  by  feme  of  their  own,  they  fat  in  Con- 

*  fultation  what  Conditions  it  was  Jit  they  jhould 
'  offer  us ;  whether  or  no  Quarter  was  to  be  allow' d 
'  to  any  for  their  Lives;  and  to  wham  only,  and  up- 
'  on  what  Terms:  And  indeed  many  vjere  the  D  Jfi- 
«  cultics  that  it  pleafed  the  Lord  at  that  Time  to  fet 

*  before  our  Army;  the  Ground  the  Enemy  had  gotten 
'  being  inaccejfible,  and  not  pojfible  for  us  to  engage 
6  him  upon  without  apparent  Hazard,  &c. 

«  The 


Of     ENGLAND.       357 

1  The  ferious  Consideration  of  all  which,  as  it  inter-regn«n». 
c  doth  give  the  Parliament  Caufe  of  great  Thank- 
c  fulnefs  unto  God  for  this  his  unfpeakable  Good- 

*  nefs  ;  fo  they  do  moft  earneftly  defire  that  the 

*  whole  Nation,   together  with  themfelves,  may 
'  be  deeply  fenfible  of  the  fame;  and  therefore  they 

*  do  ena&  and  ordain,  &c. 

Sept.  1 1.  The  Doors  of  the  Houfe  being  order- 
ed to  be  kept  fhut  'till  Twelve,  inter  alia,  a  Re- 
port was  made  from  the  Council  of  State,  That, 
in  purfuance  of  the  late  Order  of  Parliament  for 
fending  the  two  Children  of  the  late  King  out  of 
the  Commonwealth,  the  Council  had  fent  them  to 
the  Me  of  flight :  That  the  Lady  Elizabeth  was 
at  prefent  indifpofed  ;  that  (he  had  fome  Inclination 
to  go  to  her  Sifter,  the  Princefs  of  Orange •,  which 
the  Council  think  fit  me  mould  ;  and  that,  for  her 
Maintenance,  me  be  allowed  looo/.  a-year,  paid 
half-yearly,  fo  long  as  me  mall  behave  herfelf  in- 
oftenfively  to  the  Parliament  and  Commonwealth, 
and  half  a  Year's  Allowance  before-hand  ;  and 
that,  in  the  mean  Time,  'till  me  could  be  fhipp'd 
away,  her  Maintenance  and  Tranfportation  might 
be  provided  for  by  the  Committee  of  the  Revenue. 

But,  whilft  the  Report  was  making  concerning 

,.      T-.        •[•          r         ,  r         ,  n  •         r  The  Princefs  E* 

this  1  rovilion  for  the   unhappy  rrmceis,  we  are/:.^^  be-m 
told,  by  the  Journals,  That  the  Houfe  was  in-dead,  the  Parlia- 
formed  the  Lady  Elizabeth  was  dead  a.      She  died  ment  give  Orders 
at  CanJbrooke-CaJile,  in  the  Me  of  Flight,  within  ator 
\Veek  after  her  and  her  Brother's  Arrival  in  that 
Place,  of  whatDiftemper  is  eafy  to  judge.    Her  Fa- 
ther's unhappy  Fate,  and  her  own  Imprifonment, 
which  me  might  expect,  to   be  perpetual,  were 
Strokes  too  deep  for  her  to  bear.  The  Houfe,  how- 
ever, on  this  Information,  gave  Orders  to  the  Com- 
mittee of  Revenue  for  her  Interment  in  the  faid 
Ifland,  and  for  providing  Mourning  for  her  Brother 
Henry,  his  Servants  now  with  him,  and  the  Ser- 
vants of  the  faid  Lady. 

Z  3  Ano- 

a  She  was  born  Decrmbtr  28,  i6ji, 


358      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnnm.       Another  Part  of  the  Report  related  to  the  young 

1650.        prince  Henry;  that  he  fhcuilcl  be  ferit  by  Tome  Shii> 

*-""~vT"~"''    to  his  Brother  in  Scotland,   and  to  have   IOOO/. 

Septtw     ,     a_ycar^  pajj  half-yearly,  for  his  Maintenance,  fo 

lone  as  he  fhould  behave  himlelf  inoffenfively  to 

the  Commonwealth.     But  this  Advice  was  reject- 

ed by  the  Houfe  ;  and,  after  fome  Debate,  it  was 

^Sm^rrefolved  that  15007.  a-year  be  allowed  from  the 

theMaintenanceCommonwealth  of  England  unto  Henry  the  third 

of  her  Brother,  gon  of  fac  late  King,  for  his  Maintenance  ;  and 

Punce   fr.ry.     ^^  ^e  ^  ^^  to  ^c  brought  up  and  educated  in 

the  Univerfity  of  Heidelburgh. 


Sept.  12.  ThisDay  wem 
a  Report  from  the  Committee  of  theNavy,  of  an  E- 
ftimateof  putting  out  a  WinterGuard  of  Ships:  But 
having  already  triven  fome  Specimens  of  this  Kind 
of  Eftimates,  we  pafs  over  that  now  before  us* 

Sept.  17.  The  King's  Declaration  from  Scotland 
has  been  mentioned,  and  that  an  Anfwer  to  it  was 
ordered  to  be  drawn  up,  and  brought  into  the 
Houfe  for  their  Approbation.  Accordingly  the  faid 
Anfwer  was  this  Day  prefented  and  read,  firft  at 
large  and  afterwards  by  Parts  ;  and  each  Part  being 
put  to  the  QueiHon,  was  afiented  to,  with  fome 
Amendments;  on  which  a  Divifion  of  the  Houfe 
happen'd,  (if  we  may  call  that  a  Houfe  which  con- 
fifted  only  of  36  Members,  20  againft  1  6)  and  the 
Debate  was  put  oft  to  next  Day. 

Accordingly,  Sept.  18,  this  Debate  w7as  refum'd  ; 
and  the  Anfwer,  after  fome  more  Amendments  at 
the  Table,  was  pafled,  and  ordered  to  be  printed 
and  publifhed,  together  with  the  King's  Declara- 
tion, Paragraph  by  Paragraph. 

Sept.  20.  The  Houfe  being  informed  that  Mr. 
Rujkworth,  Secretary  to  the  Lord-  General  in  Scot- 
/^777^/,was  at  the  Door,  he  was  called  in,  and  made  a 
Relation  of  the  State  and  Condition  of  the  Parlia- 
ment's Army  in  that  Kingdom.  Cromwell  had  now 
followed  his  Blow  at  Dunbar  fo  well  as  not  only  to 

take 


Of    ENGLAND.       359 

take  both  Lcitb  and  Edinburgh^   but  had  Jikewifc  fnter-regnum. 

laid  Siege  to  the  Cattle.     The  Secretary  alfo  deli-        l65°- 

vered  to  the  Houfe  Copies  of  four  Letters  found  in     c 

Lord  London  s  Cabinet  after  the  Battle  j    which 

were  all  read,  and  ordered  to  be  printed  and  pub- 

lifned  at  the  latter  End  of  the  Declaration  and  An- 

fwer  above-mentioned. 

All  thefe  are  in  our  Collection;  and  fince  they 
contain  a  curious  and  fuccinct  Hiitory  of  thefe 
Times,  no  where  elfe  to  be  met  with  that  we  know  ' 
of,  they  deferve  reprinting  here,  without  any  Apo- 
logy for  the  Length  of  them.  The  Introduction 
runs  thus : 

4  TT  is  well  known  unto  the  World  what  Man- The  King's  Jate 
6  JL  ner  of  Conteft  the  Parliament  of  England  hath  Dedaration3with 

*  had,  thefe  Years  laft  paft,  in  their  own  Defence,  the  Parliament's 
4  to  preferve  themfelves  from  the  almoft-eftablifh'd  A" 

4  Tyranny  which,  through  a  long  Tract  of  Time, 
6  had  been  obtruding  itfelf,  as  well  over  the  Con- 

*  fciences  as  the  Laws  and  Civil  Liberties  of  the 
4  People  in  England^  Ireland^  and  Scotland;  de- 
4  figning  and  practiiing  the  Extremity  of  all  Evils 

*  upon  thefe  Nations,  rather  than  to  fuffer  itfelf  to 
4  be  ftopp'd  in  its  Courfe,  or  difappointed  of  its  End : 
'  Elfe  what  fignified  the  firft  Troubles  raifed   in 
'  Scotland  by  the  late  King,  and,  that  failing,  then 
4  the  cherifhing,  upholding,  and  continuing,  to  the 

*  laft,  the  horrid  and  bloody  Rebellion  in  Ireland^ 
4  by  the  fame  Hand  ;  and,  after  all,  the  bringing 

*  of  an  unnatural  War  into  the  Bowels  of  this  Na- 

*  tion,  managed  and  improved  to  the  utmoft  by 

*  him  and  the  Popifh,  Prelatkal,  and  Profane  Party 

*  adhering  to  him  therein  ?    Which   Evils    have 
4  been  writ  out  in  fuch  deep  Characters  of  Blood, 
4  been  attended  with  fuch  Confumption  of  Trea- 
4  fure,  and  almoft  Devaftation  of  feveral  Countries 
4  in  the  three  Nations,  that  they  will  not  fuddenly 
4  be  worn  out  of  the  People's  Senfe,  much  lefs  of 
4  their  Memory. 

4  Yet,  even  during  thefe  Troubles,  the  Designers 
'  were  not  afhamed  to  appear  bare-faced,  in  their 

4  open 


360      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Interregnum.  «  Open  and  avowed  Principles  of  Oppofition  and 

1  Hatred  againft  the  Caufe  of  God,  the  Work  of 

r^ber"'    '  Reformation,    Privileges    of    Parliament,     and 

c  People's  Liberties  ;  having,  for  that  Purpofe,  in- 

*  corporated  themfelves  in  Intereft  with  all  the 
'  known  and  implacable  Enemies  of  the  fame;  as, 
'  the  Popifh  Party  abroad,  and  Prelatical  and  Ma- 
«  lignant  Party  at  home. 

*  But  now  when,  by  the  unfpeakable  Blefling  of 

<  God  unto  this  Nation,  Tyranny  hath  received 
'  its  mortal  Wound,  not  only  by  being  beaten  out 
«  of  the  Field,  in  all  that  have  fought  for  it,  but  by 

*  the  remarkable  Jufticc  that  hath  been  done  upon 
'  the  prime  Inftrument,  in  the  late  King's  Execu- 

*  tion ;  and,  in  confequence  thereof,  the  Govern - 
f  ment  of  this  Nation  reftor'd  to  a  Commonwealth 
'  and  Free  State,  and  the  Supreme  Authority  efta- 
«  bliflied  in  this  and  fuccefljve  Parliaments  or  Re- 

*  pretentatives  of  the  People,   without  King  or 

<  Houfe  of  Lords,  as  the  beft  Means  and  ftrongeft 
'  Bulwark,  under  the  Divine  Protection,  to  preferve 

*  the  People's  Liberties  againft  the  like  Attempts 
4  and  Invafions  for  Time  to  come,  and  fo  deprived 

*  of  all  Hopes  of  its  ever  taking  Root  again  in  this 
'  Commonwealth ;    and  being  like  alfo,    if  this 

*  Commonwealth  continue,  to  lofe  Ground  in  Scot- 

*  /tfWand  other  Nations,  where  the  People  are  made 
'  meer  Slaves  and  Vaflals  to  theWill  of  their  Prince, 

*  and  his  lordly  Inftruments  in  Church  and  State  : 

*  It  hath  feemed  good  to  Charles  Stuart^  the  de- 

*  clared  King  of  Scotland,  and  to  the  prevailing 

*  Party  in  State  and  Kirk  there,  to  drefs  up  this  old 

*  and  malignant  Caufe  in  a  more  plaufible  and  rc- 

*  ligious  Garb  than  that  with  which  it  was  put 

*  forth  before  ;  and  to  take  it  out  of,  or  rather  for 

*  a  Time  fufpfend  its  Exercife  in,  the  Hands  of  the 

*  Popifh,  Prelatical,  and  Malignant  Party,  who 
'  begin  alfo  to  fee  they  can  keep  it  up  no  longer, 
'  but  it  will  certainly  breathe  out  its  laft  Gafp,  if 
«  it  be  not  fhifted,  and,  by  fome  Change  of  Inftru- 

*  ments,  recover  a  Reputation  amongft  good  Men ; 
\  and  therefore  a  Room  and  Place  is  made,  by 

'  com- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       361 

t  common  Confent  amongft  them,  to  receive  and  Inter-regnuny 
4  hide  the  Intereft  of  Tyranny,  and  of  Oppofition        l65°- 

*  to  all  Chriftian  as  well  as  Civil  Liberty,  within    ^      ""uT^ 

*  the  Verges  of  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant : 

*  The  figning  of  which  Covenant,  and  the  emitting 

*  of  a  Declaration,  by  the  eldeft  Son  of  the  late 

*  King,  expreffing,  in  Words,  a  fuperficial  Re- 

*  pentance  for  what  there  is  no  Probability  for  him 
'  at  the  prefent  to  put  in  Practice ;  and  promifing, 
'  in  effect,  for  the  future,  to  tyrannize  and  enflave 

*  Men  chiefly  by  the  Advice  of  the  Kirk,  and  as 
'  lhall  tend  to  uphold  their  Power  and  Clergy-In- 
c  tereft,  in  the  firft  Place,  before  his  own  ;  an  Ho- 
'  mage  which  the  Pope  indeed  hath  claimed  from 
'  earthly  Princes,  as  that  which  is  due  to  him,  as 
'  he  pretends  himfelf  God's  Vicar  on  Earth  ! 

'  This  is  now  accounted  full  Satisfaction,  as  to 

*  what  is  to  be  done  on  his  Part ;  and  whereupon 
'  they  would  make  the  World  believe  the  State 
'  of  the  Caufe  is  altered,  even  to  that  Degree,  as 
1  that  their  new  King  is  now  no  longer  upon  his 

*  old  Principles ;  but  is  come  over  to  thofe  upon 
«  which  they  have  fought  againft  his  Father  for 
'  thefe  twelve  Years  paft.     The  Deceit  and  Evil 

*  of  all  which  will  appear  when  we  fhall  come  to 
«  take  in  Pieces  the  faid  Declaration,  and  thereby 
'  unmalk,  as  we  have  promifed,  the  grofs  Hypo- 

*  crify  of  the  Contrivers  thereof,  and  the  wicked 
'  Defign  that  is  couched  and  contained  therein, 
'  under  Pretence  of  the  Name  and  Caufe  of  God ; 

*  the  Work  of  Reformation ;  the  Power  and  Free- 

*  dom   of  Parliaments  in   England,  according  to 

*  their  antient  Form,  except  only  a  perpetual  fub- 
'  jeering  and  fubordinating  of  their  Laws,  Coun- 

*  fels,  and  Advices  to  the  Clergy,  who  have  a  Pro- 

*  mife,  That  their  Counfels  (hall  be  heard  before 
'  any  other  whatfoever,  and  other  plaufible  Induce- 
«  ments  to  poflefs  himfelf  of  the  Crown  of  England; 
«  and  having  obtained  that  Power,  with  the  De- 
£  ftruclion  of  all  the  faithful  and  truly  godly  Party, 
4  that  have  declared  themfelves  foj  this  preient  Go- 

*  vernment,  he  may  then  be  more  abfolute  in  Ty- 

'  raniiy 


362     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  ranny  than  ever  Prince  in  England  was,  and  de- 
4  rive  the  fame  in  Succeflion  to  his  Poilcrity,  u'pon 
'  the  Score  of  Conqueft  acquired  to  him  by  the 
'  Help  of  the  Scots  ;  whofe  Good-will  to  England 
'  (for  the  Caufe  of  God,  as  they  would  have  us 

*  believe)  hath  been  and  ftill  is  fuch,  as  to  hold  it 
4  fit  to  impofe  upon  us  the  Yoke  of  their  Ufurpa- 
«  tions  both  in  Church  and  State,  and  have  not 

*  fcrunled  to  attempt  the  attaining  of  the  fame,  ei- 
'  ther  by  Subtilty  or  Force :  By  both  which  Means 

*  they  never  thought  themfelves  in  fo  fair  a  Way 

*  unto  their  End,  as  now  they  have  cart  themfelves 
'  into  by  their  late  Agreement  with  their  ncwKing; 
«  and  this  Declaration  they  have  made  him  put 
'  forth  a,  which  we  (hall  anfwer  in  the  diftin£t  Pa- 

*  ragraphs  of  it,  in  Order  as  they  lie. 

SECTION  I. 

His  Majejty,  taking  into  Consideration  that  mer- 
ciful Difpenfation  of  Divine  Providence,  by  which  he 
hath  been  recovered  out  of  the  Snare  of  evil  Counfel  j 
and  having  attained  fo  full  Perfuafion  and  Confidence 
tf  the  Loyalty  of  his  People  in  Scotland,  with  whom 
he  hath  too  longjhod  at  a  Dijfance ;  and  of  the  Righ- 
teoufnefs  of  their  Caufe,  as  to  join  in  one  Covenant 
with  them,  and  to  cajl  himfelf  and  his  Interejls 
wholly  upon  God;  and,  in  all  Matters  Civil,  to  fol- 
low the  Advice  of  his  Parliament,  and  fuch  as  /hall 
be  intruded  by  them ;  and,  in  all  Matters  Eccleftajlic, 
the  Advice  of  the  General  AJfembly  and  their  Commrf- 
ftcners  ;  and  being  fenfible  of  bis  Duty  to  God,  and 
defirous  to  approve  himfelf  to  the  Consciences  of  all 
bif  good  Subjects,  and  to  Jlop  the  Mouths  of  his  and 
their  Enemies  and  Traducers,  doth,  in  reference  to 
his  former  Deportments,  and  as  to  his  Refolutions 
for  the  future,  declare  as  follows : 

ANSWER. 

*  The  Difpenfations  of  Divine  Providence  are 
'  indeed  merciful,  by  which  Princes  or  Governors 

*  are 

a  This  Copy  of  the  King's  Declaration  has  been  collated  by  the 
original  Edition,  printed  at  Edinburgh,  with  which  it  agrees  exact- 
ly. It  was  alfo  reprinted  at  Aberdeen,  and  at  the  Hague  by  Samuel 
jlraxn.  All  which  Editions  are  in  ourColledicn. 


Of    ENGLAND.     363 

c  are  at  any  Time  really  recovered  out  of  the  Snare  Inter-regnum. 
'  of  evil  Counfel ;  yet  when  thi^  is  done   by  the 
4  Violence  of  an  abfolute  Neceffity,  it  is  feldom 
'  real  or  lafting ;  and  then  the  Mercy  in  it  is  but 

*  little  to  the  People,  who  will  tafte  the  bitter 
'  Fruit  of  fuch  Diffimulations  when  it  is  too  late. 

'  It  feems  that  the  King  of  Scotland  can  now  pro- 

*  fcfs  to  the  World  he  hath  been  in  the  Snare  of 
'  evil  Counfel,  wbilft  he  entertained  any  Doubts  or 

*  Diffidence  of  the  Loyalty  of  his  People  of  Scotland ; 
'  and  flood  at  a  Diftance  from  them  and  their  Caufe ; 
'  and  was  unconvinced  of  the  Righteoujnefs  of  it-y 
'  and  did  not  join  in  one  Covenant  with  them,  nor 

*  cajl  himfelfand  his  Inter  efts  wholly  upon  God ;  and, 
'  in  all  Matters  Civil,  follow  the  Advice  of  his  Par- 
'  liament ;  and,  in  all  Matters  Ecdefiajlic,  the  Ge- 
'  neral  AJJembly,  or  the  CommiJJioners  thereof. 

'  We  do  not  deny  but  his  former  Councils,  as 
'  well  as  himfelf,  have  fuffered  a  great  Change, 
<  through  the  merciful  Difpenfation  of  Divine  Pro- 
«  vidence  to  this  Commonwealth  profpering  fo 
'  wonderfully  our  Armies  in  Ireland,  as  to  ex- 
c  elude  him  and  his  Intereft  in  a  great  Meafure 
'  from  thence,  and  preferving  this  Nation  in  Peace 
c  within  itfelf,  to  prevent  any  Footing  to  be  given 
'  to  him  here ;  whereby  he  was  reduced  to  the 
'  Courfe  he  hath  now  taken,  to  faf  what  the 
'  Parliament  and  Kirk  of  Scotland  fhall  put  into 
'  his  Mouth,  and  tell  Kim  is  fit  for  him  and  his 
'  Affairs  to  declare,  or  elfe  to  lofe  all.  And  if 
6  Scotland  do  efleem  it  fo  great  a  Mercy,  to  have 
«  him  reduced  to  this  pure  Necefiity  of  cafting  him- 

*  felf  into  their  Arms,  we  know  to  whom,  un- 
4  der  God,  they  owe  the  Obligation  ;  a  Bleffing 
'  which,  we  confefs,  we  do  not  envy  them,  an? 
«  which,  were  we  fecured  never  to  be  Partaker  bl 
1  with  them,  or  by  their  Means,  we  fhould  P( 

'  hinder  them  from  the  free  and  full  Enjoyment  • 
'  having,  by  fad  Experience,  found  what  it  is   ' 
'  have  a  King,  though  never  fo  well  befet  in  A;' 
'  pearance  with  good  Men  about  him,  or  to  tru- 

*  to  his  Repentances  and  Promifes,  Oaths  ocDecL 

'  rations. 


3  64     The  Parliamentary  Hi s  T  OR  y 

er-repnum.  '  rations,  how  fair  foever  in  Shew,  and  how  ftrong 
1650.         *  foever  laid  down  in  Words. 
~\  '  As  to  the  Evil  of  the  Counfel,  out  of  which,  its 

*  faid,  be  is  recovered  by  this  Change  ;  we  fay,  That 
'  if  the  future  Refolutions,  mention'd  in  this  Decla- 
'  ration,  be  the  Evidences  whereby  we  are  to  judge 
'  of  the  Goodnefs  of  the  new  Counfel,  we  cannot 
'but  take  Notice,  that  they  do  only  vary  the  Means, 

4  but  not  the  End,  which  ftill  is  evil,  to  wit,  The 
'  enflaving  the  three  Nations  ;  and  do  change  the 

*  Inftruments,  but  not  theCaufes,  as  is  before,  and 

*  {hall  further  be,  made  evident ;  and  therefore  we 

*  mult  be  excufed,  if  we  judge  that  their  young 
'"King  is  yet  in  as  great  a  Snare  of  evil  Counfel  as 
'  ever,  and  thereupon  endeavour,  what  in  us  lies, 
'  to  keep  this  Nation  from  falling  under  the  bad 

*  Effeas  thereof. 

SECTION  II. 

Though  his  Majefly,  as  a  dutiful  Son,  be  obliged 
to  honour  the  Memory  of  his  Royal  Fat 'her ,  and" 
have  in  EJlimation  the  Perjon  of  his  Mother,  yet 
doth  he  defire  to  be  deeply  bumbled  and  afflifted  in 
Spirit  before  God,  becaufe  of  his  Father's  hearkening 
to,  and  following,  evil  Counfels,  and  his  Oppofition 
to  the  Work  of  Reformation,  and  to  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant,  by  which  fo  much  of  the 
Blood  of  the  Lord's  People  hath  been  fied  in  thefe 
Kingdoms  j  and  for  the  Idolatry  of  his  Mother, 
the  Toleration  whereof  in  the  King's  Houfe,  as  it 
was  Matter  of  great  Stumbling  to  all  the  P  rot  eft  ant 
Churches,  fo  could  it  not  but  be  an  high  Provoca- 
tion againji  him  who  is  a  jealous  God,  vifiting  the 
Sins  of  the  Fathers  upon  the  Children :  And  albeit 
his  Mfijcfty  might  extenuate  his  former  Carriages 
and  Aclions,  in  following  of  the  Advice,  and  walk- 
ing in  the  IVay,  of  thofe  who  are  oppofete  to  the 
Covenant  and  to  the  Work  of  God,  and  might  ex~ 
cufe  his  delaying  to  give  Satisfaction  to  the  juft 
and  necejfary  Defires  of  the  Kirk,  and  Kingdom  of 
Scotland,  from  his  Education,  and  Age,  and  evil 
Counsel,  and  Company  j  and  from  the  Jlrange  and' 


O/*    ENGLAND        365 

infolent  Proceedings  of  Sectaries  againjl  bis  Royal  Jnter-rejnunv 
Father,   and  in  reference  to  Religion  and  the  an-         l65°- 
tient  Government  of  the  Kingdom  of  England,  to    ^"^7^7* 
which  he  hath  the  undoubted  Right  of  SucceJJion ; 
yet  kno-wing  that  he  hath  to  do  with  God,  he  doth 
ingenuott/fy  acknowledge  all  his  own  Sins,  and  all  the 
Sins  of  his  Father's  Houj'e  ;  craving  Pardon,   and 
hoping  for  Mercy  and  Reconciliation,  through  the 
BloodofJefusChrijL 

And  as  he  doth  value  the  conflant  AddreJJes  that 
•were  made  by  his  People  to  the  Throne  of  Grace  on  his 
Behalf,  when  he  flood  in  Oppofition  to  the  Work 
of  God,  as  a  Jingular  Teftimony  of  Long-fufferingy 
Patience,  and  Mercy  upon  the  Lord's  Part,  and 
Loyalty  upon  theirs  ;  fo  doth  he  hope,  and  Jhall 
take  it  as  one  of  the  grcatefi  Tokens  of  their  Love 
and  Affeftion  to  him  and  to  his  Government,  that 
they  will  continue  in  Prayer  and  Supplication  to 
God  for  him,  that  the  Lord,  ^vho  fpared  and  pre- 
ferved  him  to  this  Day,  notwithstanding  all  his  o%un 
Guiltinefs,  may  be  at  Peace  with  him,  and  give 
him  to  fear  the  Lord  his  God,  and  to  ferve  hint 
with  a  perfect  Heart,  and  with  a  willing  Mind} 
all  the  Days  of  his  Life. 

ANSWER. 

*  The  firft  Teftimony  of  the  Good  of  the  new 
'  Councils,  into  whole  Hands  the  Scots  King  hath 
'  caft  himfelf,  is,  the  Repentance  towards  God,  which- 

*  they  advife  him  to  make,  in  reference  to  his  own. 
'  Sins,  and  the  Sins  of  his  Father's  Houfe  ;  a  Mat- 

*  ter  in  itlelf  truly  praife-worthy,  and  the  Confe- 
c  quence  whereof,  in  the  Words  wherein  it  is  ex- 

*  prefs'd,  doth  in  no  fmall  Meafure  reach  to  the 
'  Acknowledgement  of  the  juftHand  of  God  upoa 

*  his  Father  and  Mother,  in  the  baniftiing  of  the 

*  one,  and  taking  away  the  Life  of  the  other  by 

*  the  Hand  of  Juftice ;  putting  it  into  the  Hearts 
'  of  thofe  here,  that  remained  faithful  to  their 

*  Truft  in  Parliament,  to  caufe  his  Blood  to  be 
'  poured  forth,  by  whofe  perfonal  A  clings,  (Autho- 

*  rity,  arid  Commiffions,  fo  much  of  the  Blood  of 

«  the 


3  6  6     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

jntcr-regnum.  «»the  Lord's  People  hath  been  fhed  in  the  three 
1650.         t  Nations,  as  this  Declaration  itfelf  acknowledges; 

1 v~— ^    <  and  for  which  therefore  we  have  Reafon  to  bids 

lber'     *  God,  and  admire  his  Providence,  that  out  of  the 

*  Mouth  of  the  Son  there  hath,  in  the  Sight  of  the 
'  whole  World,  been  brought  forth  fuch  a  Juftiti- 

*  cation  of  the  Sentence  palled  and  executed  upon 
«  the  Father. 

'  But  as  to  the  Manner  of  declaring  this  his  Re- 

*  pentance,  that  is  to  fay,  with  the  Qualifications 

*  therein  allowed  of;  whereby,  under  the  Pretence 
'  of  a  dutiful  Son,  he  may  ftill  retain  in  Memory 
'  his  Father's  Actions  of  Tyranny  for  his  Pattern  ; 
'  and,  through  the  high  Eftimation  of  his  Mother, 
'  have  his  Ears  ftill  open  to  her  Counfels,  as  often 

*  as  flie  can  convey  them  to  him  :  And  as  fenfible 
'  as  he  muft  be  of  his  own  and  his  Father's  En- 

*  mity  and  Oppofition  againft  the  Lord's  People 
'  in  the  three  Nations  j  yet  he  muft  ftill  be  encou- 
'  raged  to  perfift  in  the  fame  againft  thofe  that  are 

*  truly  the  Lord's  People,  under  the  Pretence  of 
'  Sectaries  :    Thefe   are   fuch   Inconfiftences   and 

*  Haltings  in  fo  ferious  a  Work,  that  as  it  is  juftly 

*  to  be  feared  that  God  will  not  be  well  pleafed 
4  therewith,  fo  neither  will  it  have  its  expected 
'  Effect    amongft  Men  ;  who,   with  Eafe,    may 
'  fee  through  the  Deceit  and  Lamenefs  of  it,  and 

*  will,  with  greater  Abhorrency,  be  aware  of  them 

*  and  their  Defigns  that  ftrive  to  cover  themfelves 

*  with  Webs  that  will  not  prove  Garments,  but 
4  whofe  Nakednefs  doth  ftill  appear.' 

SECTION    III. 

And  his  Majefly  having,  upon  full  Perfuafion  of 
the  Juftice  and  Equity  of  all  the  Heads  and  Arti- 
cles thereof,  now  fuiorn  and  fubfcribed  the  National 
Covenant  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  and  the  So- 
lemn League  and  Covenant  of  the  three  Kingdoms 
of  Scotland,  England,  and  Ireland,  doth  declare, 
That  he  hath  not  fworn  and  fubfcribed  thefe  Cove- 
nants, and  entered  into  the  Oath  of  God  with  his 
People,  upon  any  fimjler  Intention  and  crooked  De- 


Of    ENGLAND.       367 

fign,  for  attaining  bis  own  Ends ;  but,  fo  far  as  Inter-regnum. 
human  Weakness  will  permit,  In  the  Truth  and  Sin- 
cerity of  his  Heart ;  find  that  he  is  firmly  refolded, 
in  the  Lords  Strength,  to  adhere  thereunto,  and  to 
projectile,  to  the  utmojl  of  his  Power,  all  the  Ends 
thereof  \  in  his  Station  and  Calling,  really,  conftantly, 
and  Jincerely  all  the  Days  of  his  Life.  In  order  to 
which  he  doth,  in  the  fir  ft  Place,profefs  and  declare, 
That  he  vjlll  have  no  Enemies,  but  the  Enemies  of 
the  Covenant ;  and  that  he  will  have  no  Friends, 
but  the  Friends  of  the  Covenant :  And,  therefore, 
as  he  doth  now  dete/i  and  abhor  all  Popery,  Super- 
Jiition  and  Idolatry,  together  with  Prelacy,  and  all 
Errors,  Herefy,  Schifm,  and  Profancnefs,  and  re- 
f dives  not  to  tolerate,  much  lefs  allovj,  any  of  thefe  in 
any  Part  of  his  Majejlys  Dominions  ;  but  to  oppofe 
himfelf  thereto,  and  to  endeavour  the  Extirpation 
thereof  to  the  utmsft  of  his  Power  ;  fo  doth  he,  as  a 
Chrijiian,  exhort,  and,  as  a  King,  require,  that  all 
fuch  of  his  Subjefls,  who  havejlood  In  Oppofition  to 
the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  and  Work  of  Re- 
formation, upon  a  Pretence  of  Kingly  Intereji,  or 
any  other  Pretext  whatsoever,  to  lay  down  their  En- 
mity again/I  the  Caufe  and  People  of  God,  and  to 
ccafe  to  prefer  the  Inter ejl  of  Man  to  the  Interejl  of 
God ;  which  hath  been  one  of  thofe  Things  which 
bath  occafionea-  many  Troubles  and  Calamities  in  thefe 
Kingdoms ;  and,  being  Infijled  on,  will  be  fo  far 
from  ejlablljhlng  of  the  King's  Throne,  that  it  will 
prove  an  Idol  of  Jealoufy,  to  provoke  unto  Wrath 
him  who  is  King  of  Kings,  and  Lord  of  Lords. 

Firft,  The  King  fl)all  always  ejleem  them  bejl  Ser- 
vants, and  moji  loyal  'Subjects,  who  ferve  him,  and 
feck  his  Greatnefs,  in  a  right  Line  of  Subordination 
unto  God ;  Giving  unto  God  the  Things  that  are 
God's,  and  unto  Goefar  the  Things  that  are  Cee- 
far's  :  And  refolveth  not  to  love  or  countenance  any 
who  have  fo  little  Confcience  and  Piety,  as  to  fol- 
low his  Intercjl^  with  a  Prejudice  to  the  Gofpel  and 
the  Kingdom  of  fefus  Chrift ;  which  he  looks  not 
upon  as  a  Duty,  but  as  Flattery,  and  driving  of 

Self- 


368      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.   Self-Dffigns,  under  Pretence  of  maintaining  Royal 

1650.         Authority  and  Greatnefs. 

*— — /— »J  Secondly,  His  Majcjly  being  convinced  in  Con- 
Septem  ...  fcie)i^e  cj~  (fa  exceeding  great  Sinfulnefs  and  Unlaiv- 
fulnefs  of  t!:at  Treaty  und  Peace  made  with  the  bloody 
Irifli  Rebels,  who  treachcrcu/ly  jhed  the  Blood  of  jo 
many  of  bis  faithful  and  loyal  Sub/efts  in  Ireland, 
and  of  allowing  unto  them  the  Liberty  of  the  Popijh 
Religion  j  for  the  which  he  doth  from  his  Heart  de- 
fire  to  be  deeply  humbled  before  the  Lord ;  and  like- 
•wife,  considering  hoiu  many  Breaches  havt  been  made 
upon  their  Part^  doth  declare  the  fame  to  be  void, 
and  that  his  Majejly  is  abjolijed  therefrom ;  being 
truiv  forry  that  he  Jhould  have  fought  unto  fo  un- 
lawful Help  for  rejloring  of  him  to  his  Throne  j 
and  refolding,  for  the  Time  to  tcsme,  rather  to  chufe 

Iti'ion  than  Sin. 

Thirdly,  As  his  MajeJJy  did,  in  the  late  Treaty 
with  his  People  in  this  Kingdom^  agree  to  recall  and 
annull  ail  Commijjions  againft  any  of  his  Subjects 
who  did  adhere  to  the  Covenant  and  Monarchical 
Government  in  any  of  his  Kingdoms ;  fo  doth  he  now 
declare,  That^  by  commiffionating  fome  Perfons  by 
Sea  againft  the  People  of  England,  he  did  not  in- 
tend Damage  or  Injury  to  his  opprefs'd  and  harm- 
lejs  Subjects  in  that  Kingdom^  who  followed  their 
Trade  of  Merchandize  in  their  lawful  Callings  ; 
but  only  the  eppofing  and  fuppreffing  of  thofe  -who 
bad  usurped  the  Government ,  and  not  only  bar  him 
from  his  jujl  Right^  but  alfo  exercije  an  arbitrary 
Power  over  his  People^  in  thofe  Things  which  con- 
cern their  Perfons^  Ccnfciences^  and  EJiates :  And 
as  Jtfue  bis  coming  into  Scotland  he  hath  given  no 
Comm'jjioHS  agaiajl  any  of  his  Subjects  in  England 
or  Ireland,  fo  he  doth  hereby  ajjjure  and  declare^ 
that  be  will  give  none  to  their  Prejudice  or  Da- 
mage ;  and  whatever  Jhali  be  the  Wrongs  of  thefe 
UjurperS)  that  he  will  be  jo  far  from  avenging  theft 
upon  any,  who  are  free  thereof^  by  interrupting  or 
Jiolpi/!*  the  Liberty  of  Trad*  t>nd  Merchandize,  or 
tthenitife,  that  he  will  feek  their  Gocdj  and  to  the 

utmoji 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.     369 

tttmojl,  employ  his  Royal  Power,  that  they  may  be  Inter-regnum. 
protected  and  defended  againjl  the  unjuft  Violence  of        l65°- 
all  Men  whatfoever.  *— ~ v-— ' 

A W  albeit  his  Majejly  defires  to  conjlntft  well  of    s*Ptember- 
the  Intentions  of  thofe,  in  reference  to  his  Majejly , 
who  have  been  affive  in  Council  or  Arms  againft 
the  Covenant ;  yet,  being  convinced  that  it  doth  con- 
duce for  the  Honour  cf  God,  the  Good  of  his  Caufe, 
and  his  own  Honour  and  Happinefs,  and  for  the 
Peace  and  Safety  of  thcfe  Kingdoms,  that  fuck  be 
not  employed  in  Places  of  Power  and  Trufl,  he  doth 
declare,  that  he  will  not  employ,   nor  give  Commif- 
fions  to ,  any  fuch,  untill  they  have  not  only  taken  or 
renewed  the  Covenant,  but  alfo  have  given  fuffi dent 
Evidences  of  their  Integrity,  Carriage,  and  Affec- 
tion to  the  IVork  of  Reformation,  and  /hall  be  de- 
flared  capable  of  Trujl  by  the  Parliament  of  either 
Kingdom  refpeftively.     And  his  Majefty,  upon  the 
fame  Grounds,   doth  hereby  recall  all  Commiflions 
given  to  any  fuch  Perfons ;  conceiving  all  fuch  Per- 
fons   will  fo  much  tender  a  good  Under/landing  be- 
twixt him  and  his  Subjects,  and  the  fettling  and  pre- 
ferving  a  firm  Peace  in  thefe  Kingdoms,  that  they 
will  not  grudge  nor  repine  at  his  Majefty's  Refo- 
lutions  and  Proceedings  herein,  much  iefs,  upon  Dif- 
content,  acl  any  Thing  in  a  divided  Way,  unto  the 
raifeng  of  new  Troubles  ;  efpecially  fence,  upon  their 
pious  and  good  Deportment,  there  is  a  Regrefs  left 
unto  them  in  Manner  above  exprefs'd. 

ANSWER. 

c  It  is  fomewhat  early  Days  for  him,  who,  by 
f  reafon  of  his  Education  and  Age,  and  the  Coun- 
'  fel  and  Company  hitherto  about  him,  could  not 

*  be  much  furthered  into  the  Sight  of  the  Juftice 
'  and  Equity  of  what  is  contained  in  the  Covenants 

*  mentioned  ;  prefently,  that  is  to  fay,  in  the  Space 

*  of  almoft  twenty-four  Hours,  to  grow  up  into 
'  the  full  Perfuafion  of  the  Juftice  and  Equity  of 

*  all  the  Heads  and  Articles  of  thofe  Covenants, 
'  and  to  be  able  to  declare,  That  he  hath  not  fworn 

*  nor  fubfcribed  them  upon  any  fmijler  Intention  and 

VOL.  XIX.  A  a  «  crooked 


370      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-return.  «  crooked  Defign  for  attaining  bis  own  Ends ;  and 

1650.         t  ^^  y^  yfoV  a  Rffo/Ktion  to  pcrfsft  therein  really, 

*^~*~v~mmj     '  conftantly,  and  fincerely  all  the  Days  of  his  Life; 

September.     t  wnen  as  tne  Commiflioners  of  the  General  Af- 

*  fembty,  in  their  Declaration,  dated  the  i3th  of 
'  Augnjt,  do  fay,  That  there  may  be  jujl  Grounds 
'  of  Jlumbling  from  his  refufir.g  to  emit  this  Dc- 
4  claration ;  and   do  tell  him  in  fo  many  Words, 
'  That  they  will  not  oiun  him  nor  his  Inter  eft,  other - 
'  wife  than  with  a  Subordination  to  Gad,  and  in  fa 
'  far  as  he  owns  and  profecutes  the  Caufe  of  God^  and 

*  difclaims   his  and  his  Father's  Oppofition  to  the 
'  IVork  of  God,  and  to  the  Covenant,  and  all  the 
'  Enemies  thereof "j  and  notwithftanding  all,  he  ftill 

*  perfifts  in  his  Refufal,  withdrawing  to  Dumferm- 

*  //'«£,  whither  the  Marquis  of  Argyle  and  Larl  of 
'  Lothian  are  fent  after  to  prefs  him  to  fubfcribe  ; 

*  and,   in  the  mean  Time,  Overtures  are  made 
'  under- hand  to  our  Army,  as  if  Things  might  yet 

*  be  made  up  in  a  fair  Way,  and  their  King  and 
'  they  were  not  likely  to  agree  :  And,  on  the  I5th 
'  of  Augujl^  a  Remonftrance  and  Supplication  of 
4  the  Officers  of  the  Scots  Army,  by  v/ay  of  fe- 
'  eondins;  the  forcfaW  Declaration  of  the  Commit- 
'  tee  of  Eftates  and  Commiffioners  of  the  General 

*  Aflembly,  was  prefented  to,  and  approv'd  of  by, 
'  the  Committee  of  Eftates  ;  and  on  the  i6th  of 
'  the  faid  Auguft,  the  Declaration  fo  earneftly  pref- 
'  fed  upon  him,  or  rather  forcibly  extorted  from 
4  him,  is  fubfcribed  and  emitted  by  hkn. 

'  And  now,  in  a  Moment,  what  a  blefled  and 

*  hopeful  Change  is  wrought  upon  this  young  King  ? 

*  How  hearty  is  he  become  to  the  Caufe  of  God, 
'  and  the  Work  of  Reformation  ?  And  how  rea- 
'  dily  doth  he  fwallow  down  thefe  bitter  Pills  which 

*  are  prepared  for  and  urg'd  upon  him,  as  necef- 

*  fary  to  effect  that  defperate  Cure  under  which  his 

*  Affairs  lie  ?  But  who  fees  not  the  grofs  Hypocri- 

*  fy  of  this  whole  Tranfaction,  and  the  fandy  and 
*.  rotten  Foundation  of  all  the  Refolutions  flowing 
'.  hereupon  ?  As  firft,  He  that,  on  the  i5th  of  Au- 

*  guft->  hugrg'd  all  his  Maligriant  and  Popifh  Party 

'  in 


Qf    ENGLAND       371 

«  in  hisBofom,  and  lodged  them  in  the  fecret  Re-  Intcr-rejnum. 
'  fcrves  of  his  Favour  and  Love  as  his  bell  Friends,    ,__V_y 

*  can  now,  on  the  i6th,  the  Day  following,  from     September. 

*  a  Fulnefs  of  Perfuafion  of  the  Juflice  and  Equity 
4  of  all  the  Heads  and  Articles  of  the  Covenant, 

*  renounce  and  difcard  them  in  the  Sight  of  God 

*  and  the  World,  and  vow  never  to  have  any  more 

*  to  do  with  them,  as  old  Sinners,  unlefs  they,  by 
4  his  Example^  turn  to  oe  as  good  Converts  as 
1  himfelf,  and  be  able  to  perfonate  and  acl:  the 
'  fame  Part ;  and  fo,  by  virtue  of  the  very  Cove- 

*  nant  itfelf,  eat  out  and  undermine  thofe  who  con- 

*  fcientioufly  and  honeftly  intend  the  Ends  of  it. 
'  The  fad  Experience  whereof,  was  as  well  ieen  in 

*  the  managing  the  whole  Bufmefs  of  the  Duke  of 
'  Hamilton's  Invaiion,    as  in  many  of  the  then 
'  Members  in  both  Houfes  ;  who  never  (hewed 
'  more  Zeal  for  the  Covenant,  than  when  they 
'  found  that  thereby  they  could  fupprefs  and  beat 
'  down  the  truly  godly  and  honeft  Party,  as  Secla- 

*  ries  and  Enemies  to  Monarchical  Government, 
'  and  buoy  up  the  finking  and  loft  Reputations  of 

*  the  moft  engaged  Royalifts  and  rotten-hearted 
6  Apoftates,  under  Pretence  that  they  were  turn'd 
'  Friends  to  the  Work  of  Reformation,  and  for 
'  upholding  the  Church  Intereft.     And  if,  in  this 

*  Senfe,  the  Scots  King  will  have  no  Enemies,  but 
c  the  Enemies  of  the  Covenant ;  nor  no  Friends,  but 
'  the  Friends  of  the  Covenant,  he  makes  but  little 

*  Change ;  for  he  hath  the  fame  Friends  and  Ene- 
'  mies  that  he  had  before,  with  this  only  Difference, 
c  that  by  his  and  his  Party's  becoming,  in  Appear- 

*  ance,  Friends  to  the  Covenant  for  a  while,  they 

*  have  the  Opportunity  at  the  laft  to  make  Ufe  of 
'  this  Engine,  the  better  to  undermine  and  oppofe 
'  the  true  Ends  of  the  Covenant,  than  by  a  flat  Op- 
'  pofition  to  it:  And,  to  obtain  a  Crown,  what 

*  Diffimulation  is  not  thought  lawful  by  Politicians? 
'  Though  a  larger  Meafure  than  what  is  held 
'  forth  in  this  Declaration,  cannot  eafily  be  inftan- 
'  ced ;    and  which  therefore  we   doubt   not   but 
'  God,  who  is  the  Searcher  of  the  Hearts ,  and  'Trier 

A  a  2  'of 


fix  'Parliamentary  HISTORY 

of  the  Reins,  will  proceed  further  to  difcover 
in  the  Face  of  the  Sun,  and  more  feverely 
judge  in  this  new  King  of  Scots  and  his  Houfe, 

September.       (  'tha-   .]f  he  had  deak  piainly  wjth  Qod  and  Man> 

«  and  held  himfelf  forth  in  his  own  Colours.     The 
«  little  Time  which  he  hath  been  upon  the  Stage 

*  havinc;  iurficiently  laid  him  open  what  he  is,  a 

*  true    Inheritor  of  his   Father's    Principles    and 
«  Counfels,  wherein  he  may  be  traced  all  along ; 

*  and  even  in  this  laft  Action,   wherein   he  hath 

*  trod  in  the  Steps  of  his  Father,  as  well'as  other 

*  his  Predeceflors ;    who,   whenever   they    found 

*  themfelves    in  Scotland  befet   with    the   Power 
'  of  the  Kirk  and  State,  did  fubfcribe  and  emit 

*  whatever  was  prefs'd  upon  them,  though  they  re- 

*  folved  to  break  all  that  ever  was  fo  done  by  them 
'  upon  the  firft  Occafion. 

*  And  as  a  fecond  Deduction  from  his  full  Per- 

*  fuaiion  of  the  Juftice  and  Equity  of  all  the  Heads 

*  and   Articles  of  the  Covenant,   he  declares  his 
'  Conviction   in  Conscience  of  the  exceeding  great 
'  Sinfuhiefs  find  UnUnvfulnefs  of  that  Treaty  and 

*  Peace  made  with  the.  bloody  Irifh  Rebels,  and  of  al- 

*  lowing  to  them  the  Liberty  of  the  PopiJJ)  Religion  ; 
'  and  that  he  is  refolvcd^  for  the  Time  to  ceme,  ra~ 
'  ther  to  choofe  Ajjliftion  than  Sin.     It  feems  very 

*  much  to  be  doubted,  if  the  Irijh  Bifhop  of  Clog- 

*  her^  armed  with  a  Com  million  from  Ormond? 

*  Charles  Stuart's  pretended  Lieutenant  of  Ireland, 
'  had,  with  his  Army  of  Irijh  Popifh  Rebels, found- 
'  ed  upon  a  pure  Popifh  Account,  fucceeded  and 
'  prevailed  a^ain1!:  cur  Army  in  Ulfler,  under  Sir 
'  Chnrles  Coot^  whether  then  that  which  is  now  con- 
'  feficd,  and  refolved  agairlt  as  finful  and  unlawful, 

*  would  have  been  fo  acknowledged,  or  thought 
4  Wifdom,  perhaps,  fo  to  have  been  by  the  Kirk 
c  of  Scotland  itself ;  confidcring  that  the  faid  Bi- 

*  fhop  offered  very  fair  Quarter  to  all  of  the  Scots 

*  Nation  thr.t  were  ior  Monarchical  Government; 
'  and  the  Scots  Clergy  in  thole  Parts  had  about  the 
'  fame  Time  ftirr'd  up  the  People  in  our  Quarters 

*  to   Mutiny  and   Rebellion,  infomuch    that   Sir 

*  Charles 


Of    ENGLAND.       373 

*  Charles  Coot  was  neceffitated  to  fecure  their  Per- 

*  fons  ;  as  if  they  had  done  it  on  purpofe  to  pre- 
'  pare  the  Way  to  uflier  in   the  Infall  upon   our 
4  Quarters,  to  deftroy  our  Forces  by  that  Irijh  Ar- 
4  my,  who  pitched  their  Oppofition  chiefly  againft 
4  fuch  as  they  called  Sectaries  ;  being  indeed"  fuch 

*  as  declared  for  the  Parliament  of  the  Common- 
4  wealth  of  England,     But  when  Sin  doth  not  pro- 

*  fper,  it  is  no  Wonder  if  it  be  bewail'd  ;  and  if  it 

*  lofe  its  Power,  it  is  no  Marvel  if  it  lofe  alfo  its 
4  Credit,  even  with  the  beft  Friends  to  it.     It  is  • 
4  fit  Popery  and  the  bloody  Rebellion  of  Ireland 
4  (hould  be  renounced,  and  the  Scots  Kingabfolv'd 

*  from   any  further   Hand   in  it,  confidering  the 
4  many   Breaches,    or  rather    Failings,   on  their 

*  Parts,  now  that,  through  the  Bleffing  of  God 
4  upon  the  Sectarian  Army  in  that  Nation,  as  they 
6  call  them,  the  Rebels  have  been  difmabled  to 

*  keep  themfelves  in  Power,  and  maintain  his  In- 
4  tereft  there  j  which  we  have  good  Reafon  to  be-1 
4  lieve  is  yet  a,  greater  Affliction  to  him,  in  his  fo- 

*  ber  Thoughts,  than  he  finds  it  to  be  Sin  ;  for,  as 

*  we  are  credibly  inform'd,  Ormond  and  Incbiquin 
4  were  very  lately  departing  out  of  Ireland,  and 

*  giving  up  all  there  ;  but,  by  very  frefli  Direc- 
4  tions  and  Commands  from  the  Scots  King  out  of 
4  Scotland,  they  are  required  to  ftay  and  promote 
4  his  Intereft  there :  In  purfuance  of  which  the  faid 
4  Ormond  is  as  bufy  as  ever  giving  out  Commiffions 
4  among  the  Irijh,  whether  as  Friends  to  the  Co- 
4  venant  or    no,    we  {hall  leave  the  World  to 
4  judge. 

4  The  third  and  laft  ErFeS  of  the  Scots  King's 
4  full  Perfuaiion  of  the  Juftice  and  Equity  of  all  the 
4  Heads  and  Articles  of  the  Covenant,  is  his  recall- 
4  ing  all  Commiffions  formerly  given  for  infefting  the 
4  Seas  with  Piracies  and  Depredations ;  and  Refo- 
4  lutions,  for  the  future*  to  employ  none  in  fuch 
4  Power  and  Trujl  untill  they  have  renewed  the  Co- 
4  venant,  and  be  declared  capable  of  fuch  Truft  by 

*  the  Parliament^  as  more  at  large  is  afore  recited 

A  a  3  'in 


Inter-regnum. 
1650. 

September. 


374     Th*  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

lnter-r?sntirt».  t  m  t'ne  Claufc  Ulclf.  It  is  to  be  obferved,  (as 
'  liule  Juftice  and  Neceflity  as  the  Scots  pretend 
c  there  was  of  lending  our  Army  into  Scotland)  that 
'  here  is  now  acknowledg'd  by  their  King,  for  him- 

*  felt  and  them  alfo,  that  the  Scots  have  treated  and 

*  concluded  with  their  King,  on  the  Behalf  of  the 

*  People  of  England  and  Ireland^  as  well  as  Scot- 
4  land,  and  have  taken  upon  them  (we  prefume, 

*  by  virtue  of  the  Covenant)  to  intereft  themfelves, 
4  in  the  higheft  Degree,  in  the  Laws  and  Liberties 
4  of  England;  and  have  laid  the  Ground-work  of 

*  a  new  War,  to  be  carried  on  principally  by  them- 
4  feivcs  in  this  Nation ;  declaring  for  fuch  as  adhere 
4  to  the  Covenant  and  Monarchical  Government, 

*  and  againft  fuch  as  (without  Oppoiition  to  the 
4  Covenant)  are  for  this  Commonwealth  as  it  is 
4  now  eftablifh'd,  without  King  or  Houfe  of  Lords ; 

*  and  yet  have  the  Confidence  to  appeal  to  God 
4  how  innocent  they  are  of  giving  us  any  Caufe  to 
'  fend  an  Army  into  Scotland,  in  our  Defence,  and 
4  to  keep  oft  this  deep- defined  War  from  our  own 

*  Doors,  as  Ion?;,  at  leait,  as  God  {hall  enable  us 
4  thereunto.    Will  not  God  judge  fuch  under-hand 

*  Dealing as>th is  ?  We  are  allured  he  will,  as  he  hath 

u,;  already  of  late  moft  wonderfully  and  lea- 

*  fonably  to  do :  And  he  that  thus  brings  it  to  Light 
'  out  of  their  own  Mouths,  gives  us  Hope  that,  in 

*  his  due  Time,  he  will  return  it  with  Shame  and 
4  Lois  upon  their  own  Heads,  who  have  adventu- 
4  red  on  iuch  bold  Undertakings,  to  which  they 

*  were  never  called ;  but  are  molt  perfectly  uncon- 

*  cerned,  any  further  than  they  are  drawn  and  in- 

*  ticed  thereunto  by  inordinate  lufting  after  the 
'  Conqueft  of  this  Nation,  and  eftablifhing  them- 
4  felves  in  the  Wealth  and  Power  thereof. 

*  But  to  make  all  f.ir  and  fmooth  to  thofe  that 

*  are  apt  to  be  deluded  and  milled,  and  to  engage 

*  them  in  a  new  War  againft  their  native  Country, 
4  their  new -converted   Kins;  declares,    Thatt  'by 
4  commi Donating  Per  Jons  at  Sea  to  commit  Piracy 

*  and  Depredations,  for  the  Interr;:ption  of  Trade , 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      375 

*  he  intends  no  Damage  nsr  Injury  to  his  harmlefs  Inter-regnum. 

*  and  oppreffed  Subje&s ;  but  only  to  bis  Enemies        1650. 

*  (which  now  are  none  butthofe  that  arc  Enemies    *"— — v— -^ 

*  to  the  Covenant  and  Monarchical  Government) ;     SePtember* 
'  and  that  he  refolves  to  employ  none  in  fuch  Trujl 

*  untill  they  have  renewed  the  Covenant,  and  been 
'  declared  capable  of  that  Trujl  by  Parliament  \  and 
'  therefore  doth,  in  Words,  recall  all  Commif- 
'  /ions  given  to  any  fuch  Perfons :  But  when  all  this 
'  is  done,  how  are  the  former  Evils  committed  at 
'  Sea,    to   the   Interruption   and    Deftru&ion   of 
'  Trade,  remedied  by  this,  or  the  Parties  injured, 
'  repaired  ?  When  War  was  acted  by  the  Duke  of 

*  Hamilton  upon  the  Lives  and  Eftates  of  this  Na- 
'  tion,  and  none  therein  were  employed  but  fuch 

*  as  took  the  Covenant,  and  were  declared  fit  for 

*  that  Truft  by  the  Parliament  of  Scotland,  who 
'  commanded  that  Invaiion,  were  the  Evils  of  War 
'  lefs  upon  the  Englifo^  or  the  Crime  lefs  in  thofe 
'  that  acted  them  I  Do  fuch  Rcfolutions  as  thefe 
'  vary  the  State  of  the  War,  and  of  the  Caufe ; 
'  or  do  they  only  change  the  Method  and  Circum- 
'  fiances  of  moving  and  proceeding  to  the  fame 

*  End  \  We  hope  it  is  too  late  now  to  miilead  any 
<  of  the  Well-afFected  with  Blinds   of  this  Na- 
'  ture,  by  which  they  have  once  been  cozen'd  be- 
4  fore,  and  whereby  they  may  allure  themfelves 

*  they  lhall  be  deceived  a  fecond  Time,  if  the  Ca- 
e  valiers,  and  purely  Rqyal  Party,  do  but  lay  hold 
'  of  the  Expedient  offered  to  them;  which  is, 'by  a 

*  feigned  pious  and  good  Deportment,  to  make 

*  themfelves  capable  of  a  Regrefs  into  their  former 
4  Employments,  upon  the  cheap  Terms  of  fwal- 

*  lowing  down  the  Covenant,  and  the  obtaining  the 

*  Approbation  of  as  full  and  free  a  Parliament  as 
'  that  which  authorized  the  Invafion  of  this  Nation 
'  by  the  Duke  of  Hamilton.    And  ftill,  who  knows 
'  not  what  fuch  a  Declaration  as  this  fignifies  to 
'  thofe  that  have  Commiffions  to  rob  and  fpoil,  and 
'  perhaps  better  underftand  Charles  Stuart's  Inten- 
'  tions  that  granted  them,  than  thofe  that  put  him 

*  upon 


376     'The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  «  Upon  holding  forth  this  Diflimulation,  as  if  they 
16501        «  were  recalled  ? 

SePtember>  SECTION   IV. 

And  as  his  Majefty  bath  given  Satisfaction  to  the 
juft  and  necejjary  De fires  of  the  Kirk  and  Kingdom 
of  Scotland,  jo  doth  he  hereby  ajfure  and  declare^ 
That  be  is  no  lejs  willing  and  defirous  to  give  Satif- 
faftion  to  the  jujl  and  necejfary  De fires  of  his  good 
Subjects  in  England  and  Ireland  ;  and,  in  Token 
thereof \  if  the  Houfes  of  the  Parliament  of  England, 
fitting  in  Freedom,  jhall  think  jit  to  prefent  unto 
him  the  Propojitions  of  Peace,  agreed  upon  by  both 
Kingdoms^  he  will  not  only  accord  to  the  fame,  and 
fuch  Alterations  there  anent,  as  the  Houjes  of  Par- 
liament, in  regard  of  the  Conjlitution  of  Affairs, 
and  the  Good  of  his  Majejly  and  his  Kingdoms,  Jhatl 
judge  necejfary,  but  do  what  is  further  necejjary  for 
profecuting  the  Ends  of  the  Solemn  League  and  Co- 
venant ;  efpecially  in  thofe  Things  which  concern  the 
Reformation  of  the  Church  0/England,  in  Doctrine, 
Worjhtp,  Difcipline,  and  Government ;  that  not  only 
the  Directory  of  Worfhip,  the  ConfeJJion  of  Faith  > 
and  Catechifm,  but  alfo  the  Proportions  and  Direc- 
tory for  Church-Government,  accorded  upon  by  the 
Synod  of  Divines  at  Weftminfter,  may  be  fettled; 
and  that  the  Church  of  England  may  enjoy  the  full 
Liberty  and  Freedom  of  all  AJJemblie's,  and  Power  of 
Kirk  Cenfures,  and  of  all  the  Ordinances  of  Jefus 
Chrijt,  according  to  the  Rule  of  his  own  Word:  And 
that  whatsoever  is  commanded  by  the  God  of  Heaven, 
may  be  diligently  done  for  the  Houfe  of  the  God  of 
Heaven. 

And  whatever  heretofore  hath  been  the  Suggejlicns 
of  fame  to  him,  to  render  his  Majefty  jealous  of  his 
Parliament,  and  of  the  Servants  of  God ;  yet  as  he 
hath  declared  that  in  Scotland  he  will  hearken  to  their 
Counfel,  and  follow  their  Advice  in  thofe  Things  that 
concern  that  Kingdom  and  Kirk,  fo  doth  he  alfo  de- 
clare his  firm  Refohition  to  manage  the  Government 
•f  the  Kingdom  <?/ England  by  the  Advice  of  his  Par- 
liament, 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.     377 

liament,  confijling  of  an  Houfe  of  Lords  and  of  an  Inter-regnum. 
Houfe  of  Commons  there  ;  and,  in  thofe  Things  that     ,_^°L « 
concern  Religion,  to  prefer  the  Counfels  of  the  Mini-     September. 
fters  of  the  Gofpel  to  all  other  Counjels  whatfoever. 

And  that  all  the  World  may  fee  ho^v  much  he  ten- 
ders the  Safety  of  his  People,  and  how  precious  their 
Blood  is  in  his  Sight,  and  how  deflrous  he  is  to  reco- 
ver his  Crown  and  Government  in  England  by  peace- 
able Means,  as  he  doth  efteem  the  Service  of  thofe 
who  firft  engaged  in  the  Covenant,  and  have  fence 
that  Time  faithfully  folloived  the  Ends  thereof,  to 
be  Duty  to  God  and  Loyalty  to  him  ;  fo  he  is  willing^ 
in  regard  of  others  who  have  been  involved  in  thefe 
late  Commotions  in  England,  againft  Religion  and 
Government,  to  pafs  an  Act  of  Oblivion,  excepting 
only  fame  few  in  that  Nation  who  have  been  chief 
Ob/lrufters  of  the  Work  of  Reformation,  and  chief 
Authors  of  the  Change  of  the  Government,  and  of 
the  Murder  of  his  Royal  Father.     Provided,  That 
thofe  who  are  to  have  the  Benefit  of  this  Aft  lay  down 
Arms,  and  return  to  the  Obedience  of  their  lawful 
Sovereign. 

ANSWER. 
4  The  Treaty  that  was  touched  upon  in  the  for- 

*  mer  Paragraph,  made  between  the  Kingdom  of 

*  Scotland  and  their  King,  in  reference  to  England 
<  and  Ireland,  being  here  at  large,  and,  in  the  Par- 
4  ticulars  of  it  fet  down,  it  will  be  needlefs  to  re- 
'  peat  them  ;  in  the  whole  Frame  of  which,  we 
'  dare  boldly  affirm,  There  are  thofe  Grounds  laid 
«  of  inflaving  this  Nation  to  the  Scots,  and  efpecial- 
«  ly  to  the  Power  of  their  Clergy,  that  no  Parlia- 

*  ment  that  hath  ever  yet  fat  in  England,  and  have 
'  had  the  leaft  Drop  of  trueEngliJb  Blood  in  them, 
'  but  would  difdain  and  abhor  to  be  thus  impofed 

*  upon  by  the  Scots  Nation. 

'  And  are  thefe  the  Hopes  that  are  given  to  this 
'  Nation  of  having  two  Houfes  of  Parliament  fit- 
'  ting  in  Freedom,  when  what  they  muft  defire, 

*  and  what  they  muft  have,  muft  be  prepared  and 
«  agreed  for  them  by  a  foreign  Nation  ?  Will  the 

«  Par- 


378     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  Parliament  be  more  the  Parliament  cf  England, 
1  when  two  Houfes  (hall  be  brought  upon  the  Stage 

*— -v^    '  again  with  a  King  at  the  Head  of  them,  by  the 

September.      4  powcr  of  a  Scots  Army  enforcing  this  upon  rhe 

'  Nation,  than  when  the  Parliament  is  in  adual 

'  PoflelBon  of  fuch  Power  and  Freedom  as,  through 

'  the  Blefling  of  God  upon  their  Endeavours,  they 

*  are  able,   by  Law,  to  exclude  both  King  and 
'  Houfe  of  Lords  (the  known  Oppofers   of  ihe 
'  People's  Freedom)  out  of  their  National  Coun- 

*  cils  j  and,  by  the  Force  God  hath  enabled  them 
'  with,  to  prelerve  the  common  Peace  and  Safety 

*  of  the  whole,  under  the  Government  of  a  Com- 

*  monwealth  and  free  State  !  It  is  too  late  now  to 

*  think  that  the  People  have  no  better  Discernment 
'  of  their  own  true  Intereft,  than  to  be  catched 
4  with  any  Satisfaction  that  can  be  offered  and  gj- 

*  ven  by  a  King,  if  he  himfelf  with  his  Power 
'  muft  come  in  at  the  End  of  it :  Nor  will  the 

*  great  Promifes  of  what  he  will  do  in  the  Caufe 

*  of  God  and  Work  of  Reformation  ( under  that 
'  Pretence  to  let  in  upon  us  the  Return  again  of 
'  Tyranny)  much  work  upon  the  Pious  and  Judi- 

*  cious  among  us,  who  want  not  the  full  and  free 
'  Enjoyments  of  their  Confciences  in  this  Kind,  in 
'  a  voluntary  Way  under  this  Government,  with- 

*  out  being  beholden  to  the  Conccffions  of  a  King; 

*  nay,  we  may  truly  fay,  That  fince  the  Change 
'  of  Government  in  this  Nation,  there  have  been 

*  more  Laws  made,  and  Means  ufed,  for  the  pro- 
'  pagating  the  Gofpel  and  Power  of  Godlinefs,  and 
'  encouraging  the  true  Profeflors  thereof,  and  more 
'  done  for  the  Extirpation  of  Protanenefs  and  open 

*  Wickcdnefs,  than  hath  been  during  the  whole 

*  Time  of  the  Reigns  of  Kings  over  this  Nation. 

*  And  as  to  the  King  of  Scotland's  declaring  his 
'  firm  Refoiution  to  manage  the  Government  o/"Eng- 
'  land  by  the  Advice  of  his  Parliament-,  confi/ling  of 

*  a  Houfe  cf Lcrds  and  of  a  Houfe  of  Commons ;  andy 

*  in  thofe  Things  that  concern  Religion^  to  prefer  the 

*  Counfel  cf  tbf  Minljhrs  ef  the  Gofpel  before  all 

«  Coun- 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       379 

*  Counfeh  ivbatfoever  ;  we  truft  it  (hall  never  be  in  inter-rcgnum. 
'  his,  nor  in  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland's,  Power  to        l65°- 
'  impofe  either  hhnfelf  or  his  Creatures,  the  Houfe  ^* """V7"""""<^ 
'  of  Lords,  upon  the  Supreme  Authority  and  Na-      eptem  er* 
'  tional  Council  of  the  free-born  People  of  Eng- 
'  land;  who,  if  they  once  become  corrupted  in  that 
'  which  is  the  Fountain  of  their  Liberties,  their 

*  own  Reprefentatives   in  Parliament   afiembled, 

*  (which,  with  thus  much  Colt  and  Hazard,  are 

*  Jet  up  in  Come  Meafure  already  in  their  primitive 
'  and  original  Purity,  and  are  going  on  every  Day 
'  more  and  more  to  the  compleating  thereof)  mult 

*  expect  nothing  but  the  Flowings  forth  of  Ty- 
6  ranny  and  Mifchief  upon  them,  in  and  by  their 

*  very  Laws  ;  and  that  which  Ihould  be  the  chief 

*  and  only  Remedy  againft  all  their  Evils,  would, 
4  by  this  Means,  become  the  greateft  Caufe  and 
'  Author  of  them:  Nor  would  this  at  all  be  mended 
'  or  helped  by  the  Claufe  which  is  put  in,  That^ 
1  in  tbofe  Things  which  concern  Religion^  he  will 

*  prefer  tie  Counfeh  of  the  Mini  ft 'ers  of  the  Gofpel 

*  before  all  Counfels  whatfoever ;  and  fo,  by  unde- 

*  niable  Confequence,  before  the  Parliament  itfelf ; 

*  for  we  have  learned  by  Experience,  that  there  is 
'  hardly  any  Debate  had  in  Parliament  but  the  Sub- 

*  j  eft- Matter  of  it,  in  fome  Senfe  or  other,  may 

*  be  brought   under  the  Concernment    of  Reli- 

*  gion,  and,  by  that  Means,  all  the  Laws  muft 
'  be  or  not  be  as  the  Clergy  will  approve  or  not  ap- 
'  prove  of  them  :  A  Practice  fo  inconfiflent  with 
'  the  fundamental  Privileges  and  Freedom  of  Par- 
'  liament,  and  the  People's  Good,  that  it  hath  al- 
'  ways  been  exploded  and  refifted  by  all  Aflertors 

*  of  Englijb  Freedom ;  and  whenever  any  vifible 
'  Attempts  have  been  made  to  promote  fuch  a  De- 
'  fign,  as  too  often  have  been  fmce  the  Sitting  of 
'  this  Parliament,  the  Parliament  have  highly  re- 
'  fented  it,  and  frequently  adjudged  it  High  Trea- 

*  fon  ;  looking  at  it  as  that  which  introduces  a  fo- 
'  reign  Jurifdiftion,  and  makes  Way  for  the  fetting 
'  up  again  a  Popifli  Supremacy,  changed  in  Name 

*  only ! 

*  Touching 


380      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.       *  Touching  the  Aft  of  Oblivion  offered ;  it  is,  no 

1650.        «  doubt,  the  Effect  of  a  great  Defire  the  King  of 

*— ~\^— -»    <  Scots  hath  to  receive  that  which  he  pretends  unto 

September.     <  -n  tne  Government  of  England,  an  Acknowledg- 

4  ment  of  his  Power  to  difpenfe  fuch  Favours :  But, 

*      *  in  the  mean  Time,  we  muft  obferve  who  it  is 

'  that  makes  this  Offer,  a  Traitor  to  the  Parlia- 

'  ment  and  People  of  England,  and  who,  by  his 

'  paft  Actings  againft  them,  hath  rendered  himfelf 

'  obnoxious  to  their  fevereft  Cenfures,  from  which 

*  we  hold  him  no  way  abfolved  by  AfTumption  or 
'  Declaration  of  a  Scots  Kingfhip.     He,  who  by 

*  Law  and  his  Guilt,  ftands  incapable  of  the  mean- 
c  eft  Privilege  amongft  us,  Doth  he  think  himfelf 

*  qualified  to  exercife  the  Greateft  ?  Shall  the  Ma- 

*  lefa&or  be  prefumed  to  have  Power  to  give  Par- 
'  don  to  his  Judge  ?  Or  do  the  Scots  or  their  King 

*  imagine,  under  Pretence  of  an  Act  of  Oblivion, 
'  to  feduce  England  to  receive  their  Laws  from 
«  Scotland? 

*  The  Obftruclers  of  -real  Reformation  we  are 

*  as  much  againft  as  he  or  they  can  pretend  to  be, 
'  as    by  our  A£ls  and  Actions  appear;   amongft 
'  which  we  reckon  it  not  the  leaft,  that  that  grand 
'  Enemy  to  Reformation,  the  Father  of  the  now 
'  Declarer,  after  his  long  and  bloody  Progrefs  made 

*  in  Deftruclion  and  Devaftation  of  the  innocent 

*  People  in  the  three  Nations  (the  Guilt  whereof 

*  upon  him  being  a  Truth  fo  apparent,  as  both 

*  himfelf  and  Son,  and  our  now  Enemies  of  Scot- 
'  landt  have  been  forced  to  acknowledge)  hath 

*  been,  by  our  Authority,  tried,  adjudged,  and  ex- 

*  ecuted  for  his  notorious  Treafons,  Tyrannies, 

*  and  Murders  ;  whereof,  whatever  the  Interpre- 
11  tation  be  given  by  the  Son  of  that  Murderer,  or 
'  other  his  Partizans,  old  or  new  Malignants,  late 
'  Apoflates,  or  deteftable  Neutrals,  who  ftyle  the 
<  A&  of  Juftice,  Muider,  with  like  Truth  and 

*  Reafon,  as  thofe  who  call  Good,  Evil,  and  Evil, 

*  Good ;  Light,  Darknefs,  and  Darknefs,  Light ; 

*  we,  for  our  Parts,  blefs  God  for  that  Opportu- 
«  nity  put  into  our  Hands  of  offering  that  Sacrifice 

4  to 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       381 

*  to  Divine  Juftice,  towards  Vindication  and  clean-  inter-regmim. 

*  fing  of  our  Land  from  that  Blood  wherewith,  by        1650. 

'  that  Murderer  and  his  Party,  it  was  fo  miferably    c — •— — ' 

*  defiled.  September. 

'And  as  we  have  been  obliged,  in  a  faithful  and 
'  confcientious  Difcharge  of  that  Power  and  Trufl 
'  committed  to  us  by  God  and  the  People  of  this 
'  Nation,  to  avenge  that  innocent  Blood  upon  the 
'  Head  of  that  Tyrant,  and  fome  others  the  chief 
c  Authors  and  Actors  under  him  in  {hedding  there- 
'  of ;  fo,  for  the  feduced  Multitude,  and  thofe 

*  who,  in  Simplicity,  have  been  mifguided  by  them 
'  to  acl:  to  their  own  and  Country's  Ruin,  we  have, 

*  in  the  View  of  all,  expreffed  our  Tendernefs  and 
'  Forbearance  towards  them :   And  being  inverted 
«  with  the  Authority  of  the  Nation,  whofe  Repre- 
e  fentative  we  are  in  that  Behalf,  as  to  fuch  mifled 
'  Perfons,  the  Parliament  of  England  thinks  fit  fur- 
'  ther  to  declare,  That  as  they  have  already  long 
«  fmce  had  it  in  their  Thoughts,  and  for  that  Pur- 
'  pofe  have  under  Confideration  an  Acl:  of  general 

*  Pardon,  (in  the  Prpgrefs  whereof  they  have  been 
'  interrupted  by  the  renew'd  Endeavours  of  Charles 
«  Stuart,  and  his  Adherents,  to  difturb  the  Peace 
'  of  this  Commonwealth,  and  hinder  its  Settle- 

*  ment)  they  will,  with  all  convenient  Speed,  ap- 

*  ply  themfelves  to  the  pailing  of  fuch  an  Act;  and, 
'  in  the  mean  Time,  do  ejtpect  from  all  Perfons 

*  living  under  the  Protection  of  this  Common- 

*  wealth,  that  they  make  not  themfelves  any  way 
'  Aiders  or  Abetters  of  the  faid  Charles  Stuart,  in 

*  his  Pretences  to  the  Government  of  this  Nation, 

*  under  what  fair  and  fpecious  Shews  foever,  upon 
'  the  Penalties  in  the  Laws  in  that  Behalf  pro- 
'  vided. 

SECTION  V. 

The  Committee  of  EJlates  of  the  Kingdom,  and 
General  Ajfcmbly  of  the  Kirk  of  Scotland,  having 
declared  fo  fully  in  what  concerns  the  Sectaries,  and 
the  prefent  Defigns,  Refolutions,  and  Actings  of  their 
Army  againjl  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  ;  and  the 
fame  Committee  and  JJfembly  having  fufficiently  laid 

open 


382     7 he  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum .  open  public  Dangers  and  Duties,  both  upon  the  Right 
1650.         Hand  and  upon  the  Left,  it  is  not  needful  for  his 
V — ^'7**'     Majejiy  to  add  any  Thing  thereunto,  except  that  in 
thoje  Things  he  doth  commend  and  approve  them,  and 
that  he  rejolves  to  live  and  die  with  them,  and  his 
loyal  Subjeffs,  in  profecution  of  the  Ends  of  the  Co- 
venant. 

ANSWER. 
*  The  Parliament  of  England,  and  alfo  their 

*  Army,  having  fo  fully  declared  the  Jullice,  Ne- 
'  ceflity,  and  Ends  of  undertaking  the  prefent  Ex- 

*  pedition  into  Scotland* ;  and  having  alfo  put  it  in 

*  a  Way  how  thofe  Declarations  from  the  Com- 
'  mittee  of  Eftates  and  Commiffion  of  the  Kirk,  in 
'  Anfwer  thereunto,  (hall  have  their  Invalidity  de- 
'  teemed,  as  fome  of  them  already  in  part  have  been, 

*  it  will  be  needlefs  to  fay  any  Thing  further  on 

*  this  Subject  in  this  Place. 

SECTION  VI. 

And  whereas  that  prevailing  Party  in  England, 
after  all  their  Jlrange  Ufurpations  and  infolent  Att- 
ings  in  that  Land,  do  not  only  keep  his  Majefty  from 
the  Government  of  that  Kingdom  by  Force  of  Arms, 
but  alfo  have  now  invaded  the  Kingdom  a/~  Scotland, 
v  who  have  deferved  better  Things  at  their  Hands,  and 

again/?  whom  they  have  no  juji  Quarrel ;  his  Ma- 
jefty doth  therefore  defire  and  expeft,  that  all  his 
good  Subjetts  in  England,  who  are,  and  refolve  to 
be,  faithful  to  God  and  to  their  King,  according 
to  the  Covenant,  will  lay  hold  upon  fuch  an  Op- 
portunity, and  ufe  their  utmoft  Endeavours  to  pro- 
mote the  Covenant  and  all  the  Ends  thereof;  and  to 
recover  and  re-ejlablifl)  the  antient  Government  of 
the  Kingdom  of  England,  (under  which,  for  many 
Generations,  it  did  flourijh  in  Peace  and  Plenty  at 
home,  and  in  Reputation  abroad)  the  Privileges  of 
Parliament,  and  native  and  juft  Liberty  of  the 
People. 

His 

a  In  this  Volume,  p.  276,  102835  298,  10309. 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      383 

His  Majefty  deftres  to  ajfure  himfelf,  that  there  Inter-regmim, 
doth  remain  in  thefe  fo  much  Confidence  of  their  Duty 
to  Religion,  their  King  and  Country,  and  fo  many 
Sparkles  of  the  anticnt  Englifti  Valour,  which  finned 
fo  eminently  In  their  Noble  Anceftors,  as  ivill  put 
them  on  to  beftir  themfelves  for  the  breaking  the  Take 
of  thofe  Alens  Opprejfions  from  off  their  Necks. 
Shall  Men  of  Conjcience  and  Honour  fet  Religion 
Liberties,  and  Government  at  fo  low  a  Rate,  as  not 
rather  to  undergo  any  Hazard  before  they  be  thus 
deprived  of  them  ?  IVill  not  all  generous  Men  .count 
any  Death  more  tolerable  than  to  live  in  Servitude  all 
their  Days  ?  And  will  not  Pofterity  blame  thofe  who 
dare  attempt  nothing  for  themfelves,  and  for  their 
Children,  in  fo  good  a  Caufe,  in  fuch  an  Exigent  ? 
Whereas,  if  they  gather  themfelves  and  take  Courage, 
putting  on  a  Resolution  anfwerable  to  fo  noble  and 
juft  an  Enter-prize,  they  JJ)all  honour  God,  and  gain 
themfelves  the  Reputation  of  pious  Men,  worthy  Pa- 
triots, and  loyal  Subjects,  and  be  called  the  Repair- 
ers of  the  Breach  by  the  prefent  and  fucceeding  Ge- 
nerations ;  and  they  may  certainly  promife  to  them- 
felves a  BleJJing  from  God  upon  fo  jujl  and  honour- 
able Undertaking  for  the  Lord  and  for  his  Cauje, 
for  their  own  Liberties,  their  native  King  and  Coun- 
try, and  the  invaluable  Good  and  Happincfs  of  their 
Pofterity. 

Whatever  hath  formerly  been  his  Majefty  s  Gull" 
tinefs  before  God,  and  the  bad  Succefs  that  thofe  have 
had  who  owned  his  Affairs,  whilft  he  flood  in 
Oppofttion  to  the  Work  of  God;  yet  the  State  of  the 
Queftion  being  now  altered,  and  his  Majefty  having 
obtained  Mercy  to  be  on  God's  Side,  and  to  prefer 
God's  Intere/i  before  his  own,  he  hopes  that  the  Lord 
will  be  gracious,  and  countenance  his  own  Caufe  in 
the  Hands  of  weak  and  finjul  Injlruments^  againft 
all  Enemies  whatfoever. 

This  is  all  that  can  be  faid  by  his  Majefty  at  pre- 
fent, to  thofe  in  England  and  Ireland,  at  fuch  & 
Diftance;  and  as  they  J})all  acquit  themfelves  at  this 
Time  in  the  atfive  Difcharge  of  their  necejfary  Du- 
ties,  fo  Jhall  they  be  accepted  before  Gody  endeared 


384     ffje  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Intcr-rcgnum.  fl^s  Majejly^  and  their  Names  bad  in  Remembrance 

165°-        throughout  the  World. 

^-*"1~v~  J  Given  at  our  Court  at  Dumfermling,  the  i6th 
Dayofy%*//,  1650,  and  in  the  fecond  Year 
of  our  Reign. 

ANSWER. 

'  That  which  was  firft  in  Defign  and  lurking  at 
'  the  Bottom,  is  now  laft  brought  forth  into  open 
4  View  to  be  put  in  Practice :  Untill  the  Scots  King 

*  had  thus  wafh'd  himfelf  clean  with  his  verbal  Re- 
'  pentances;  had  pretended  a  full  Perfuafion  of  the 

*  Juftice  and  Equity  of  all  the  Articles  and  Heads 

*  of  the  Covenant,  and  a  cafting  of  himfelf  wholly 

*  upon  the  Advice  of  Parliaments  and  AfTemblies 
'  of  Divines,  in  all  Civil  and  Ecclefiaftical  Matters 
'  in  both  Nations,  he  would  have  fpoiled  his  own 

*  Affairs,   and  weakened   the  Hands  of  all  that 

*  fhould  have  joined  with  him  to  have  engaged  in  a 

*  new  War  againft  England,  who  have  fmarted  and 
c  fuffered  too  much  already  by  the  old ;  but  now, 
c  after  the  Landfkip  of  fuch  Wonders  as  thefe  is 

*  drawn  forth  into  a  Piece  of  Paper,  and  the  State 
'  of  the  Caufe  and  of  the  War  would  feem  to  be 

*  changed,  what  doth  all  this  tend  to,  and  what  is 

*  the  Ufe  that  is  to  be  made  of  it  ?  Surely  no  other 

*  than  that  which,  if  all  thefe  Things  had  been  left 
'  undone,  was  his  and  the  Scott  proper  Intereft  be- 

*  fore  upon  their  old  Account;  that  is  to  fay,  to 
'  ftir  up  all  Parties  and  Interefts,  capable  of  his  or 

*  their  Seducements,  to  take  the  firft  Opportunity 

*  to  embroil  this  Nation  afrefh  in  Blood,  that  they 
c  might  come  in  as  Conquerors,  and  fo  make  it,  as 

*  much  as  in  them  lies,  the  faddeft  Spectacle  of 
'  Ruin  and  Mifery  that  can  be  imagined;  for  what 

*  can  be  like  an  Over-running  of  the  Nation  by  a 
f  Scots  Army  with  their  King  at  the  Head  of  them, 
'  be  their  Pretences  what  they  will  ?  And  there- 

*  fore,  fince  it  is  fo  apparent  what  is  the  End  and 
«  Defign  of  this  Declaration,  it  will  become  all 

*  true  Englishmen  to  be  more  awakened  than  ever, 

*  to  watch  againft,  and  refift  to  the  laft  Man,  fo 

*  pernicious  and  deep-laid  a  Defign,  whereby,  at 

*  one 


Of    ENGLAND,        385 

'  one  Blow,  to  cut  off  and  difappoint  all  th^pjath  Inter-regnur 
c  been  fought  for  fo  many  Years  together,  and         l65°- 
'  fubje6r.  themfelves  to  the  Power  of  a  foreign  Na-    ^""temteT 
'  tion,  againft  whom  God  hath  been  pleafed  to  give 
'  fo  wonderful  a  Teftimony  by  the  iate  fignal  Vic- 

*  tory  near  Dunbar,  the  third  of  September ,  1650, 

*  upon  folemn  Appeals  made  by  both  Parties  to  Al- 
'  mighty  God.     And  as  it  (hall  be  our  Parts  to 

*  omit  no  good  Means  that  God  hath  put  into  our 
'  Hands,  to  prevent  any  InfurredYions  or  Diftur- 
'  bances  of  the  Public  Peace  and  Safety,  by  what 
'  Hand  foever  carried  on ;  fo  we  do  hold  it  our 
'  Duty  further  to  declare,  That  whofoever  fhall 

*  be  found,  in  purfuance  of  this  Declaration  of 

*  Charles  Stuart  the  Scots  King,  promoting  the  In- 
'  tereft  of  the  faid  Charles  Stuart,  or  any  way  en- 

*  gaging  in  the  Profecution  of  the  wicked  Defigns 
'  therein  contained,  they  fhall  be  proceeded  againft 
'  with  much  more  Severity  than  Delinquents  in 
'  the  former  Wars,  as  to  the  Judgment  of  Parlia- 
'  nient  fhall  be  thought  meet. 

HEN.  SCOBELL, 
Cler.  Par/. 

P.S.  e  Since  theDifpatch  of  the  foregoingAnfwer 
there  came  to  hand  Copies  of  four  Letters,  written 
from  the  Earl  of  London,  Chancellor  of  ~Scotlandy 
to  the  King  of  Scots,  which  were  taken  in  the 
faid  Chancellor's  Cabinet,  among  the  Spoils  of 
the  Scots,  at  the  late  memorable  Defeat  of  their 
Army  in  the  Fields  of  Dunbar;  by  which  feafon- 
able  Providence  a  further  Difcovery  is  made  of 
what  was  fufficiently  evident  before  to  all  difcern- 
ing  Men,  both  of  the  Scots  continued  Defign 
to  invade  England,  had  we  not  thus  prevented 
them,  and  of  the  diflembling  Formality  of  their 
King's  Repentance,  fo  much  cried  up  by  them^ 
upon  his  emitting,  as  they  call  it,  this  Declara- 
tion, and  obtruded  upon  their  credulous  Multi- 

*  tudes,  and  fwallowed  by  their  Party  here  for  Inte- 
'  reft's  Sake ;  when  hereby  'tis  evident  it  was  drawn 

VOL.  XIX.  B  b  « by 


386     The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  '  by  them  in  Termini  s,  and  extorted  from  him  with 

1650.        'minatory  Importunities;  and  well  demonftrates 

*-  ~*~  -*  '  the  little  Senfe  of  Confcience  or  Honour  in  that 

*  King,  and  the  Defperatenefs  of  his  Hopes  that 
'  purfues  his  End  by  fuch  Means. 

*  And  it  may  further  be  obferved  what  Sincerity 
'  can  be  expected  from  that  Nation  in  any  public 
'  TranfacYions,  when  their  great  Minifter  of  State 
'  dare  make  fo  bold  with  his  King's  Anfwer,  as  to 
'  alter  it  to  what  he  thought  would  better  ferve  a 
'  Turn  j  and  offer  that  to  their  Parliament  as  their 
'  King's,  without  ever  confulting  him  in  it,  and 

*  that  in  a  Bufmefs  of  fo  great  Concernment.    The 

*  Difcovery  of  thefe  Jugglings  may  be  ufeful  to 

*  thofe  who  have  been  impofed  upon  by  the  Bold- 
'  nefs  of  thefe  Inftruments,  who,  without  RefpecT: 
'  or  Reverence  to  Truth,  are  wont  to  be  bold  with 
'  any  Thing  that  may  conduce  to  their  End.' 

Thefe  Letters  run  thus : 

Edinburgh,  July  9,   1650. 
Moft  Gracious   Sovereign, 

Copies  of  four  in-     ALbeit  there  be  no  Man  rejoices  more  for  your 
tercepted  Letters  Jl    Majejlfs  fafe  Arrival  'in  this  Kingdom,  or 

from  the  Earl  of  .  rj  J  J      J  •>  .  ,  .   .    .-       .  6          > » - 

London  to  King  more  dejirous  to  wait  upon  your  Majejly  than  myjetfj 
Cbarlet  II.  yet  the  Duty  of  my  Place  in  attending  .the  Parliament 
fo  long  as  it  was  fitting,  (where  I  did  endeavour  ta 
be  more  ferviceable  to  your  Majejly  than  I  could  be 
elfewhere)  and  the  Dijhmper  of  my  Health  not  per- 
mitting me  to  travel,  I  hope  will  plead  Pardon  at 
your  Majejly  s  Hand,  that  I  have  not  come  to  wait 
upon  you ;  but  fo  foon  as  I  Jhall  be  any  ways  able  to 
travel  I  Jhall  attend  your  Majeftv,  and  Jhall  not  pre- 
fume  to  trouble  your  Majejly  with  any  Particulars  till 
then ;  refolding  to  make  it  my  chief  Care  and  Study 
how  to  improve  the  happy  Agreement  (laid  upon  fa 
pious  and  well-grounded  a  Foundation  of  a  Covenant 
with  God  and  your  People)  to  the  bejl  Advantage,  as 
may  conduce  mojl  to  his  Honour,  and  the  Recovery  of 
your  Majejly  s  juft  and  undoubted  Right  of  all  your 

King' 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       387 

Kingdoms-,  than  which  nothing  Jhall  be  more  faith-  Inter-regnu'm. 

fully  and  really  endeavoured  by  _*-\°-     -* 

Your  Majefty's  moft  loyal  Subject,  September, 
and  humble  Servant, 

L  O  U  D  O  N. 

Indorfedy  A  Copy  of  my  Letter  to 
the  King's  Majefty,  July  9,  1650. 

Moft  Gracious  Sovereign, 

THE  Marquis  of  Argyle  and  the  Earl  of  Buc- 
cleugh  have  communicated  to  me  your  Majejly's 
Anfwer  to  that  Paper,  which  was  prefented  by  him 
and  others  to  your  Majejly,  in  Name  of  your  Parlia- 
ment and  their  Committee,  concerning  the  Removal 
ef  fome  of  your  Servants  and  others  from  your  Court 
and  Royal  Perfon  ;  and  conjidering  that  fome  Parts 
of  your  Anfwer  is  fuch  as  would  not  be  fatisfa£iory^ 
/  have  prefumed  to  alter  it,  and  write  it  fo,  as  I  am 
confident  will  give  good  SatisfacJion :  For  feeing  your 
Majejly  hath,  by  your  Anfwer  to  the  fame  Dejires^ 
given  full  Contentment  to  the  General  AJfembly,  I 
doubt  not  but  your  Majejly  is  willing  to  give  the 
fame  Content  to  your  Parliament  and  Committee  of 
EjJates :  Therefore  I  trujl  your  Majejly  will  pardon 
my  Boldnefs;  for  I  know  no  better  Service  can  be 
done  to  your  Majejly,  than  that  any  Thing  which 
proceeds  from  you  may  be  acceptable  to  your  People, 
and  that  your  Majejly  may  be  more  and  more  endeared 
in  their  Affections  j  which  is  the  Duty,  and  Jhall 
ever  be  the  Dejire,  of,  &c. 

Indorfed,  A  Copy  of  my  Letter  to 
the  King,  July  22,  1650. 

Moft  Gracious  Sovereign, 

JHE   Condition  of  your  Majejlfs  Army  here* 
and  what  our  Refolutions  are  at  prefent,,  will 
be  fo  exactly  Jhewn  to  your  Majejly  by  Sir  James 
Lumfden,  as  I  Jhall  refer  the  Particulars  to  his 
Relation,  rather  than  trouble  your  Majejly  with  d 
B  b  2  long 


388      The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

Inter-regnum.  long  Letter ;  yet  briefly  I  bold  it  Jit  to  Jhew  your  Ma- 
1 650.        jefly,  that  Cromwefl  hath  gotten  more  than  a  Month's 

V""*"VT"'"''  Provijions  for  bis  Army  by  Sea,  and  that  he  Jhjrtly 
expecJs  Recruits  :  And  Viftuah  being  fo  fcarce,  as 
it  will  be  very  difficult  to  entertain  our  Army  in  a 
Body  till  the  Harveft,  that  Corn  be  cut  and  reaped, 
it  if  refohfd,  for  this  and  other  Reafons,  That  this 
Army  Jhall  march  out  to  the  Fields  nearer  the  Ene- 
my; and)  if  they  force  us  out  to  fight ,  in  God's 
Strength  to  give  them  Battle  ;  or,  if  they  Jhall  not 
purfue  us,  Jome  Enterprize  will  be  undertaken  to 
make  a  Diverfion  to  give  the  Enemy  Work  in  Eng- 
land, rather  than  consume  us  "with  a  lingering  War, 
and  make  the  Seat  of  it  in  Scotland.  In  order  to 
which  your  A'lajejlys  hajhning  hither  your  Declara- 
tion is  fo  necej/ary,  -as  the  Delay  of  it  will  retard 
and  obftruft  any  Expedition  into  England  ;  and  Tune 
is  fo  precious,  as  the  Lofs  of  Opportunity  can  hardly 
ever  be  recovered.  So  praying  God  to  blefs  your 
Majefly,  and  fo  dirett  your  Councils  and  the  Ac- 
lions  of  your  Armies,  as  may  ferve  mojl  for  his  Ho- 
nour, and  mc-y  rejlore  your  Majefiy  to  your  juft 
Rights. 

And,  Sir,  it  is  the  Dejire  and  Judgment  of 'many , 
that  Sir  James  Lumfden  Jhould  be  Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral of  the  Foot ;  tut  was  not  thought  expedient  to 
do  it  prefently,  to  Jhun  Contejl  and  Emulation ;  yet 
his  Affefiion  to  the  Caufe,  and  to  your  Majejiv's  Ser- 
vice j  is  fuch,  as  he  is  willing  to  give  his  bejl  Afftft- 
ance  in  ordering  the  Army,  and  to  att  his  Part  in 
a  Day  of  Battle.  And  truly,  Sir,  he  is  a  Perfon  of 
fo  much  Valour  and  Experience  in  IVar,  that  your 
Majefiy  JJiOuld  give  him  all  Encouragement,  and  lay 
your  Commands  upon  him  to  return  prefently  to  the 
Army,  and  not  leave  it. 

Indorfed,  A  Scroll  of  my  Letter  to 
the  King,  Aug.  10,   1650. 

S  T  R, 

HERE  hath  been  fo  much  faid  by  thcfe  who  art 
here,  and  thofe  were  fent  from  the  Committee  of 
and  f ram  the  Commiflioners  of  the  General 

Af- 


Of   E  N  G  L  A  N  D.       389 

Affembly,  to  move  your  Majejly  to  emit  that  Dec/a-  Inter-regnum. 

ration  for  Satisfaction  of  the  Church  and  State,  and   '    l65° 

of  fuch  in  all  your  Kingdoms  as  defire  Religion  and    7     v 

your  Majejly' s  Throne  to  be  ejtablifhtd^  according  to 

the  Covenant,  as  I  can  add  little  to  perjuade  your 

Majejly  ;   yet  if  your  Majefty  Jkall  ponder ;  in  the 

Balance  of  righteous  Judgment,  the  Confequences  that 

will  follow  upon  your  Granting  or  Refufal,  your 

Majejly  will  not  deny  it.     If  your  Majejly  grant 

and  emit  this  Declaration,  you  fatisfy  the  Cbuftbt 

the  State,  the  Army,  and  all  your  good  Subjects  : 

They  all  concur  to  afl  for  you,  and'  the  Army  -  is 

ready,  if  they  be  not  engaged  in  prefent  Battle, 

to  march  into  England,  and  leave  Scotland,  and  all 

that  is  dear  to  them,  to  the  utmojl  Hazard,  and  fa- 

crifice  their  Lives  for  the  carrying  on  the  Work  of 

Reformation,   and  rejloring  your  Majejly  to  your 

Rights  and  Crown  of  England  :  And  then,  if  there 

be  any  in  England  who  dare  appear  for  Religion,  for 

their  own  Liberties,  or  for  your  Majejly 's  Inter e ft  y 

they  will  find  a  fit  Opportunity  for  it. 

Your  Majefty  is  now  obliged,  by  the  Oath  of  Co- 
venant with  God  and  your  People,  to  promote  the 
Ends  of  the  Covenant  in  your  Royal  Station  and 
Place,  to  the  utmojl  of  your  Power  ;  and  your  Ma- 
jejly by  the  Treaty  of  this  Kingdom,  and  in  good  Rea- 
Jony  is  bound  to  follow  the  Counfel  and  Advice  of 
your  Parliament  and  Church,  and  of  thofe  who  are 
by  them  authorized;  and  fince  this  which  is  earnejlly 
defired  by  both,  is  necejjary  for  the  Good  of  Religion 
and  the  Covenant,  and  engaging  of  the  Church  and 
Kingdom  to  hazard  their  Lives  and  EJlates  for  car- 
rying on  your  Majejly  s  Inter -eft,  with  the  Interejl  of 
Religion,  your  Majejly  Jhotdd  not  deny,  but  cordially 
and  fpeedily  condescend  to  it. 

If  your  Majejly,  after  fo  earnejl  Intreaty  and 
fuch  Offers  from  the  Church,  the  State,  and  the  Ar- 
my, Jhall  refufe  to  fatisfy  their  Defire,  and  clear  your 
Refactions,  your  Majejly  will  grieve  their  Spirits, 
cool  their  Affections,  and  weaken  their  Hands.  And 
fince  your  Majejly  refufeth  to  do  what  is  necejfary  for 
the  Good  of  Religion  and  God's  Interejl^  they  will 
B  b  look 


Inter-regn-jin. 
16  5°- 


*The  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

look  to  the  Safety  and  Good  of  Religion,  and  to  their 
c\--n  Safety  ,  and  emit  a  Declaration,  bow  willing 
f/Ji'r  '  e  to  hazard  their  Lives  for  your  Majelly's 
Interejt*  if  js  had  been  for  Religion  ;  but  that  be- 
ing denied^  they  will  feparate  the  Prefervation  of 
Religion  from  your  Inter  eft,  and  fo  to  the  Safety  of 
this  Kingdom  ;  and  if  there  be  a  Difference  and  Se- 
paration upon  thefe  Grounds,  there  will  never,  in 
human  Appearance,  be  fuch  a  Conjunction  ;  and  your 
Enemies,  who  will  grant  any  Thing  which  may  de- 
ftroy  your  MajeJIy,  will  win  their  Ends. 
,  Indorfed,  A  Copy  of  my  Letter  to  his  Ma- 

jefty,  upon  fending  the  Declaration  to 

him  to  be  figned. 

On  the  24th  of  this  Month  the  Council  of  State 
received,  from  the  Lord-General  Cromwell,  Copies 
of  feveral  Letters  which  pafs'd  between  him  and 
the  Governor  of  Edinburgh  Caftle,  foon  after  the 
Surrender  of  the  City.  Thefe  being  printed  by 
Authority  ,we  fhall  give  from  the  original  Editions0. 
But,  firft,  Col.  Wb&tttf*  Letter  by  the  General's 
Order. 

For  the  Honourable  the  GOVERNOR   of  the  Caftle 
of  Edinburgh. 


S  I  R, 


Sept.  9,  1650. 


Letters  which 
pafs'd   between 
Gen.Crom<ive/l      ' 


I  Received  Command  from  my  Lord-General, 
to  defire  you  to  let  theMinifters  of  Edin- 
burgh, now  in  the  Caftle  with  you,  know  that 
and  SA°verI'  theY  have  free   Liberty  granted  them,   if  they 

nor  of  Edinburgh        .    J  c  .        i       r>   •  v     •         u    •      r 

4  pleafe  to  take  the  Fains,  to  preach  m  their  fe- 
c  veral  Churches;  and  that  my  Lord  hath  given 
'  fpecial  Command,  both  to  Officers  and  Soldiers, 
'  that  they  fhall  not  in  the  leaft  be  molefted.  I  am, 

Tour  moft  humble  Servant, 
EDW.  WHALLEY. 


9  Printed  for  Ed-ward  Hujbtndjt 


From 


Of    E  N  G  L  A  N  D.      391 

From  tie  GOVERNOR   of  Edinburgh  Caftle  to  Inter-regnum, 
Col.  WH  ALLEY;  with  the  LORD-GENERAL'J 


S  I  Rt  Sept.  9,  1650. 

*  T  Have  communicated  the  Defire  of  your  Let- 
c  JL  ter  to  fuch  of  the  Minifters  of  Edinburgh  as 
'  are  with  me;  who  havedefired  me  to  return  this 
'  for  Anfwer,  That  though  they  are  ready  to  be 
'  fpent  in  their  Matter's  Service,  and  to  refufe  no 
'  Suffering,  fo  they  may  fulfil  their  Miniftry  with 
'  Joy  ;  yet  perceiving  the  Perfecution  to  be  perfo- 
'  nal,  by  the  Practice  of  your  Party  upon  the  Mi- 

*  nifters  of  Chrift  in  England  and  Ireland,   and  in 
'  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  fmce  your  unjuft  Inva- 

*  fion  thereof;   and  rinding  nothing  exprefs'd  in 
'  yours,  whereupon  to  build  any  Security  for  their 
'  Perfons  while  they  are  there,  and  for  their  Re- 
'  turn  hither,  they  are  refolved  to  referve  them- 

*  felves  for  better  Times,  and  to  wait  upon  him 

*  who  hath  hidden  his  Face  for  a  while  from  the 
4  Sons  of  Jacob.     This  is  all  I  have  to  fay,  but  that 
'  I  am, 

SIR, 

Your  moft  humble  Servant^ 
W.  D  UNO  AS. 

For  the  Honourable  theGovEHKORoftk  Cajlle 
of  Edinburgh. 

SIR,  Sept.  9,  1650. 

'  rT""^H  E  Kindnefs  offered  to  the  Minifters  with 
'  you»  was  done  with  Ingenuity,  thinking 

'  it  might  have  met  with  the  like  ;  but  I  am  fatif- 
'  fied  to  tell  thofe  with  you,  that  if  their  Matter's 
'  Service,  as  they  call  it,  were  chiefly  in  their  Eye, 
'  Imagination  of  Suffering  would  not  have  caufed 

*  fuch  a  Return  ;  much  lefs  the  Practice   by  out 
'  Party,  as  they  are  pleafed  to  fay,  upon  the  Mi- 
'  nifters  of  Chrift  in  England,  have  been  an  Argu- 
<  ment  of  perfonal  Perfecutiori  :  The  Minifters  of 

Eng- 


^September. 


392     tte  Parliamentary  HISTORY 

*  Enghmd  are    fupported,    and   have  Liberty    to 
4  preach  the  Golpel,  though  not  to  rail  ;  nor,  un- 

*  dor  Pretence  thereof,  to  over  top  the  Civil  Powt. , 
'  or   debafe   it    as    they    pleafe :     No  man   hath 
'  been  troubled  in  England  or  Ireland  for  preach- 

*  ing  the  Gofpel ;   nor  has  any  Mimfter  been  ino- 
«  lefted  in  Scotldrtf,  fince  the  Coming  of  the  Army 
k  hither. 

*  The  fncaking  Truth  becomes  the  Minifters 
*ofChrift:  Wiu'ri  Minifters  pretend  to  a  glori- 
'  ous  Reformation,  and  lay  the  Foundation  there- 

*  of  in  getting  to  themfelves  worldly  Power,  and 

*  can  make  worldly  Mixtures  to  accomplifh  the 

*  fame,  fuch  as  their  late  Agreement  with  their 

*  King,   and  Hopes,  by  him,  to  carry  on  their 
fc  Delfgn,  they  may  know,  that  the  Sion  promifed 
'  and  hoped  for,  will  not  be  built  with  lucli  un- 

*  tempered  Mortar. 

'  As  for   the   unjuft   Invafion  they    mention  ; 

*  Time  was  when  an  Army  of  Scotland  came  into 

*  England,  not  called  by  the  Supreme  Authority  : 

*  We  have  faid  in  our  Papers,  with  what  Hearts, 

*  and  upon  what  Account,  we  came ;  and  the  Lord 
'  hath  heard  us,   though  you  would  not,  upon  as 

*  folemn  an  Appeal  as  any  Exper